Lingua Humanitatis (인문언어)
- Semi Annual
- Linguistics ＞ Linguistics, General
In this paper I am arguing in favour of more vigilance on the part of the Korean linguistics' melieu and, if deemed necessary, a more solid epistemological foundation of the Korean Linguistics. The purpose of this work consist in providing some epistemological inquiry on the major orientations and tendencies which are manifested in the reception of western linguistic theories. I might call this point of view as a critical approach to the philosophy and history of Korean linguistics. In the first section, I gave a short description of the model of the linguistic historiography which can be applied to the history of the Korean linguistics. In the second section, I am concerned with the comparative epistemology of the development of linguistic ideas produced in the West and East. In the final section, I made some critical reflections on the limits of Korean linguistics.
The Linguistic Methodology of Korean Linguistics : based on the comprehension of the historical inquiryKwang, Chung 37
In this paper I have considered the subject related with 'the identity of Korean linguistics.' When I have pondered upon the subject I found that all the researches should not be regarded as a part of Korean linguistics only because they followed the scientific methodology. Moreover, it isn't right to accept any of the studies of Korean linguistics only because they relied on the tenet of western linguistic methodology. Although till 1960's various western linguistic methods were introduced to Korean scholars and applied to account for Korean language, abruptly, since 1970's, most theories have inclined to follow tendency of American linguistic trend. Pupils who want to study modem linguistic theories prefer to study at the universities of America rather than other countries in Europe. However, it is necessary to blow that the history of American linguistics isn't really as long as that of European nations and that the humanities has developed fur a long time since the Greek period. If we attempt to contemplate the procedure of the invention of Korean alphabetic system (Hun-Min-Jung-Um) it will be easy to find the fact that the theoretic approaches used to observe and analyze Korean language in 15th century are as good as the most up-to-date theories which have been introduced recently. Therefore, I tried to show that the historical awareness of linguistic theories deserves special emphasis in order to understand the reality of Korean linguistics correctly.
The issues concerning the nature of the attitude toward the study of national language may vary from country to country, depending on the national or racial characteristics. The problem domains and the methodologies dealing with them may vary accordingly. Ever since the Korean language was equipped with a writing system in the year of 1443 through King Sejong's long-cherished desire, investigations have been constantly made into the real nature of the language itself in pursuit of a better method for representing the spoken language in written form. This is how the study of the Korean language began to take shape. Among such investigations are Hunmin-jeong-eum(the Korean script: 1446) compiled by Jiphyon-jon, the royal office of schloarly researches, Doongguk-jeonghun-yokhun (the orthodox script of Korean: 1448), Hongmu-jeonghun-yeokhun(interlinear gloss for the Chinese script of the Ming Dynasty: 1455), An Orthodox Approach to Written Korean (1909) by the institute of the National Script, Re Standardized Spelling System (1933) by Chosun Language Society, An Authorized Dictionary of Standard Korean (1936), How to Write Borrowed Words(1940), and A Grand dictionary of Korea (1947-57). Chu Shi-Gyung's Phonetics of the Korean Script(1908), Korean Grammar(1910), and Sound Patterns of Korean(1914) were all written in this vein; so was Choi Hyun-Bae's Uri-mal-bon (the rudiments of Korean Grammar: 1929/1937). All these achievements in the study of the Korean language are the end-products of the constant endeavor to solve the issues related to the spoken and written farms of the Korean language. And this is how the uniqueness and autonomy of the language study in korea have been established. It should be borne in mind, however, that, in seeking solutions to the problems inherent in the Korean linguistic studies of foreign countries. On the contrary, they have been very active in accommodating such results. While they have set up their problem domains on the basis of the korean language, they been progressively open-minded in looking for the solutions to the problems at hand.
