Advances in information technology have led to a series of innovative activities in the economy, particularly in buying and selling goods both conventionally and online. In the past, these activities were carried out at outlets or stores, presently, they are performed online. These products are in the form of goods and services, however, the ease of online shopping has increased the number of Internet users. The survey results carried out by the Association of Indonesian Internet Service Users shows that a rapid increase is experienced in the country. In 2017, 143.26 million or 54.86% of Indonesian citizens used the Internet as a means of livelihood, while in 2018, 171.17 million or 64.8% of users were recorded (www.apjii.or.id, 2019). Therefore, it was concluded that a 10% increase in the number of Internet users was detected on a yearly basis. This resulted in the emergence of online retailing, better known as e-commerce, which is presently a society’s lifestyle. However, due to the rapid increase in online shopping, business actors need to adopt specific strategies to remain relevant in the already competitive market. The retail companies create websites that serve as a medium for potential customers to interact and carry out transactions, thereby making shopping easier. The Webqual method was adopted to measure the quality of a website. It is a ServQual development, widely used to capture consumer expectations and perceptions assumed to represent service quality (Baber, 2019). The success of online retailing is determined by the customers’ satisfaction after indulging in the buying and selling activities (Ariani, 2009).
Barnes and Vidgen (2002) stated that measuring website quality is observed from three variables, namely, usability, quality of information, and service interactions, which tend to influence individuals’ purchasing decisions. One of the factors that affect a person during shopping is hedonic motivation. It is a motivation that refers to a sense of pleasure, fantasy, social and emotional breadth. Hedonic motivation emerges from customers’ experiences, particularly while shopping online (Botti & McGill, 2011). A quality website ensures that customers are able to interact freely. One form of hedonic motivational interactive process in online shopping is browsing, which leads to impulse buying, simply implying indulging in unplanned purchases without even considering the benefits of the goods procured (Gültekin & Hacettepe, 2012). Consequently, unplanned purchases are made due to the positive outcome experienced during the interactive process on the site. It also occurs when someone is browsing either for the fun of it or relaxation (Hashmi, Attiq, & Rasheed, 2019).
2. Literature Review and Hypotheses
2.1. Literature Review
2.1.1. Website Quality (WebQual)
The increasing number of online businesses in society causes actors to continue to improve their services. Every online retailing needs to maintain a competitive advantage by offering virtual services and marketing. Presently, sophisticated technology that tends to be accessed anytime and anywhere, such as smartphones, tablets, laptops, etc., has made it easier for potential customers to search for information on items they intend buying. The huge number of online retailers and virtual goods and marketing services cause business actors to provide complete and clear information on their website media. Website quality is an instrument that measures and accesses the usability, functions and benefits of the interactive process between its users and service providers (Hsu, Chang, & Chen, 2012). It is also, known as Webqual, a method based on users’ perceptions. The Webqual method was initially developed by Barnes and Vidgen (2002) based on the end-user’s perceptions. It first emerged in 1998; presently there are generations of Webqual from 1.0 to 4.0. There are three criteria related to website quality, namely, usability, information quality, and service interaction quality.
2.1.2. Hedonic Shopping Motivation
According to Sampurno (2016), people indulge in online purchases because they are motivated by certain factors. Motivation is defined as the reason that causes or encourages someone to act or behave in a particular way. It is also defined as a person’s willingness to strive to achieve or fulfill emotional needs (Sri & Asnawati, 2018). Shopping motivation is specifically divided into two, utilitarian and hedonic motivation (Ha, 2020). Hedonic Shopping Motivation is a person’s desire to shop to fulfill psychological needs, namely emotion, satisfaction, prestige, and other subjective feelings. Consequently, it appears to meet excessive social, aesthetic, and lifestyle demands. It also occurs due to a person’s emotional response, sensory pleasure, and dreams (Merima, Kasim, & Srdjan, 2011). This is reinforced by Lee and Kim (2018) study, which reported that hedonic shopping motivation is the fulfillment of non- functional aspects of consumers. According to Arnold and Reynolds (2003), it consists of six dimensions, namely, (1) adventure shopping, (2) social shopping, (3) gratification shopping, (4) idea shopping, (5) role shopping, and (6) value shopping.
