인문언어 (Lingua Humanitatis)
- 언어 ＞ 언어일반
Laotzu's view of language is well expressed at the beginning stanza of "道可道 非常道" of Tao De Ching, the interpretation of which is pivotal for the proper interpretation of the entire text. Two lines of interpretation of this stanza have been proposed; The first view regards the letter "道" in "非常道" as representing that which is signified by a sign. The other takes the posture that the letter "道" is itself the signifier of the sign. I argue in this article that the second posture should be taken to interpret Tao De Ching properly, contrary to the traditional interpretation of this stanza, by pointing out the verses which inevitably contradict each other when interpreted according to the first view. The second view leads to the conclusion that everyday language is not sufficient enough to describe the supernatural beings, including Tao, accurately, and seeks a way to augment ordinary language for appropriate description of such supernatural beings. The strategy Laotzu adopts in Tao De Ching is to expand the expressive power of ordinary language by extensive use of metaphors. This paper discerns 4 conceptual metaphors in the sense of Johnson and Lakoff(1980) which underlie the metaphors used in Tao De Ching: (1) Tao is Void; (2) Tao is Mother; (3) Tao is Valley; and (4) Tao is Untrimmed Log.
헤겔 논리학에서 이념은 개념의 생명이요 그 객관적 완성태이며 주객의 통일성으로 일컬어진다. 이념은 개념과 그 실재의 합치이며 "참다운 존재의 보편적 의미"이다. 이념은 어떤 추상적 사태에 대해 이름붙인 사유의 한갓 추상물이거나 순수형식이 아니라 '지금 여기'에 있는 구체적이고도 현실적 개체인 '이것'의 '이것 됨' 또는 '이것임'이다. 이와 같은 논리학적 규정을 토대로 헤겔은 그의
$\ulcorner$미학 $\lrcorner$에서 "아름다운 것"과 "아름다운 것의 이념"은 궁극적으로 같다고 주장한다. "아름다운 것 자체"가 곧 "미의 이념"이며 "일정한 형태"에 그 이념이 들어 있을 경우 그것을 "이상적인 것"이라 하기 때문에, 우리는 그냥 이념을 개념과 개념의 현 실재성 또는 객관성의 통일체라 부를 수 있다는 이유에서이다. 이념은 개념과 그 실재의 통일이지만 이 통일의 주체세력은 개념이다. 이념은 주체적 규정의 총체이며 이념 자체에 맞는 객관성과 통일을 이루는 작품만이 진정 아름다운 것이다. 뒤집어 말하면 진정 아름다운 것은 그것이 이 이념에 맞는 것이며, 더도 덜도 아니게 이념에 꼭 맞는 것은 이념 그 자체와 동일한 것이다. 주지하다시피 칸트는 인식적 개념을 책임지는 규정적 판단력과 미감적 평가를 산출하는 반성적 판단력을 구분하고 자연의 인식과 미감적 평가를 뿌리에서부터 다른 영역으로 이해한다. 이와 달리 헤겔은 판단력의 능력과 기능 자체가 기본적으로 반성에 토대를 둔 규정이며 규정에 토대를 둔 반성이라는 관점에서 존재와 사유, 현존과 개념, 개념과 이념의 관계를 설명하고 이 논리에 따라 아름다운 것과 아름다움의 관계를 대응시킨다. 이 설명에서 헤겔은 판단력이나 취미와 같은 칸트의 개념들을 버리고 자신이 논리학에서 전개한 개념론(주체 논리학)의 체계를 중점적으로 사용한다. 이 글은 '아름다운 것과 아름다움의 이념은 같은 것이다'는 헤겔미학의 명제를 규명하는 것을 결론적 과제로 설정하고 이를 위해 현존과 개념의 인식적 관계 및 개념과 이념의 논리적 관계를 해명하는 데 초점을 맞추고 있다.
