The Effect of Therapeutic Listening on Occupational Performance, Auditory Problem Behavior, and Attention in Children With Sensory Modulation Disorder

감각조절 장애 아동에게 치료적 듣기가 작업수행, 청각행동문제, 주의집중에 미치는 영향

  • Park, Mi-Young (Ddoong's Teacher Children Development Center) ;
  • Kim, Hee (Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Konyang University) ;
  • Cha, Tae-Hyun (Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Konyang University) ;
  • Kim, Soo-Kyung (Dept. of Occupational Therapy, Konyang University)
  • 박미영 (뚱이쌤아동발달센터) ;
  • 김희 (건양대학교 작업치료학과) ;
  • 차태현 (건양대학교 작업치료학과) ;
  • 김수경 (건양대학교 작업치료학과)
  • Received : 2020.11.15
  • Accepted : 2020.12.24
  • Published : 2020.12.31


Objective : The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of therapeutic listening on task performance, auditory behavior problems, and attention in children with sensory modulation disorder. Methods : Sixteen children aged four to seven years who were classified as children with sensory modulation disorder were randomly assigned to either the experimental group (n = 8) or the control group (n = 8). From July 1 to October 18, 2017, both groups participated in sensory integration programs, while therapeutic listening training was administered only to the experimental group. Sensory integration therapy was conducted in two sessions per week for six weeks (12 sessions); each session consisted of 40 minutes of therapy and 10 minutes of parent education. Therapeutic listening was conducted in three thirty-minute sessions per week for six weeks (18 sessions). We used the Canadian Occupation Performance Measure (COPM) to evaluate changes in the participants' occupational performance between pre- and post-intervention. We used Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist (FAPC) to observe changes in behavioral problems related to hearing. The Child Attention Scale for Teacher (CAST) was used to evaluate changes in attention. Results : No significant differences pre- and post-intervention between the two groups were observed. The participants' auditory behavioral problems improved significantly in the experimental group, but no significant difference was found between the two groups. There was no significant difference in attention between the two groups, but there was a significant difference between the two groups in the "adaptability" and "emotion" domains (p < .05). Conclusion : The results suggest that therapeutic listening training has a positive effect on reducing problematic behaviors related to hearing and improving the occupational performance of children with sensory modulation disorder. This study provides a basis for improving the sensory processing ability of children with sensory modulation disorder by applying listening training in the clinical field and at home.

목적 : 본 연구는 감각조절장애 아동에게 청지각 훈련과 병행한 감각통합치료를 시행하여 작업수행, 청각행동문제, 주의집중에 미치는 영향을 알아보고자 한다. 연구방법 : 감각조절장애로 분류된 아동 만 4~7세 아동 16명을 대상으로 임의표출법으로 실험군 8명 대조군 8명으로 배치하였다. 2017년 7월 1일부터 2017년 10월 18일까지 두 군 모두 감각통합 프로그램을 실시하였고 추가적으로 실험군에는 치료적 듣기 훈련을 실시하였다. 감각통합 치료는 주 2회고 1회기당 40분 치료 후 10분 상담으로 6주 동안 총 12회기를 진행하였고 치료적 듣기 훈련은 주 3회로 1회기당 30분씩 6주동안 총 18회기를 진행하였다. 치료 중재 전 후 작업수행의 변화를 측정하기 위해 캐나다 작업수행 측정(Canadian Occupational Performance Measure; COPM)을 사용하였고 청각과 관련한 행동문제의 변화를 보기 위해 Fisher's 청각행동 체크리스트(Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist; FAPC)를 사용하였고 아동의 교육현장 에서의 변화를 보기 위해 교사용 유아 주의집중력 척도(Child Attention Scale for Teacher; CAST)를 사용하였다. 결과 : 중재 후 작업수행은 두 그룹 모두 유의한 변화가 나타났으나 두 그룹간은 유의한 변화가 나타나지 않았다. 청각행동문제는 실험군에서만 유의한 변화가 나타났고 두 그룹 간에는 유의한 변화가 나타나지 않았다. 주의집중은 두 그룹 모두 유의한 변화가 나타나지 않았으나 실험군에서 세부항목인'적응성과 감정'영역에서 유의한 변화가 나타났고 두 그룹 간에는 유의한 변화가 나타나지 않았다. 결론 : 치료적 듣기 훈련이 감각조절장애 아동의 청각과 관련한 문제행동을 감소시키는데 긍정적인 영향을 주며 작업수행을 증진시킬 수 있는 중재 방법임을 확인하였다. 임상과 가정에서 듣기 훈련을 적용하여 감각처리능력을 향상시킬 수 있는 근거를 제시한다.



