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A new approach to quantify paraquat intoxication from postmortem blood sample by using 1H qNMR method  

Hong, Ran Seon (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
Cho, Hwang Eui (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
Kim, Dong Woo (National Forensic Service)
Woo, Sang Hee (National Forensic Service)
Choe, Sanggil (National Forensic Service)
Kim, Suncheun (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
Hong, Jin Tae (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
Moon, Dong Cheul (College of Pharmacy, Chungbuk National University)
Publication Information
Journal of the Korean Magnetic Resonance Society / v.17, no.1, 2013 , pp. 40-46 More about this Journal
For a case study of suspected paraquat intoxication, we developed a simple and rapid method of $^1H$ qNMR to determine the mili-molar amount of paraquat in postmortem blood samples. There were no interfering signals from endogenous compounds in the chemical shift of paraquat and diquat (internal standard). The amount of sample used ranged from 0.25 mM to 10.0 mM. Diquat, which has similar physicochemical properties with paraquat, was chosen as an internal standard. The NMR experimental conditions, relaxation delay time and CPMG spin-echo pulse sequence were optimized. The developed method was validated in terms of specificity, accuracy, precision, matrix effect, recovery, limit of detection (LOD), and low limit of quantification (LLOQ). The proposed qNMR method provided a simple and rapid assay for the identification and quantification of the quaternary ammonium herbicide, "paraquat" in postmortem blood samples. This method was tested by using the blood from the heart of a man who was intoxicated with paraquat. In this particular case, the level of paraquat was 1.07 mM in the blood. For the determination of quaternary ammonium herbicides, qNMR could also be used to provide a better understanding of the currently available techniques.
Paraquat; $^1H$ qNMR; whole blood;
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