The paper brings to question how image as a medium is becoming a replacement for traditional letters in the modern culture. Reflection the importance of image in the context of modern society with the changes in the values of communication. The importance of letters in its traditional format as a book that signified not only the method of communication but also power for those who governed during the days of illiteracy in the past has changed, in the beginning with the development of printing and today with movies etc. that supply endless images instead of words as a means of communication. The images are the next generation in the method of communication and can be noted from the earliest civilizations such as Egypt where the method of communication was not words but drawings that depicted specific significations. The use of images for communication purposes in light of this fact suggests that images was being used before words in societies and its communicative values greater than that of words.
The modern play is going through a change that is differentiating it from the plays of yesterday. The importance of narration through language, specifically that of words spoken on stage as a means of communication is being replaced by images and minimalism of words. The narration that depended on spoken words today depends more on the images that are conjured on stage. This movement shows also the very development of stage and its craft in the domain of theater and especially holds true in the avant-garde theaters of today. The avant-garde theater, in trying to duplicate the reality does not confine itself to oratory rhetorics that we see in the traditional plays of the past but expresses itself by mimicking the reality to the utmost possible.
This paper is a study of "poetry therapy", a subject now in lively in literary discussion circles. Modern literary text attaches great importance to the readers' response. As such, there is growing interest in the effects of communication brought on by the interaction of participants in a discourse. Poetry, in essence, has therapeutic attributes of treating, through an aesthetic psychology, destruction resulting from the alienation from life and psychological pain of distortion. The rise of the concept of eco-poetry and the capacity for psychological cleansing and adjustment (which restores balance through communication and psychological circulation) is a reflection of new trend in research - approaching the alienation felt by modern people through restoration of sense of life. Although Kim Hyun-seung's life and the road his poetry took was not smooth, he nevertheless was firm in his sustained effort to unify socio-ethical conscience and conscience of faith through the process of spiritual inquiry. The most outstanding aspects of Kim Hyun-seung's aesthetic achievement lie in his contribution toward the therapeutic capacity of modern poetry. Kim Hyun-seung's poetryhas the following effects: 1)The therapeutic capacity of modern poetry, through catharsis at large, does not remain only at the level of cleansing and adjustment. 2)The therapeutic capacity of modern poetry has the function of emptying out the self through more fundamental spiritual awakening and insight. 3)Only then can one truly realize the transcendence of being a true self as well as the balanced inquiry of spirituality which can be described as "emptying out".
According to John Newman's Bibliography of Imaginative Works about American Fighting in Vietnam, there are 1370 entries up to 1996 which deal with the theme of Vietnam War in literature. Among various themes such as war and gender/race and ethnicity/class, this study makes an issue of the contiguity between femininity and death in Vietnam War novels written by Americans to investigate one of the bedrocks upon which the western civilization is founded. Female figures, especially Oriental females are seen as an emblem of death in the novels such as The Thirteenth Valley, Close Quarters, Body Count, and Bamboo Bed. It has been found out that this kind of death obsessive mode of thinking is deeply embedded in Western mentality and argued that its habitual mode needs to be changed.