2.1.3. Impulse Buying
Impulse buying is the unplanned purchasing of goods and services due to a sudden whim or urge. This decision is influenced by various factors. According to Kotler and Amstrong (2008), the purchase decision is related to a consumer’s indecisiveness when buying a product. This process consists of five stages, namely, (1) product introduction, (2) information search, (3) alternative evaluation, (4) purchase decision, and (5) post-purchase behavior. However, people often make purchases on a daily basis without planning. Verhagen and Van Dolen (2011) reported that impulse buying is an irrational behavior associated with spontaneous and unplanned spending. It also means the sudden buying of goods and services without first meeting the initially planned needs (Suryawardani, Sastika, & Hanifa, 2017). In accordance with previous studies, impulse buying is a sudden urge influenced by emotional conditions and persuasive factors around the individual (Maqsood & Javed, 2019). Amiri, Jasour, Shirpour, and Alizadeh (2012) stated that impulse buying is divided into four aspects, namely, (a) pure impulse buying, (b) reminder impulse buying, (c) suggestion impulse buying, and (d) planned impulse buying.
2.1.4. Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is defined as a measurement that determines the extent of a clients’ pleasure or dissatisfaction after purchasing a company’s products, services, and capabilities. Lovelock (2007) reported an emotional state (anger, dissatisfaction, irritation, joy, and pleasure) that is felt after purchasing or interacting with the product providers. Noronha and Rao (2017) stated that customer satisfaction is an essential aspect of any organization, and it is beneficial to these companies supposing it is properly maintained. It is influenced by comparing a customer’s short-term emotional reaction to the performance of a particular service.
2.2. Research Hypothesis
2.2.1. Website Quality and Hedonic Shopping Motivation
Hedonic shopping motivation is usually discovered in online environments. Conversely, people that exhibit this attitude are excessively interested in visiting websites for easy navigation and visual reasons (Zhou, Dai, & Zhang, 2007). A complex online service causes displeasure, however, assuming the quality of information on the website is easy to navigate, it boosts enjoyment and leads to comfort when utilizing the information systems (Kim & Gupta, 2009). Kim and Lee (2006) reported that a website quality strongly influences a person’s hedonic shopping. It was therefore concluded that this attitude plays an active role in decision-making, the moment an individual feels satisfied after interacting with the service sites.
H1: Website quality has a significant effect on hedonic shopping motivation.
2.2.2. Website Quality and Impulse Buying
Advances in information technology have brought significant changes in the growth of online businesses. Their entrepreneurs adopt various marketing strategies, thereby influencing consumers to shop on their websites. This shows that the quality of the information provided causes potential customers to make transactions spontaneously. Turkyilmaz, Erdem, and Uslu (2015) reported that website design tends to aid all e-commerce companies by boosting impulse buying. It was concluded that a quality website quality causes an individual to make unplanned purchases.
H2: Website quality has a significant effect on impulse buying.
2.2.3. Website Quality and Customer Satisfaction
Sophisticated technology such as smartphones, laptops, and other gadgets makes it easier for potential customers to search for information about items they intend to purchase. Presently, the buying and selling of goods online via a website are considered effective and efficient. The research carried out by Noronha and Rao (2017) strengthens the theory of website quality, which stated that the quality of a website has a positive impact on its users and encourages repeated purchases. This is consistent with Barnes and Vidgen’s (2002) findings that quality service tends to impact users positively.
H3: Website quality has a significant effect on customer
2.2.4. Hedonic Shopping Motivation and Impulse Buying
A person with the tendency to shop based on hedonic intent often spends quality time browsing about online retail stores, leading to unplanned purchases. This activity brings about new experiences as well as the assessment of the website quality. The research carried out by Gültekin and Hacettepe (2012) supports the aforementioned study, which stated that the six hedonic shopping motives (adventure, social, gratification, ideas, roles, and value shopping) and browsing behavior has a positive impact on impulse buying. This is in line with the study carried out by Ustanti (2018), which stated that the hedonic shopping lifestyle significantly influenced the middle class’s attitude.
H4: Hedonic shopping motivation has a significant effect on impulse buying.
2.2.5. Hedonic Shopping Motivation and Customer Satisfaction
The hedonic shopping lifestyle has become a part of most people. Subsequently, frequent browsing causes an individual to shop outside their needs. A hedonic attitude offers a sense of pleasure and satisfaction for some people after shopping. Several studies have been carried out to examine the close relationship between hedonic motivation and customer satisfaction. Botti and McGill (2011) reported that a person’s outcome of decisions when shopping is more satisfying than when it is based on an external or hedonic goal. Based on this, Ryu et al. (2010) stated that hedonic and utilitarian values significantly influence customer satisfaction, which has a huge effect on behavioral intention.
