Browse > Article

Genetic analysis of mitochondrial DNA from ancient Equus caballus bones found at archaeological site of Joseon dynasty period capital area  

Hong, Jong Ha (Institute of Korean Archaeology and Ancient History, Kyung Hee University)
Oh, Chang Seok (Department of Mortuary Science, College of Bio-Convergence, Eulji University)
Kim, Sun (Research Institute of Buddhist Cultural Heritage)
Kang, In Uk (Institute of Korean Archaeology and Ancient History, Kyung Hee University)
Shin, Dong Hoon (Comparative Anatomy Lab, Institute of Forensic and Anthropological Science, Seoul National University College of Medicine)
Publication Information
Animal Bioscience / v.35, no.8, 2022 , pp. 1141-1150 More about this Journal
Objective: To understand the domestication and spread of horses in history, genetic information is essential. However, mitogenetic traits of ancient or medieval horses have yet to be comprehensively revealed, especially for East Asia. This study thus set out to reveal the maternal lineage of skeletal horse remains retrieved from a 15th century archaeological site (Gongpyeongdong) at Old Seoul City in South Korea. Methods: We extracted DNA from the femur of Equus caballus (SNU-A001) from Joseon period Gongpyeongdong site. Mitochondrial (mt) DNA (HRS 15128-16116) of E. caballus was amplified by polymerase chain reaction. Cloning and sequencing were conducted for the mtDNA amplicons. The sequencing results were analyzed by NCBI/BLAST and phylogenetic tool of MEGA7 software. Results: By means of mtDNA cytochrome b and D-loop analysis, we found that the 15th century Korean horse belonged to haplogroup Q representing those horses that have historically been raised widely in East Asia. Conclusion: The horse is unique among domesticated animals for the remarkable impact it has on human civilization in terms of transportation and trade. Utilizing the Joseon-period horse remains, we can obtain clues to reveal the genetic traits of Korean horse that existed before the introduction of Western horses.
Ancient DNA; Equus caballus; Horse; Joseon Period; Mitochondrial DNA; South Korea;
Citations & Related Records
연도 인용수 순위
  • Reference
1 Hong JH, Oh CS, Cho CW, Shin YM, Cho TS, Shin DH. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Bos taurus bone collected from ruins of the Joseon Period in a tributary of the Cheonggyecheon creek, South Korea. J Archaeol Sci Rep 2018;17:785-92.   DOI
2 Hong JH, Kang IU, Shin DH, Kim JE. Origin and diffusion of Equus caballus from the archaeological and genetic perspectives. Anat Biol Anthropol 2020;33:57-68.   DOI
3 Librado P, Fages A, Gaunitz C, et al. The evolutionary origin and genetic makeup of domestic horses. Genetics 2016;204:423-34.   DOI
4 Clutton-Brock J. A natural history of domesticated mammals. London, UK: Cambridge University Press; 1999.
5 Jansen T, Forster P, Levine MA, et al. Mitochondrial DNA and the origins of the domestic horse. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2002;99:10905-10.   DOI
6 Lei CZ, Su R, Bower MA, et al. Multiple maternal origins of native modern and ancient horse population in China. Anim Genet 2009;40:933-44.   DOI
7 Lira J, Linderholm A, Olaria C, et al. Ancient DNA reveals traces of Iberian Neolithic and Bronze Age lineages in modern Iberian horses. Mol Ecol 2010;19:64-78.   DOI
8 Cai DW, Han L, Xie CZ, Li SN, Zhou H, Zhu H. Mitochondrial DNA analysis of Bronze Age horses recovered from Chifeng region, Inner Mongolia, China. Prog Nat Sci 2007;17:544-50.   DOI
9 Xu X, Arnason U. The complete mitochondrial DNA sequence of the horse, Equus caballus: extensive heteroplasmy of the control region. Gene 1994;148:357-62.   DOI
10 Oakenfull EA, Lim HN, Ryder OA. A survey of equid mitochondrial DNA: Implications for the evolution, genetic diversity and conservation of Equus. Conserv Genet 2000;1:341-55.   DOI
11 Hofreiter M, Serre D, Poinar HN, Kuch M, Paabo S. Ancient DNA. Nat Rev Genet 2001;2:353-9.   DOI
12 Cieslak M, Pruvost M, Benecke N, et al. Origin and history of mitochondrial DNA lineages in domestic horses. PLoS One 2010;5:e15311.   DOI