Even in this current high-tech industrial age, mythological imagination is considered important. Although each mythology scattered all across the world may have an insignificant origin, to understand that particular society fully, one must not mistakenly assume that the mythology itself is a production of a primitive mind. Ultramodern physics and futurology professor Freeman Dyson has also acknowledged this opinion. He insists that in order for human kind to survive into the far future it most keep in touch with its far past. Levi-Strauss also observes that mythology and science aren't a entirely separate domains. The scientific mind is regarded as a source of understanding the intrinsic qualities of mythology. Taking mythology and science as a binomial opposition, and only weighing their prospects, should be put to the past as we should recognize the need for mythology and science's qualitative unification. In this new point of view, regarding mythology as a meaningless irrationality should cease, while finding out why the inevitably related world of mythology needs metaphoric, ideological consideration. By utilizing 'Whale Rider' by Witi Ihimaera(2004) we will discover why our lives require an 'image' that is borrowed from our experience. The author, Witi Ihimaera, is originally from the Maori tribe, who approaches the world with a mythological imagination, which is not easy to understand with scientific thinking nor in modern civilization. When looking into the mythology of the ocean which still lives in modern civilization, while noting that the world is one, the author indicates that reality and unreality, nature and the super-natural, present and the past, science and fantasy, were not divided from the beginning. However, overtime humans have divided the borders. To do this, the author interprets the ancient emotions of the Maori tribe which have been traditionally accumulated in the group identity in a new literary way by introducing the Maori tribe's ancestral god, Paikia, who can converse with the ocean and the whales. This piece, which has been made into a movie and won awards in 5 international film festivals, including the Toronto International Film Festival, regards primitive emotions as a rational concept instead of an instrumental concept. Also these primative emotions are continuing their attempts to communicate with nature. Furthermore, it advises contemporary human beings who seek for eternal life to not exploit the cultural differences that have been formed naturally, and it is vital for human beings to transcend the ethnic boundaries and to think rationally. In the story, we can find "the dissimilar us" that philosopher E. Levinas mentioned in his sayings, which refers to responsible human beings who devote their lives for the sake of other people instead of fulfilling their own needs.
Quite a few historiographers of language science have measured the applicability of the term 'revolution' toward the line of work initiated by Chomsky, with the conclusion to the positive or negative effect as the case may be. This paper starts out with a brief review of this issue, with an interim conclusion that, while Chomskyan linguistics may be regarded as revolutionary in certain aspects, terms like 'revolution' and 'paradigm' are hardly applicable here in the way they were originally intended by Thomas Kuhn. It can be said, nontechnically, that the model of theory under discussion is at once 'revolutionary' and 'evolutionary' - in the sense that revolutions in linguistics have not resulted in abrupt loss of continuity with past 'paradigms', if there were any such. Chomsky's theory of language plays the same role of consolidation and refinement of structuralism that, say, the neogrmmarians played in their day. It has continued some fundamental traits of its predecessor, recovered others, and unwittingly rediscovered still others. But this is not the main thrust of the present paper. For, even if Chomskyan theory were to be looked upon as straightforwardly 'revolutionary', that revolution has not been a felicitous one. Some critic (Pieter A. M. Seuren, to be specific) goes as far as to say that "largely as a result of Chomsky's actions, linguistics is now sociologically in a very unhealthy state
$\cdots$to the point even of threatening to make that whole school of linguistics intellectually irrelevant." Besides, under the present state of language science that strikes one as typical of what Kuhn has characterized as "pre-paradigmatic" insecurity and disharmony, an unhealthy situation might take place if we were to think of the theoretical disagreements as conflicts between 'incommensurable' viewpoints-between 'rival paradigms' as it were-thereby avoiding or evading rational discussion. Another danger concerns the bandwagon effect, with linguists prematurely boarding each novel theory seemingly destined for popularity, for fear of being left clinging to an outdated 'paradigm.' Here lies another reason why the notion of 'revolution', Kuhnian or not, might as well be put aside, in the historiography of linguistics at the least.
The writing systems of the Silla dynasty, the Kugyol(口訣), had influenced the earlier states of Japanes Kunten(假片) during the 8th century. Japanese developed their own writing system, Kunten(訓点) after the 9th century. The Silla Kugyol was inscribed by Gagpil(角筆), a kind of ancient stylus, which seems to be originated in China and India. There are two main streams of Asian script culture. One is from China: a brush-pen culture for East asian calligraphy, named Seoye(書藝) or Seodo(書道). The other is from India: a tusk-pen culture for inscribing Buddha's words. In Korean peninsular, we can find the traces from Buddist texts inscribed by the Gagpil, a tusk-pen. We can find new writing system in the books of the Silla, penod, Panbilyanglon(判比量論), Hwaeommuneuiyogyol(華嚴文義要訣) etc. The scripts inscribed by gagpil was a totally phonetic system with dots and lines etc., like Hangul strokes was invented by I king Sejong 800 years later. The old system was used until 15th century before the invention of Hangul scripts.