H5: Hedonic shopping motivation has a significant effect on customer satisfaction.
2.2.6. Impulse Buying and Customer Satisfaction
Impulse buying is an unplanned or spontaneous purchase that tends to have a negative impact on consumers and sellers simultaneously (Akbar et al., 2020). Some people exhibit this behavior to create an impression by appearing to be satisfied with the purchased goods. However, recent literature has reported the importance of impulse buying, including the factors that cause consumers to engage in this behavior. Maqsood and Javed (2019) reported that impulse buying has a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction. This is consistent with the research carried out by Suryawardani et al. (2017), which stated that this behavior has a positive and significant impact on customer’s satisfaction after shopping.
Figure 1: Research Conceptual Framework
H6: Impulse buying has a significant effect on customer satisfaction.
H7: Website quality has a significant effect on impulse buying through hedonic shopping motivation.
H8: Website quality has a significant effect on customer satisfaction through hedonic shopping motivation
H9: Website quality has a significant effect on customer satisfaction through impulse buying.
3. Research Methods and Materials
This study uses a quantitative approach. The measurement item of constructs from main studies were reviewed and modified. We used a five-point Likert scale to measure the indicators. The population comprises of students from various cities in Indonesia with the criteria of having shopped online. Purposive and random sampling methods were adopted in this research. Data collection uses an online questionnaire. Furthermore, (Hair et al., 2014) the minimum number of samples for variables ≤5, ≤7, ≥7 is 100, 150, and 300 respectively. However for a model that has an extremely large number of variables, the minimum number of samples is 500. The partial least squared (PLS) method was applied in this research as this method’s most important assets are: (1) non normal data, (2) small sample sizes, and (3) formatively measured constructs. The PLS method was employed for examining the recommended research model and hypotheses. Testing the recommended research model and suggestions were conducted through two steps: assessment of the measurement model and assessment of the structural model (Hair et al., 2014).
4. Results and Discussion
Based on the data collected through questionnaires distributed online, some 177 students met respondent characteristics, namely, gender, age, intensity and frequency of visiting online marketplaces.
Table 1: Respondents Gender and Age Range
As shown on Table 4., female respondents dominate with 112 people or 63.3%. It was concluded that female respondents prefer online shopping than their male counterparts. Conversely, in Table 3, respondents aged between 18 to 21 dominate with 153 people or 86.4% involved in online shopping; this is followed by 22 people or 12.4% of the respondents aged between 22 to 25 years. This means that respondents between the ages of 18 and 21 prefer online shopping over the conventional method. Table 2 shows that 154 respondents or 87% chose Shopee as their preferred marketplace, however 12 people or 6.8%, selected Tokopedia, while in the third place, 4 respondents or 2.3% chose Zalora. Therefore, the Shopee marketplace is the solution when faced with the problem of selecting an appropriate platform for online shopping. Seventy- nine respondents or 44.6% visited the marketplace more than five times a month. Furthermore, as many as 33 people or 18.6% visited once a month, followed by 26 or 14.7% who visited the marketplace twice in a month. This implies that the respondents visited the marketplace more than five times a month to either shop online or check out products or promos.
Figure 2: Analysis Results of Partial Least Square (PLS)
Table 2: Convergent Validity, Reliability, and AVE
4.1. Measurement Model
This is determined based on two analyzes, namely, measurement and structural model evaluation, known as the outer, and inner models, respectively. The rationale for this step is to confirm the validity and reliability tests. Consequently, the validity of the internal consistency was determined by utilizing alpha coefficient, composite reliability, and the Average Variance Extracted (AVE) for each construct. The criteria adopted, shows that discriminant validity is acceptable.
Based on the outer loading value of each variable, when the loading value is above 0.5, it is reported as valid. In addition, assuming the value of composite reliability is above 0.7, it is reported to be a reliable construct. The test results are reported on Table 2.
The results from the processed data show that all outer loading variables and AVE are above 0.5, it was therefore concluded that all construct measurement indicators are valid. The test results show that all values of composite reliability are > 0.7, thereby meeting the reliability as well as ensuring that all indicators serve as a measure. Based on this analysis, it was concluded that the four variables used in this study are reliable.
