Browse > Article

A Numerical Study on the Smoke Behavior by Solar Radiation through Ceiling Glass in Atrium Fires  

Jeong, Jin-Yong (Frontier Technology Innovation Center, Chung-Ang University)
Publication Information
International Journal of Air-Conditioning and Refrigeration / v.10, no.3, 2002 , pp. 117-128 More about this Journal
This paper describes the smoke filling process of a fire field model based on a self-deve-loped SMEP (Smoke Movement Estimating Program) code to the simulation of fire induced flows in the two types of atrium space containing a ceiling heat flux. The SMEP using PISO algorithm solves conservation equations for mass, momentum, energy and species, together with those for the modified k-$\varepsilon$ turbulence model with buoyancy production term. Also it solves the radiation equation using the discrete ordinates method. Compressibility is assumed and the perfect gas law is used. Comparison of the calculated upper-layer average tempera-ture and smoke layer clear height with the zone models has shown reasonable agreement. The zone models used are the CFAST and the NBTC one-room. For atrium fires with ceiling glass the ceiling heat flux by solar heat causes a high smoke temperature near the ceiling. However, it has no effect on the smoke movement such as the smoke layer clear heights that are important in fire safety. In conclusion, the smoke layer clear heights that are important in evacuation activity except the early of a fire were not as sensitive as the smoke layer tem-perature to the nature of ceiling heat flux condition. Thus, a fire sensor in atrium with ceiling glass has to consider these phenomena.
smoke filling process; Heat flux; SMEP; Atrium; Field model; Zone model;
Citations & Related Records
연도 인용수 순위
  • Reference
1 Peric, M., 1985, A Finite Volume Method for the Prediction of Three Dimensional Fluid Flow in Complex Ducts, Ph.D., Im-perial College
2 Degenkolb, J. G., 1975, Fire safety for Atrium Type Buildings, Building Standards, Vol. 44, No.2, pp. 16-18
3 Degenkolb, J. G., 1983, Atriums, Building Standards, Vol. 52, No.1, pp.7-14
4 Notarianni, K A. and Davis, W. D., 1993, The Use of Computer Models to Predict Tempe-rature and Smoke Movement in High Bay Spaces, National Institute of Standards and Technology, NISTIR 5304
5 Modest, M. F., 1991, The weighted sum of gray gases model for arbitrary solution me-thods in radiative transfer. J of Heat Trans-fer, Vol. 113, pp.650-656
6 Heskestad, G., 1988, Fire Plumes, SFPE Hand-book of Fire Protection Engineering, Society of Fire Protection Engineers, Boston, MA
7 Jeong, J. Y, Ryou, H. S. and Kim, S. C., 1999, A Numerical Study of Smoke Movement for the Three Types of Atrium Fires using PISO Algorithm, Journal of Korea Institute of Fire Science & Engineering, Vol. 13, No.1, pp.21-30
8 Issa, R. I., 1985, Solution of the Implict Dis-cretised Fluid Flow Equations by Operator-Spliting, Journal of Computational Physics, Vol. 62, No.1, pp.40-65
9 Schmidt, T. F., Shen, Z. F. and Friedman, J. N., 1982, Evaluation of coefficients for the weighted sum of gray gas model, J. of Heat Transfer, Vol. 104, pp. 602-608
10 Heskestad, G., 1983, Virtual Origins of Fire Plumes, Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 5, No.2, pp. 109-114
11 Heskestad, G., 1984, Engineering Relations for Fire Plumes, Fire Safety Journal, Vol. 7, No.1, pp.25-32
12 Patankar, S. V., 1980, Numerical Heat Trans-fer and Fluid Flow, McGraw Hill-Washing-ton, D.C., pp. 25-40
13 Chandrasekhar, S., 1960, Radiative Transfer, Dover, New York, pp. 149-150
14 Kim, W. J, Yang, S. H. and Choi, K. R., 1993, The Experimental Study of Fire Properties in Atrium Space of High-rise Buildings, Journal of Korea Institute of Fire Science & Engineering, Vol. 7, No.2, pp.13-23
15 Kim, T. K and Lee, H.O., 1988, Effect of anisotropic scattering on radiative heat trans-fer in two-dimensional rectangular enclo-sures, Int. J. of Heat Mass Transfer. Vol.31, No.8, pp. 1711-1721
16 Chow, W. K and Wong, W. K, 1993, On the Simulation of Atrium Fire Environment Hong Kong using Zone Model, Journal of Fire Science, Vol. 11, pp.3-51
17 Chow, W. K, 1995, A Comparison of the Use of Fire Zone and Field Models for Simulating Atrium Smoke-filling Process, Fire Safety Journal., Vol. 25, pp.337-353