This paper centers around the etymological meanings of place names of the Kumkang region, restricting the discussion to a selected group of place names which make it possible to infer their cultural characteristics in the light of the latitudinal or longitudinal isoglosses. The legends of Komnaru and Choryongdae, for instance, derive directly from place names. Dialectal distribution is examined on the basis of the phonological features that are not very different between upper and lower reaches of the Kumkang river. The dialects get much more similar as they go further down to the lower region of the river. The original "Komanara(熊津)", also called "Northern Headland(北津)", underwent the sound change of Komannaru > Komkang > Kumkang(錦江), the last being alternatively abbreviated as Kum(錦). During the last half of the 14th century-around the close of the Koryo dynasty, that is-a literary work gave the beautified name "Nakhwa-am"(落花巖), meaning 'rock-bluff of falling flowers', to what was originally called Tasa-am(墮死岩), so-called because, in the year of 660 when the Paekje dynasty was being ravaged by the invading enemy, a number of court-ladies ended their lives by plunging into the river from there. It was 'a number of court-ladies'(諸後宮) who died; but by tradition of popular songs, the number has become "three thousand" - a case of hyperbole of course.
Place names are generally composed of first half and second half, whether the originality of those names comes from Korean or Chinese. The first half, modifying the second half, represents the naming flexibility of the name, while the second half of the name points out its directive object, which refers to a branch of the name. For example, 'Myeong' in 'Myeongryang' and 'No' in 'Noryang' represent their naming flexibility while 'Ryang', constituting the second half, points out the name's directive object. The purpose of this study was to investigate the etymology of place names, 'Myeongryang' and 'Noryang', by figuring out the meanings of those two elements. In order to search for the meaning of the second half, 'Ryang', other examples presented in the related literature have been examined. The finding indicated that 'Ryang' means 'dol', or 'do', which refers to 'moon(door)'. Furthermore, it is found out that the meaning of 'Ryang' has been transferred from 'dol' or 'do' to 'moon(door)', furthermore, to the straits. Upon looking into the origins of those names on the field, it is interpreted that 'Myeong Ryang' has been meant as a door in which huge and rough waves cry out, and 'No Ryang' has been meant as a door in which huge and rough waves rise up.
The geographical characteristics of Yeongdong(永同) the southernmost part of the Chungcheongbukdo province, has attracted attention among the academic circle as one of the dialectal contact regions since it adjoins the Gyeongsang and Jeolla dialects. Unlike the local language in Mooju (Jellado dialect) adjacent to the Southwest part, the local language in Yeongdong is quite different from that of Kimcheon (Gyeongsang dialect). More specifically, it is noteworthy that the boundary line of the Gyeongsang dialect is found in this region, which is different from the administrative division. In other words, the local language in Yeongdong is divided into the Chungcheong dialect and the Gyeongsang dialect, and furthermore each dialect region still has the characteristics of the other region's dialect. For example, the phonological structure of Yeongdong Chungcheongdo dialect has very unique characteristics of the fudged dialect, which is seemingly influenced by the Gyeongsang dialect. The present study is to define the bottom boundary line of the southeast area of the Chungcheong dialect by identifying the boundary line between the Gyeongsang dialect and the Chungcheong dialect, and to clarify its specific sound system generated by the contact of these two dialects. For this, the author collected and analyzed data of the local language around Yeongdong and adjacent areas. It was found that Cheongwha-ri, Deokjin-ri, and Sanjeo-ri at Yeongsan-myeon, and Mugeunjeom, Sangga-ri, and Jungga-ri at Yeongdong-eup, among the regions that belongs to Chungcheong dialect within the local language of Yeongdong, show the characteristics of the Gyeongsang dialect. Accordingly, the western areas of these villages become the southeast boundary line of the Chungcheong dialect. Also, the unique phonological characteristics of the Yeongdong Chungcheong dialect is affected by the Gyeongsang dialect, among which "rhythms, y deletion, nasal phoneme deletion, and w deletion" appeared. It is thought to be the unique fudged dialectal phenomenon that appeared only in this region. The research result is expected to be of some help in finding out various aspects of dialectal contacts as well as clarifying the phonological features of the local language in Yeongdong, and thereby contributing to exact divisioning of the Chungcheong dialect.