4.2. Structural Model
This is used to determine the strength of the research model. In this analysis, the coefficient of determination R2 is used to measure the proportion or percentage of the model’s ability to illustrate the dependent variable. The following are the results from the measurement of the structural model, each endogenous variable expressed by the R2 value includes: (a) the endogenous variable Hedonic Shopping Motivation (0.319 or 31.9%), therefore it is influenced by the Website Quality; (b) the endogenous variable for Impulse Buying (0.610 or 61%), it is also influenced by Website Quality and Hedonic Shopping Motivation; and (c) the endogenous variable for Customer Satisfaction with a value of 0.657 or 65.7%, therefore Customer Satisfaction is influenced by Website Quality, Hedonic Shopping Motivation, and Impulse Buying.
Table 3: Direct Influence in the Inner Model
The predictive relevance (Q2) value is calculated as follows:
Q2 = 1 – (1 – R1 2)(1 – R2 2)(1 – R3 2)
Q2 = 1 – (1 – 0.3192)(1 – 0.6102)(1 – 0.6572)
Q2 = 1 – (1 – 0.101)(1 –0.372)(1 – 0.431)
Q2 = 1 – 0.321
Q2 = 0.679
The calculation shows a high value of 0.679, therefore the model is feasible and declared to have a predictive- relevance value. Furthermore, 67.9% shows the diversity of data illustrated by the PLS model, while, the 32.1% obtained is explained by the other variables. The largest outer loading shows that the indicator on this variable is dominant. It was concluded that it is significant when the t-test is greater than 1.96 and the P-value is less than 0.05.
Based on the results from testing the variables, the hypothesis is accepted supposing the t count is greater than the t table (1.96) or the p-value is less than 0.05 (Ghozali, 2013). The analysis shows that the website quality for hedonic shopping motivation, impulse buying, customer satisfaction has a coefficient of 0.565, 0.658, and 0.424, respectively, while the hedonic shopping motivation on customer satisfaction and impulse buying has a coefficient of 0.684, and 0.507, respectively and impulse buying for customer satisfaction obtained a value of 0.637, which means that the higher the value, the higher the level of the variables tested, this is a positive linear statement.
Based on the results obtained from using the single test, it was discovered that the website quality on customer satisfaction mediated by hedonic shopping motivation and impulse buying is significant.
Table 4: Testing Results of Indirect Influence in the Inner Model
Website quality has a positive and significant effect on Hedonic Shopping Motivation
The results from this study show that website quality has a positive and significant effect on Hedonic Shopping Motivation in Indonesia. Website quality is considered important, particularly for online businesses (Pebrianti, 2016). Implementing a quality website has a positive impact on the company’s image. Furthermore, it leads to hedonic shopping motivation without being realized (Wang, 2017). The provision of accurate and complete information, serves as an attractive interface which offers a different sensation when someone visits the website and exhibits hedonism (Kim et al., 2012). This study is consistent with the research carried out by Albayrak et al. (2020), which disclosed three dimensions underlying the formation of website quality, which are specifically ease-of-use, provision of information, and user interaction, which have a positive effect on potential customers as well as incites a hedonic attitude. It is also reinforced by the research carried out by Kim et al. (2012), which stated that the quality of service on a website plays an important role in increasing the value of public spending and hedonism. Similar findings also reported that the existence of technology, clarity of information, and ease of access, increase the perception of a person’s hedonic value (Wirtz, Piehler, & Ullrich, 2013). Therefore, it was concluded that the quality of a website aids in the development of hedonic shopping motivation.
Website quality has a positive and significant effect on Impulse Buying
The results from this research prove that website quality has a positive and significant effect on Impulse Buying. Website quality ensures the services provided by the owner are profitable, user friendly and accessible and it also offers useful and reliable information, providing good design and visual appearance to meet the users’ needs and expectations (Ahmad et al., 2017). According to Barnes and Vidgen (2002) its measurement is viewed from three aspects, specifically ease-of-use, the information provided, and user interaction. The perception of impulse buying is largely based on the extent to which a customer browses or seeks for information. The current technological advances adopted by online buying and selling websites make it easier for an individual to engage in impulse buying (Godara & Bishnoi, 2019). Several studies reveal that the motivational attributes of website quality influence an individual to indulge in impulse buying. This supports the research carried out by Akram et al. (2018), which stated that providing accurate information triggers a person to engage in impulse buying. The services provided by a website make it easier for people to make transactions and also offers a positive impact that incites them to shop unexpectedly (Bruno, 2019). Similar findings were also discovered in the study carried out by Turkyilmaz et al. (2015), which stated that the factors that trigger a person to indulge in online impulse buying include the ease of navigating information searches and a good response from service providers. The results from this study are also reinforced by Zhang et al. (2018), which reported that the reviews of other customers on purchased goods influences an individual to make impulse purchases. Therefore, it was concluded that the better the quality of the website on an online shopping site in Indonesia, the better it aids in the development of a hedonistic attitude.
