Browse > Article

Effect of increasing levels of threonine relative to lysine on the performance and meat quality of finishing pigs  

Upadhaya, Santi Devi (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University)
Lee, Sang Seon (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University)
Jin, Sung Giu (Department of Pharmaceutical Engineering, Dankook University)
Wu, Zhenlong (State Key Laboratory of Animal Nutrition, Department of Animal Nutrition and Feed Science, China Agricultural University)
Kim, In Ho (Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University)
Publication Information
Animal Bioscience / v.34, no.12, 2021 , pp. 1987-1994 More about this Journal
Objective: The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of varying standardized ileal digestible lysine:threonine (SID Lys:Thr) ratio in the diet on the performance and meat quality of finishing pigs. Methods: In total 192 crossbred pigs ([Landrace×Yorkshire]×Duroc, 17 weeks old), with an initial body weight (BW) of 70.6±3.9 kg were used in an 8-wk trial. Pigs were randomly allotted to one of six dietary treatments based on their initial BW and sex (8 replications; 4 pigs per pen, 2 barrows and 2 gilts). The pigs in the 6 treatments were fed diets having different SID Lys:Thr ratios such as 1:0.65, 1:0.66, 1:0.67, 1:0.68, 1:0.69, and 1:0.70. Results: A linear increment (p<0.05) in average daily gain (ADG) and trends in reduction in feed conversion ratio (FCR) were observed during day 29 to 56 of the experiment and the apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of dry matter tended to increase linearly (p = 0.094) at the end of the experiment (day 56) with the increase in the dietary SID Lys:Thr ratios. The backfat thickness and lean percentage increased (linear effect, p<0.05) on day 28. In addition, at day 56, a linear (p<0.05) increment in lean percentage was observed. Significant quadratic responses (p = 0.02) for pH and drip loss at day 7 (p = 0.02), a linear increase (p<0.05) in cooking loss and drip loss at day 7, and a trend in quadratic response (p = 0.07) in the lightness of meat color (L*) were observed, whereas other meat quality indices were unaffected by varying the SID Lys:Thr ratios. Conclusion: The SID Lys:Thr ratio for maximum ADG, minimum FCR and enhanced digestibility was found to be 0.70. However, for carcass trait and meat quality, the SID Lys:Thr ratio of 0.65 was enough.
Finishing Pig; Lysine; Meat Quality; Performance; Threonine Ratio;
Citations & Related Records
연도 인용수 순위
  • Reference
1 Choi YS, Park BY, Lee JM, Lee SK. Comparison of carcass and meat quality characteristics between Korean native black pigs and commercial crossbred pigs. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2005;25:322-7.
2 Sauer WC, Ozimek L. Digestibility of amino acids in swine: results and their practical applications. A review. Livest Prod Sci 1986;15:367-88.   DOI
3 Xie C, Zhang S, Zhang G, Zhang F, Chu L, Qiao S. Estimation of the optimal ratio of standardized ileal digestible threonine to lysine for finishing barrows fed low crude protein diets. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2013;26:1172-80.   DOI
4 Kim GW, Im BS. Carcass grade and characteristics by carcass weight and backfat thickness of pigs. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2006;26:183-8.
5 NPPC (National Pork Producers Council). Procedures to evaluate market hogs. 3rd edn. Des Moines, IA, USA: National Pork Production Council; 1991.
6 van Milgen J, Dourmad JY. Concept and application of ideal protein for pigs. J Anim Sci Biotechnol 2015;6:15.   DOI
7 Ma WF, Zeng XF, Liu XT, et al. Estimation of the standardized ileal digestible lysine requirement and the ideal ratio of threonine to lysine for late finishing gilts fed low crude protein diets supplemented with crystalline amino acids. Anim Feed Sci Technol 2015;201:46-56.   DOI
8 Plitzner C, Ettle T, Handl S, Schmidt P, Windisch W. Effects of different dietary threonine levels on growth and slaughter performance in finishing pigs. Czech J Anim Sci 2007;52:447-55.   DOI
9 Chen YP, Cheng YF, Li XH, et al. Effects of threonine supplementation on the growth performance, immunity, oxidative status, intestinal integrity, and barrier function of broilers at the early age. Poult Sci 2017;96:405-13.   DOI
10 Kobayashi H, Ishida A, Ashihara A, Nakashima K, Katsumata M. Effects of dietary low level of threonine and lysine on the accumulation of intramuscular fat in porcine muscle. Biosci Biotechnol Biochem 2012;76:2347-50.   DOI
11 NRC (National Research Council). Nutrient requirements of swine, 11th rev. ed. Washington, DC, USA: National Academies Press; 2012.