One of the distinctive features of Korean language is that it has a fine hierarchical regimentation of language uses, perhaps finer than English, Chinese or Japanese. If English language uses have a hierarchical structure they are to be thick. You may respond to any of your male colleagues often by saying either "Yes, Sir" or "Yes, John". But Korean speakers attend to the One grades of differences of social positions of a speaker and a hearer and they show the respect of the difference by adding or dropping relevant suffixes of verbs which Korean language has developed. For example, one yew difference would affect how you choose a suffix of verbs you use to speak to your hearer and two year difference often leads to the adoption of still another fitting suffix of the same verb. One year criterion works not only in 3my barracks, school dormitories but also in government offices. business sectors. Korean speaking people have been taught to use this finely regimented hierarchical language. I try, in this paper, to develop the idea that hierarchical regimentation of Korean language uses is not humane. 1 of for the main argument for the thesis as what follows: How could one justify the hierarchical regimentation of a language like Korean\ulcorner Only if there is an essential structure in which the fine grades of differences of social positions of all the people are distinct; The essentialism here involved is not plausible. And I may add that language is to be used fur the purposes of communication, rationalization and expression. If true, language use is a genuine art of liberation or humanization. Any overt hierarchical language tends to damage those purposes and more to enforce those oppressive elements already existing in the community. Then, a hierarchical language is to defeat its own purpose.
Professor Daihyun Chung has recently presented an intriguing view of Ban-mal(non-honorific expressions) in Korean. He criticizes uses of Ban-mal, on the grounds that they presuppose the existence of hierarchical structures in human beings. Professor Chung also advocates ″a relational theory of Ban-mal″ according to which ascriptions of 'n-mal' should be relativized to the speaker-hearer relationship. He employs this view in showing that uses of Ban-mal indeed presuppose the existence of hierarchical structures in human beings I claim that Professor Chung has not shown the credibility of his relational theory of Ban-mal, and that this very view leads to an unintended and undesirable consequence. Moreover, 1 show that even if we assume that this view is true for the sake of an argument, he is not able to show that uses of Ban-mal indeed presuppose the existence of hierarchical structures. All he can show is rather that uses of 'Ban-mal'(a meta-linguistic expression) presuppose the existence of hierarchical structures. Finally, 1 conclude that what really presupposes the existence of hierarchical structures is the asymmetrical uses of Ban-mal and honorific expressions.
The aim of this paper is to elucidate ancient Chinese philosophy and linguistics through the concept of the Dao. Ancient Chinese thought had developed together with ancient Chinese theories of language and the linguistic features of Classical Chinese. The concept of the Dao served as an intermediary among them. The Dao which ancient Chinese philosophers sought for has several characteristics: ethical normativity, wholeness, dynamicity, non-reducibility. Linguistic studies also revealed them. The following linguistic features of Classical Chinese are the cause and/or the effect of such Dao-based philosophy and linguistics: No explicit subject-predicate sentential structure, no parts of speech, heavy reliance on the word order and context for meaning determination, no explicit distinction between compound words and a sentence, the pictographic or the ideographic features of Chinese graphs, and non-existence of a copula.
This thesis analyzes the Chapter "Hoyeonjigi(浩然之氣)" of Mencius(孟子), using text linguistics theory and reading theory of Korean. In this process the model of macro-structure #1∼5 are presented, according to Vandijk′s rules of macro-structure; Auslassen, Selektierne, Generalisieren, Konstruieren odor Integrieren. As a result, this certifies; First, macro-structure could make arbitrarily a several steps of macro-structure by types of text or purpose of analysis. Second, macro-structure applies various cognitive mechanisms of outer world as well as inner world. Third, a text with profound symbolism could be figured as a two-or threefolded symbolic structure. At the same time, macro-structure enables the clearer analysis of the content of the Chapter to verify the following; first, Hoyeinjigi itself is the best measure of developing "Imperturbable Mind(不動心)" Second, benevolence-righteousness(仁義) and wisdom(智) would be reached by cultivating Hoyeonjigi. Third, Mencius′ own view of language is well expressed in "Jieon(知言)", which is not only a condition for Imperturbable Mind, but also the Oriental view of language focused especially on listening in terms of language usage, not language analysis. This Mencius′ view of language has a thread connection with that of Oriental′s.