Website quality has a positive and significant effect on Customer Satisfaction
Customer Satisfaction is the end result experienced after carrying out certain activities (Tjiptono, 2017). It is a feeling of satisfaction that arises in people when perceptions match their feelings (Kotler & Amstrong, 2008). A web page or website is a form of Internet service containing information that meets the needs of its users. The study shows that website quality has a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction. Features such as easy search for an item, clear and accurate information have a positive effect and causes an individual to feel satisfied after interacting with online shopping sites (Chi, 2018). These findings are supported by several previous studies, which reported that quality services delivered on a web site tends to have a positive impact on customer satisfaction (Barnes & Vidgen, 2002). Furthermore, Noronha and Rao (2017) reported that its strongest determinants are the quality of information, systems, services, and website design, all of which offers a satisfactory level during online shopping. Subsequently, Bai et al. (2008) reported similar findings which stated that the impact of a quality website causes customers to feel satisfied and have the intention to make more purchases. Therefore, it was concluded that the better the website quality, the higher the level of customer satisfaction (Atulkar & Kesari, 2017; Lin, 2007; Xu, 2017).
Impulse Buying has a positive and significant effect on Customer Satisfaction
The results obtained shows that impulse buying has a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction. It is further defined as unexpected or unplanned purchases (Suryawardani et al., 2017). It is believed to be an irrational purchase associated with spontaneous and unplanned spending (Verhagen & Van Dolen, 2011). Hayu et al. (2020) describe it as “unplanned” because decisions are made while shopping or when the services are being provided. Several studies have showed that there is a relationship between impulsive buying and customer satisfaction. Maqsood and Javed (2019) reported that unplanned purchases provide satisfaction for buyers. Similar findings were reported by Li (2015), which stated that impulse buying affects post- impulsive purchase satisfaction through factors based on buying and selling activities. This is reinforced by the results from the critical review of journals which stated that a sudden purchase phenomenon has a positive impact on customer’s satisfaction in accordance with certain conditions and emotions (Kalla & Arora, 2011).
Hedonic Shopping Motivation has a positive and significant effect on Customer Satisfaction
The results indicate that hedonic shopping motivation has a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction of online shopping sites in Indonesia. According to Khuana (2016), it is believed to provide satisfaction in certain situations. Hedonic Shopping Motivation is a person’s desire to shop in order to satisfy psychological needs such as feelings of emotion, satisfaction, prestige and other subjective feelings. According to Merima et al. (2011), it occurs due to a person’s emotional response, sensory pleasures and dreams. The relationship between hedonic shopping motivation and customer satisfaction is expressed by Lee and Kim (2018), which stated that hedonic behavior of users in an online-based service has a positive impact on satisfaction and loyalty to the product. The findings from this study are also consistent with the research carried out by Botti and McGill (2011), which stated that a customer satisfaction is influenced by existent factors in the individual, namely the hedonic nature of shopping. Feelings to fulfill a social lifestyle when shopping are considered capable of providing satisfaction. This is reinforced by the study carried out by Ryu et al. (2010), which reported that hedonic behavior significantly affects customer satisfaction and this is supported by the six dimensions of hedonic shopping motivation. This is in line with the research carried out by Atulkar and Kesari (2017), which reported similar findings, specifically the fact that hedonic nature of shopping has a strong influence on customer satisfaction. Based on the findings of this study, it was concluded that the stronger the hedonic shopping motivation behavior, the higher the customer satisfaction.