Previously, studies concerning the Russian dialects have been mainly focused on northern, central, and southern dialects limited to western Russia of Ural Mountains. On the contrary, the Siberian and Far-eastern dialects have been completely disregarded to the main stream of the Russian dialectology. As a result of a poll concerning this idea, the majority has answered that there is no dialect in Siberian and Far-east regions. Though the reasons for the outcome of the poll could vary, it could not be simply accepted that there is no dialect in such vast regions. Thus, a survey has took place to examine the existence of dialects in the regions of Siberia and Far-east. The first phase of the survey inquired the residents of the regions including Siberia and Far-east to respond to questions regarding 83 vocabularies on wedding in contrast to the regions covering western Ural and Moscow. The 23 informants were residents of the concerned regions who have come to visit Pushkin National Institute of Russian Language and, others, Korea. The questionnaires used in this survey were partly obtained from the questionnaires originated by the Language Institute of St. Petersburg National University. Although the limited range of regions and a small number of respondents who partook in this survey could raise some issues on the table, it is relevant to understand that this study would open up the path for the development of studies concerning regional dialects in the future.
In some American English dialects, the vowels /a:/ or /c:/ have been replaced with /a:/, as in caught /ka:t/ dog /da:g/ that were pronounced in /kc:t/, and /dc:g/ previously. General American does not have /a:/ in its vowel system. But in East American and Western Pensylvania, cot and caught are homophones, /ka:t/, and similarly with other pairs such as collar vs. caller, stock vs. stalk, don vs. down, knotty vs. naughty. The use of /a/ or /c/ is quite unstable, and is a well-known diagnostic for distinguishing the northern speech area of the United States from the midland and southern area. For an increasing number of Americans, however, entirely lack the opposition between /a/ and /c/, merging to /a/, referring to 'both' of the vowels of lot. This paper investigates the use of /b:/ in American dialects and its relationship with /a:/, /c:/ in AE, and with short /a/ in RP. Examining the isoglosses of the use of /a:/ in various databases of the phonological atlas of North America, this paper discusses the use, position, and trend of merger to /a:/ from the vowels of /a:/ and /c:/ in Current American English.
In this paper I attempted to investigate the matters related with the clarification of the close relationship between writing system and pronunciation. On the way of pursuing the research on the subject I found the fact that the same topic has been the main academic target in Korea. There have been some remarks about English alphabets and pronunciation. Nevertheless, the relation between alphabet codes and pronunciation tokens wasn't considered as the main key to master the English pronunciation correctly and completely. As the main target of this paper I argue that it is necessary to comprehend the connection. Then, we can recognize the significant role of alphabetic structure for understanding the gist of pronunciation exercise. This paper is classified into four parts. Each part consists of the material to affirm the fact that writing system should be the inevitable equivalent of sound system, and vice versa. In the first section I show that the development of the way of pronouncing English words is closely related with the endeavors of the scholars. While performing the survey of the studies about the alphabetic structure of the age many scholars found that the spelling construction was recorded without any common denominator. Thus, they not only sought to stage the bedrock for the standard written form of words but also to associate the alphabet letters with phonetic features. Secondly I mention the negative aspect of the 'only spelling based English pronunciation education' for the educational goal of 'Phonics methodology.' In this part I suggest the essentiality of phonemic properties with the phonetic prospect: phonemic awareness. Thirdly I refer to the standardization of the spelling system of English. As the realm of application of the language is extended toward the various professional areas such as commercial, scientific, and cultural spheres, it is quite natural to assume that the usage of the language will be transformed according to the areas in the world. Fourthly I introduce the first English-Korean grammar book with the section of 'the introduction to English pronunciation.' At the chapter the author explained the sound features of English based on the regulation of 'Scientific Alphabet' of U.S.A. In the transcribing system all the symbols were postulated on the basis of the English alphabet form instead of the separate phonetic signs of IPA.
