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Dynamics of spermatial nuclei in trichogyne of the red alga Bostrychia moritziana (Florideophyceae)  

Shim, Eunyoung (Department of Biological Sciences, Kongju National University)
Park, Hana (Department of Biological Sciences, Kongju National University)
Im, Soo Hyun (Department of Biological Sciences, Kongju National University)
Zuccarello, Giuseppe C. (School of Biological Sciences, Victoria University of Wellington)
Kim, Gwang Hoon (Department of Biological Sciences, Kongju National University)
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ALGAE / v.35, no.4, 2020 , pp. 389-404 More about this Journal
Red algal fertilization is unusual and offers a different model to the mechanism of intracellular transport of nuclei and polyspermy blocking. A female carpogonium (egg) undergoes plasmogamy with many spermatia (sperm) simultaneously at the receptive structure, trichogyne, which often contains numerous male nuclei. The pattern of selective transport of a male nucleus to the female nucleus, located in the cell body of the carpogonium, remain largely unknown. We tracked the movement of spermatial nuclei and cell organelles in the trichogyne after plasmogamy using time-lapse videography and fluorescent probes. The fertilization process of Bostrychia moritziana is composed of five distinctive stages: 1) gamete-gamete binding; 2) mitosis in the attached spermatia; 3) formation of a fertilization channel; 4) migration of spermatial nuclei into the trichogyne; and 5) cutting off of the trichogyne cytoplasm from the rest of the cell after karyogamy. Our results showed that actin microfilaments were involved in the above steps of fertilization, microtubules are involved only in spermatial mitosis. Time-lapse videography showed that the first ("primary") nucleus which entered to trichogyne moved quickly to the base of carpogonium and fused with the female nucleus. The transport of the primary male nucleus to the egg nucleus was complete before its second nucleus migrated into the trichogyne. Male nuclei from other spermatia stopped directional movement soon after the first one entered the carpogonial base and oscillated near where they entered trichogyne. The cytoplasm of the trichogyne was cut off at a narrow neck connecting the trichogyne and carpogonial base after gamete nuclear fusion but gamete binding and plasmogamy continued on the trichogyne. Spermatial organelles, including mitochondria, entered the trichogyne together with the nuclei but did not show any directional movement and remained close to where they entered. These results suggest that polyspermy blocking in B. moritziana is achieved by the selective and rapid transport of the first nucleus entered trichogyne and the rupture of the trichogyne after gamete karyogamy.
Bostrychia moritziana; cytoskeleton; fertilization; polyspermy blocking; time-lapse videography;
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