12 Zhu CL, Rademacher M, de Lange CFM. Increasing dietary pectin level reduces utilization of digestible threonine intake, but not lysine intake, for body protein deposition in growing pigs. J Anim Sci 2005;83:1044-53.   DOI
13 Fuller MF, McWilliam R, Wang TC, Giles LR. The optimum dietary amino acid pattern for growing pigs. 2. Requirements for maintenance and for tissue protein accretion. Br J Nutr 1989;62:255-67.   DOI
14 Knabe DA, La Reu DC, Greg EJ, Martinez GM, Tanksley TD. Apparent digestibility of nitrogen and amino acids in protein feedstuffs by growing pigs. J Anim Sci 1989;67:441-58.   DOI
15 Honikel KO. Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Sci 1998;49: 447-57.   DOI
16 Wang X, Qiao S, Yin Y, Yue L, Wang Z, Wu G. A deficiency or excess of dietary threonine reduces protein synthesis in jejunum and skeletal muscle of young pigs. J Nutr 2007;137:1442-6.   DOI
17 Kidd MT, Kerr BJ. L-threonine for poultry: a review. J Appl Poult Sci 1996;5:358-67.   DOI
18 Min YN, Liu SG, Qu ZX, Meng GH, Gao YP. Effects of dietary threonine levels on growth performance, serum biochemical indexes, antioxidant capacities, and gut morphology in broiler chickens. Poult Sci 2017;96:1290-7.   DOI
19 Larzul C, Lefaucheur L, Ecolan P, et al. Phenotypic and genetic parameters for longissimus muscle fiber characteristics in relation to growth, carcass, and meat quality traits in large white pigs. J Anim Sci 1997;75:3126-37.   DOI
20 Choi YS. Studies on the pork quality of Korean native black pigs and its improvement through dietary manipulation [dissertation]. Chuncheon, Korea: Kangwon National University; 2004.
21 van der Peet-Schwering CMC, Bikker P. Amino acid requirement of growing and finishing pigs. Wageningen, Netherlands: Wageningen Livestock Research; 2018. Report 1101.
22 Plitzner C, Ettle T, Windisch W. Experimental study on the requirement of threonine in finishing pigs. Bodenkultur 2006;57:161-8.
23 Stoll B, Henry J, Reeds PJ, Yu H, Jahoor F, Burrin DG. Catabolism dominates the first-pass intestinal metabolism of dietary essential amino acids in milk protein-fed piglets. J Nutr 1998;128:606-14.   DOI
24 Schutte JB, de Jong J, Smink W, Koch F. Threonine requirement of growing pigs (50 to 95 kg) in relation to diet composition. Anim Sci 1997;64:155-61.   DOI
25 van Lunen TA, Cole DJA. Energy-amino acid interactions in modern pig genotypes. In: Garnsworthy PC, Wiseman J, editor. Recent developments in pig nutrition 3. Nottingham, UK: Nottingham University Press; 2001.
26 AOAC International. Official methods of analysis. 17th ed. Washington, DC, USA: The Association of Official Analytical Chemists International; 2000.
27 Kim JI, Shon YG, Jung JH, Park YI. Genetic parameter estimates for backfat thickness at three different sites and growth rate in swine. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2004;17:305-8.   DOI
28 Sullivan ZM, Honeyman MS, Gibson LR, Prusa KJ. Effects of triticale-based diets on finishing pig performance and pork quality in deep-bedded hoop barns. Meat Sci 2007;76:428-37.   DOI
29 Kauffman RG, Eikelenboom G, van der Wal PG, Merkus G, Zaar M. The use of filter paper to estimate drip loss of porcine musculature. Meat Sci 1986;18:191-200.   DOI
30 Krizova L, Simecek M, Sustala M, Heger J. Optimum digestible threonine and sulphur amino acid requirements of high-lean growing pigs. Czech J Anim Sci 2001;46:489-95.
31 Dong XY, Azzam MMM, Zou XT. Effects of dietary threonine supplementation on intestinal barrier function and gut microbiota of laying hens. Poult Sci 2017;96:3654-63.   DOI
32 Kim GW. Analysis of carcass quality grades according to gender, backfat thickness and carcass weight in pigs. J Anim Sci Technol 2012;54:29-33.   DOI
33 Hah KH, Jin SK, Kim IS, Song YM, Lee JR, Chung KY. Pork quality characteristics by different backfat thickness. Korean J Food Sci Anim Resour 2005;25:391-6.
34 Han IK, Lee JH. The role of synthetic amino acids in monogastric animal production. Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2000;13:543-60.   DOI