Hedonic Shopping Motivation has a positive and significant effect on Impulse Buying
The results from this research prove that hedonic shopping motivation has a positive and significant effect on impulse buying. This is based on the fact that hedonic shopping triggers an individual to shop impulsively. This finding is consistent with the research carried out by Bhakat and Muruganantham (2013) concerning the significant influence of hedonic shopping motivation on impulse buying. Wahab et al. (2018) reported a similar finding, which stated that hedonic motivation causes a person to make unexpected purchases. Furthermore, impulse buying is influenced by five dimensions of hedonic shopping motivation from adolescence to adulthood (Dey & Srivastava, 2017). An individual’s shopping intentions are motivated by several things, including hedonic shopping intentions. This intention triggers impulse buying or unplanned purchases, which often occur in public such as the sudden desire to buy products or sticks without thinking about whether these items were needed (Faisal et al., 2020; Zheng et al., 2019).
Website Quality has a positive and significant effect on Customer Satisfaction through Hedonic Shopping Motivation
The attractiveness of consumer shopping behavior is caused by various factors, one of which is the website quality. Reliable, accurate and real time information has a positive influence on customer satisfaction after shopping (Kesari & Atulkar, 2016). This study shows that ease of access, accurate information and interaction between consumers and service providers have a positive impact and are supported by hedonic intentions. This finding is consistent with the research carried out by Jeong and Lambert (2001), which discloses three dimensions of website quality, particularly clear information, accessibility, and attitudes are reasons mediated by hedonic shopping intentions for a person to feel satisfied. Individuals that tends to spend their free time exploring online stores has a strong relationship with hedonic intentions, and this leads to a sense of satisfaction supposing the activity is in line with the expectations (Jarvenpaa & Toad, 1996).
Website quality has a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction through Impulse Buying
Impulse buying is defined as an unplanned or sudden purchase. Several studies have disclosed that there is a relationship between website quality and impulsive buying. This study shows that it has a positive and significant effect on customer satisfaction mediated through impulse buying. This finding is consistent with the research carried out by Park and Park (2013), which stated that customer satisfaction is influenced by visual attributes on online shopping site mediated by the existence of e-impulse. This is reinforced by the study carried out by Kang et al. (2014) which reported that the ability to browse the internet triggers impulse behavior as well as a positive effect on emotional satisfaction.
Website quality has a positive and significant effect on Impulse Buying through Hedonic Shopping Motivation
The results obtained shows that website quality has a positive and significant effect on impulse buying mediated through hedonic shopping motivation. This is consistent with previous research, which reported that easy access to browsing about products triggers a person to act on impulse supported by a sense of desire to make purchases (Kang et al., 2014). This is in accordance with the research carried out by Hashmi et al. (2019), which stated that the information system of a quality online shopping service has a significant impact on impulse buying mediated by hedonic behavior. Wang and Morrell (2015) stated that the most influential factor of impulse buying is derived from the stimulation of the online environment (interface), where hedonic motivation serves as a manipulative mediating variable thereby generating positive emotions and consumer cognitive responses.
First, shopping websites in Indonesia attracts customers to engage in hedonic shopping or simply to create that intention. This is depicted by the easy access, reliable and updated information as well as interaction between the service providers and users. Second, website quality has a significant effect on impulse buying. This simply implies that the quality of an online sales website influences users to make purchases impulsively. This is due to attractive programs designed for users such as cashback, discounts, etc. Third, website quality has a significant effect on customer satisfaction. It was concluded that online shopping sites in Indonesia offers a sense of satisfaction to its users when carrying out transactions based on the ease of use, information provided by the site and the interaction between online sellers and buyers. Fourth, hedonic shopping motivation has a significant effect on impulse buying. It means that a person with hedonic behavior is likely to make unplanned or sudden purchases.
Fifth, it has a significant effect on customer satisfaction. It is reported that an individual with hedonic behavior is usually satisfied after shopping in accordance with the emotional condition. Sixth, impulse buying has a significant effect on customer satisfaction, which is boosted by experiences, feelings and the person’s mood. Seventh, website quality has a significant effect on impulse buying through hedonic shopping motivation. This implies that hedonic shopping motivation and website quality are variables that support each other thereby resulting in the development of impulse buying attitudes. Eighth, website quality has a significant effect on customer satisfaction through hedonic shopping motivation. It means that a quality website incites the hedonic intentions of users thereby generating a sense of customer satisfaction. Ninth, website quality has a significant effect on customer satisfaction through impulse buying. This means that a quality website boosts customer’s satisfaction when shopping online.
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