Reed, Brian 167
When Hart Crane′s poem cycle The Bridge was published in 1930, a group of influential reviewers accused Crane of immaturity, sentimentality, and lack of focus. They condemned crane′s wayward, fuzzy mysticism as backwards-looking and self-defeating. Even sympathetic critics, such as Harold Bloom, have consistently portrayed Crane′s poetry as the pyrotechnic final fizzle of late romanticism. These persistent, public reservations, however, have not prevented an impressive proliferation in secondary literature concerning Crane since the late 1960s. His promiscuity, alcoholism, erratic behavior, relative poverty, tragic death, and total commitment to art have since earned him the labels of New World Rimbaud and proto-Beat. His colorful career thus explains in part his retrospective fame. Nevertheless, living hard and dying young do not guarantee artistic immortality. This article poses questions as to why Crane has mattered so much to subsequent generations of U.S. readers and what these readers find so compelling in his poetry. The answer, I would argue, lies in Crane′s idiosyncratic use of language. Far from striving for transparency, he writes in an inimitably obstructive, artificial manner. There is something seductive and absurd in his wild use of words here, I would further argue, we discover the reason behind both Crane′s enduring appeal and his supposed inadequacy as a writer. Crane did "torture" syntax, semantics, and conventional associations, not because he saw his unusual language as an eccentric mannerism but because he saw it as a tool in the service of constructing a "myth of America" and reintegrating the human and divine. Understanding thy he considered this to be the case clarifies Crane′s achievement and illuminates why his work still seems so relevant today.
This paper aims to infer conversational implicatures from Chief Priest Sung-chul′s Nirvanic song in light of the Buddhist view of language and its communicative functions. Zen-dialogs in which nirvanic songs are classified are defined as rational dialogs, which in fact observe the rules of conversation such as the ones proposed by Paul Grice (1975) even though they apparently ignore the rules. This paper also addresses the formal characteristics of the Priest′s nirvanic song and argues that the song exploits the rules of conversation using the whole song as an implicature trigger. Taking it for granted that Chief Priest Sung-chul holds the view on language and its communicative functions just as specified in the Doctrine of Mere Consciousness, which is one of the major tenets of Korean Buddhism, especially of the Chogye order, this paper tries to explicitly show and systematize the language-to-world relationship, which is only alluded to in the Doctrine of Mere Consciousness. This paper also refines the assertion of the doctrine as to the nature of language, which maintains that language is not associated with either the mind or outer objects (that is, an unassociated dharma), and is "a shared thing among shared things." This shows that language continuously interacts with the mind in a different way from the ones in which associated mental activities (caittas) interact with the mind and that accordingly, language is "an unshared thing among shared things."
Port, Robert F.;Leary, Adam P. 221
This paper takes issue with the idea of language as a 'serial-time structure' as opposed to the 'real-time event' of speech, an idea entrenched in Chomskyan model of linguistic theory. The discussion centers around the leitmotif question: Is language constructed entirely from a finite set of apriori discrete symbol types, as the 'competence vs performance' dichotomy implies\ulcorner A set of linguistic patterns examined in this study, largely with regard to phonological considerations, points to the evidence to the contrary. That is, while the patterns may be said to be linguistically distinct, they are not discretely, different, i.e. not different enough to be reliably differentiated. It is demonstrated that much of current research in phonology, including the most recent Optimality Theory, is misdirected in that it falsely presupposes a discrete universal phonetic inventory. The main thrust of the present study is that there is no sharp boundary between 'competence' defined as the formal, symbolic, discrete time domain of language and human cognition on the one hand and 'performance' as the continuous, fuzzy, real-time domain of human physiology on the other.
This paper deals with the polysemous phenomenon of perception verbs in terms of metaphor and metonymy and suggest a model of cognitive semantic structure for them. English perception verbs are often used for representing a mental, cognitive activity as well as representing a physical, perceptive activity. This paper looks for a basis for the polysemous use in the creative system of metaphor and metonymy, especially in the meaning extension function of mind-as-body metaphor. English perception verbs show a good example of a metaphor of domain transfer from physical domain to mental or cognitive domain. This paper suggests the conceptual chain and the semantic structure for the perception verb to show the possibility of polysemy and contextual modulation.
This study starts with a remark on the frequent usage of the term 'generation culture' in the explanations of cultural change. The term 'generation culture' itself does have neither a clear meaning nor any academic consensus for its operational definition yet. Depending on intuitions or common senses, in most cases, of everyday lift experience, the tends to designate the co-existence of different cultural layers as composing subsystems of a little broader Korean cultural trend. I tried here to analyze different positions and perspectives in the employment of this term, sometimes with strategic intentions of each social groups. Economic or political positions, for example, are intertwined with the quest of identification concerning 'we' and 'other' grouping dynamics in the Age of Globalization, which accelerates the speed of cultural re-territorialization. And the role of consumption activity as a kind of cultural indication has gained more weight in that process. This analysis will remind us, also, of the post-modem society's assumption about the space-and-time in transition, and its fluctuation.