13 Gaunitz C, Fages A, Hanghoj K, et al. Ancient genomes revisit the ancestry of domestic and Przewalski's horses. Science 2018;360:111-4.   DOI
14 Yang L, Kong X, Yang S, et al. Haplotype diversity in mitochondrial DNA reveals the multiple origins of Tibetan horse. PLoS One 2018;13:e0201564.   DOI
15 Ishida N, Oyunsuren T, Mashima S, Mukoyama H, Saitou N. Mitochondrial DNA sequences of various species of the genus Equus with special reference to the phylogenetic relationship between Przewalskii's wild horse and domestic horse. J Mol Evol 1995;41:180-8.   DOI
16 Aberle KS, Distl O. Domestication of the horse: results based on microsatellite and mitochondrial DNA markers. Arch Anim Breed 2004;47:517-35.   DOI
17 Royo LJ, Alvarez I, Beja-Pereira A, et al. The origins of Iberian horses assessed via mitochondrial DNA. J Hered 2005;96:663-9.   DOI
18 Ho SYW, Gilbert MTP. Ancient mitogenomics. Mitochondrion 2010;10:1-11.   DOI
19 Kumar S, Stecher G, Tamura K. MEGA7: Molecular evolutionary genetics analysis version 7.0 for bigger datasets. Mol Biol Evol 2016;33:1870-4.   DOI
20 Ning T, Ling Y, Hu S, et al. Local origin or external input: modern horse origin in East Asia. BMC Evol Biol 2019;19:217.   DOI
21 Yoon SH, Lee W, Ahn H, Caetano-Anolles K, Park K-D, Kim H. Origin and spread of Thoroughbred racehorses inferred from complete mitochondrial genome sequences: phylogenomic and bayesian coalescent perspectives. PLoS One 2018;e0203917.   DOI
22 Kim KI, Yang YH, Lee SS, et al. Phylogenetic relationships of Cheju horses to other horse breeds as determined by mtDNA D-loop sequence polymorphism. Anim Genet 1999;30:102-8.   DOI
23 Kim S, Hong JH, Shin DH. Animal bones found at Gongpyeong-dong archaeological site, the capital area of Joseon Dynasty period. Anat Biol Anthropol 2020;33:99-105.   DOI
24 Cho GJ. Genetic Relationship among the Korean Native and Alien Horses Estimated by Microsatellite Polymorphism. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2006;19:784-8.   DOI
25 Vila C, Leonard JA, Gotherstrom A, et al. Widespread origins of domestic horse lineages. Science 2001;291:474-7.   DOI
26 Ma H, Wu Y, Xiang H, et al. Some maternal lineages of domestic horses may have origins in East Asia revealed with further evidence of mitochondrial genomes and HVR-1 sequences. PeerJ 2018;6:e4896.   DOI
27 Vershinina AO, Kapp JD, Baryshnikov GF, Shapiro B. The case of an arctic wild ass highlights the utility of ancient DNA for validating problematic identifications in museum collections. Mol Ecol Reseour 2020;20:1182-90.   DOI
28 Der Sarkissian C, Ermini L, Schubert M, et al. Evolutionary genomics and conservation of the endangered Przewalski's horse. Curr Biol 2015;25:2577-83.   DOI
29 Goto H, Ryder OA, Fisher AR, et al. A massively parallel sequencing approach uncovers ancient origins and high genetic variability of endangered Przewalski's horses. Genome Biol Evol 2011;3:1096-106.   DOI
30 Achilli A, Olivieri A, Soares P, et al. Mitochondrial genomes from modern horses reveal the major haplogroups that underwent domestication. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 2012;109:2449-54.   DOI
31 Kusliy MA, Vorobieva NV, Tishkin AA, et al. Traces of late bronze and early iron age mongolian horse mitochondrial lineages in modern populations. Genes 2021;12:412.   DOI
32 Vorobiera NV, Makunin AI, Druzhkova AS, et al. High genetic diversity of ancient horses from the Ukok Plateau. PLoS One 2020;15:e0241997.   DOI
33 McGahern AM, Edwards CJ, Bower MA, et al. Mitochondrial DNA sequence diversity in extant Irish horse populations and in ancient horses. Anim Genet 2006;37:498-502.   DOI
34 Lippold S, Knapp M, Kuznetsova T, et al. Discovery of lost diversity of paternal horse lineages using ancient DNA. Nat Commun 2011;2:450.   DOI
35 Outram AK, Stear NA, Bendrey R, et al. The earliest horse harnessing and milking. Science 2009;323:1332-5.   DOI
36 Lin M, Miracle P, Baker G. Towards the identification of the exploitation of cattle labour from distal metapodials. J Archaeol Sci 2016;66:44-56.   DOI