  1. American Academy of Audiology. (2010). American academy of audiology clinical practice guidelines: Guidelines for the diagnosis, treatment and management of children and adults with central auditory processing disorder. From
  2. American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. (2005). (Central) auditory processing disorders-The role of the audiologist. Position statement of the working group on auditory processing disorders of the American Speech-Language-Hearing Association. Rockville, MD: Author.
  3. Ayres, A. J. (1972). Sensory integration and learning disorders. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
  4. Ayres, A. J. (1979). Sensory integration and child. Los Angeles: Western Psychological Services.
  5. Bettison, S. (1996). The long-term effects of auditory training on children with autism. Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders, 26(3), 361-374.
  6. Choi, S. H. (2013). The effects of visual perception training and sound-based intervention on attention in developmental disability. Master's thesis, Seonam University, Namwon.
  7. Chung, H. S. (2017). The effects of auditory processing training on the sensory processing functions and developmental profiles of child with autism spectrum disorder. Journal of Korean Society of Neurocognitive Rehabilitation, 9, 35-49.
  8. Doman, A. (2016). The listening program. Provider training guide website. Retrieved November 24, 2017, from
  9. Fey, M. E., Kamhi, A. G., & Richard, G. J. (2012). Auditory training for children with auditory processing disorder and language impairment: A response to Bellis, Chermak, Weihing, and Musiek. Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools, 43(3), 387-392.
  10. Frick, S. M., & Hacker, C. (2001). Listening with the whole body. Madison, WI: Vital Links.
  11. Gee, B. M., Devine, N., Werth, A., & Phan, V. (2013). Paediatric occupational therapists' use of sound-based interventions: A survey study. Occupational Therapy International, 20(3), 155-162.
  12. Gee, B., Thompson, K., Pierce, A., Toupin, M., & Holst, J. (2015). The effectiveness of auditory stimulation in children with autism spectrum disorders: A case-control study. International Journal of Therapy & Rehabilitation, 22(1), 35-46.
  13. Hall, L., & Case-Smith, J. (2007). The effect of sound-based intervention on children with sensory processing disorders and visual-motor delays. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(2), 209-215.
  14. Hayes, E. A., Warrier, C. M., Nicol, T. G., Zecker, S. G., & Kraus, N. (2003). Neural plasticity following auditory training in children with learning problems. Clinical Neurophysiology, 114(4), 673-684.
  15. Hong, E. K., & Kim, K. M. (2007). The improvement of postural control by sensory integration intervention: Single-subject research. Journal of Special Education & Rehabilitation Science, 46(3), 175-190.
  16. Jeon, H. Y. (2009). Effects of visual and auditory physical activities on attention behaviors of children with ADHD. Master's thesis, Kwangwoon University, Seoul.
  17. Ju, J. O., Lee, H. R., & Kim, K. M. (2011). The effects of sensory integrative intervention on the self-regulation capacities of children with cerebral palsy: Single-subject research design. Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration, 9(2), 15-28.
  18. Kielhofner, G. (2002). Model of human occupation (3rd ed). Baltimore: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  19. Kim, J. M., & Kim, K. M. (2009). The effects of sensory integration intervention on play in children with sensory modulation disorder. Journal of Korean Academy of Sensory Integration, 7(1), 2-12.
  20. Kim, Y. K., & Seok, D. I. (2008). Study on the linguistic auditory processing disorder feature of children at auditory processing disorder risk. Journal of Speech-Language & Hearing Disorders, 17(4), 143-166.
  21. Kim, Y. R. (2013). The effects of the sensory integration training program on the functional ability in task performance of the school age children with developmental disabilities. Master's thesis, Konyang University, Daejeon.
  22. Lachter, J., Forster, K. I., & Ruthruff, E. (2004). Forty-five years after Broadbent (1958): Still no identification without attention. Psychological Review, 111(4), 880-913.
  23. Lee, K. H., & Park, J. S. (2010). Effects of a visual and auditory response training program attention deficit and hyperactivity of children with tendency of ADHD. Journal of Emotional & Behavioral Disorders, 26(3), 1-15.
  24. Lucker, J. R., & Doman, A. (2015). Neural mechanisms involved in hypersensitive hearing: Helping children with ASD who are overly sensitive to sounds. Autism Research and Treatment, 2015(8), 1-8.
  25. Melo, A. D., Costa, M. J., Garcia, M. V., Filha, V. A. V. D. S., & Biaggio, E. P. V. (2015). The use of software on auditory training in children: Theoretical review. Revista CEFAC, 17(6), 2025-2032.
  26. Miller, L., Coll, J., & Schoen, S. (2007). A randomized controlled pilot study of the effectiveness of occupational therapy for children with sensory modulation disorder. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61, 228-238.
  27. Mulligan, S. (2002). Advances in sensory integration research. In A. C. Bundy, S. J. Lane, & E. A. Murray (Eds.). Sensory integration theory and practice (pp. 397-411). Davis Philadelphia.
  28. Park, J. H. (2012). Sensory integration function and activities of daily living of children with developmental disabilities. Master's thesis, Busan University, Busan.
  29. Schaaf, R. C., Miller, L. J., Seawell, D., & O'Keefe, S. (2003). Children with disturbances in sensory processing: A pilot study examining the role of the parasympathetic nervous system. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 57(4), 442-449.
  30. Sin, K. S., Lee, Y. J., Lee, Y. H., & Seo, H. S. (2009). Neurofeedback treatment for improvement of attention in inattentive children. Korean Journal of Psychosomatic Medicine, 17(1), 23-29.
  31. Thompson, B. M., & Andrews, S. R. (2000). An historical commentary on the physiological effects of music: Tomatis, Mozart and neuropsychology. Integrative Physiological and Behavioral Science, 35(3), 174-188.
  32. White, P. B., Mulligan, S., Merril, K., & Wright, J. (2007). An examination of the relationships between motor and process skills and scores on the sensory profile. American Journal of Occupational Therapy, 61(2), 154-160.
  33. Yoon, M. H., & Jang, H. S. (2014). Comparison of Fisher's Auditory Problems Checklist (FAPC) and Scale of Auditory Behaviors (SAB) in screening central auditory processing disorders. Rehabilitation International Korea, 18, 257-277.