Which syntactic function should we assign to the 'ga-type' constituent which occurs in the morphological passive constructions in Korean, [N0-neun N1-i Vpass-ending]? This problem is very important in two respects. First, a small change of status of the particle 'i/ga' can exert an overall influence on the Korean grammar. Second, the particle '-i/ga' cannot guarantee that 'ga-type' constituents are subject of the sentence, so that the concept of syntactic category should be distinguished from that of syntactic function. This paper claims that the analysis of sentence has long been focused on the structure of proposition, namely the argument structure and that the direction of analysis should be turned to the 'person structure' which can be revealed on the pragmatic level. On the basis of this, this paper suggests that the specific type of the morphological passive constructions in Korean, [N0-neun N1-i Vpass-ending] should be analysed in line with the psych-verb constructions and that the modal meaning 'potential' of the passive constructions is correlated with sentence pattern and 'person structure'.
ARRIVE, Michel 389
This paper is a philological and epistemological study of the concept of the unconscious envisaged in Saussure. The study investigates whether the unconscious in Saussure can be put to question. Most Saussurian specialists have not as of yet raised any questions on this subject. The researches were simply limited to various comparisons between Saussurian concepts with those of Freud. The paper reconstructs the very concept of the unconscious in the Course in General Linguistics, using Lacan as a mediator between Saussure and Freud. Special attention is given to the linguistic subject who is unconscious about the law of langue, which contrasts it to the conscious of other social subjects and can be observed in the semiotic change of a social system. While not suggesting a hasty comparison between Saussure and Freud the paper draws an epistemological point of convergence. In other words, the paper tries to prove that the descriptive unconsciousness operates and intervene in the paradigmatic function of langue and that the topical unconsciousness operates to the syntagmatic function.
Jhee, In-Young 409
This paper deals with the various conceptual metaphors of 'mind' in Korean and English within the Cognitive Semantics. The purpose of this paper is to investigate the metaphorical expressions of the concept 'mind' represented andunderstood in various ways in Korean and English, to find out the linguistically-universal conceptual metaphors underlying the uses of the metaphoric expressions. In addition, this paper discusses the differences in linguistic realization of the concept 'mind' between Korean and English from the socio-cultural background. In the traditional view, metaphor was thought only as the linguistic matters and a deviance from literal or normal use. However, within the Cognitive Linguistic view such as Lakoff and Johnson(1980), metaphor has been considered as a means of understanding and conceptualizing world. According to them, metaphor is found in everyday life because it is not only as a matter of language but also as a nature of human conceptual system controlling cognition, thought and behavior. Conceptual metaphor is suggested as a device to understood abstract and less familiar things through concrete and more familiar things. Conceptual metaphors may be realized linguistically as well as non-linguistically, in the form of movies, arts or behavior. To define the concept 'mind' shared among the Koreans, conceptual metaphors used to represent 'maum(mind)'in Korean are examined. Then they are compared with the ones used to represent 'mind' in English. This is based on the idea that conceptual metaphors represented in linguistic expressions naturally reflect the speakers' concept and conceptualization is a universal irrespective of language. This paper exemplifies the Korean sentences as well as English sentences to utilize some conceptual metaphor such as Johnson(1987)'s THE MIND IS THE BODY and shows many other conceptual metaphors used in Korean and English to represent the same concept 'mind'. What are some metaphors shared by two languages and what is specific to one of them will be shown, too. This paper also suggests that the different conceptualization or lexicalization is partly due to the effect of the oriental cultural background that is more interested in the mental world than the physical world.