Filter- and Denuder-Based Organic Carbon Correction for Positive Sampling Artifacts

  • Hwang, InJo (Department of Environmental Engineering, Daegu University) ;
  • Na, Kwangsam (Mobile Source Control Division, California Air Resources Board)
  • 투고 : 2016.12.08
  • 심사 : 2017.03.31
  • 발행 : 2017.06.30


This study describes (1) the impact of positive sampling artifacts caused by not only a filter-based sampling, but also a denuder-based sampling in the determination of particle-phase organic carbon (POC), (2) the effect of sample flow rate on positive artifacts, and (3) an optimum flow rate that provides a minimized negative sampling artifact for the denuder-based sampling method. To achieve the goals of this study, four different sampling media combinations were employed: (1) Quartz filter-alone (Q-alone), (2) quartz filter behind quartz-fiber filter (QBQ), (3) quartz filter and quartz filter behind Teflon filter (Q-QBT), and (4) quartz filter behind carbon-based denuder (Denuder-Q). The measurement of ambient POC was carried out in an urban area. In addition, to determine gas-phase OC (GOC) removal efficiency of the denuder, a Teflon filter and a quartz filter were deployed upstream and downstream of the denuder, respectively with varying sample flow rates: 5, 10, 20, and 30 LPM. It was found that Q-alone sampling configuration showed a higher POC than QBQ, Q-QBT, and Denuder-Q by 12%, 28%, and 23%, respectively at a sample flow rate of 20 LPM due to no correction for positive artifact caused by adsorption of GOC onto the filter. A lower quantity of GOC was collected from the backup quartz filter on QBQ than that from Q-QBT. This was because GOC was not in equilibrium with that adsorbed on the front quartz filter of QBQ during the sampling period. It is observed that the loss of particle number and mass across the denuder increases with decreasing sample flow rate. The contribution o f positive arti facts to POC decreased with increasing sample flow rate, showing 29%, 25%, and 22% for 10, 20, and 30 LPM, respectively. The 20 LPM turns out to be the optimum sample flow rate for both filter and denuder-based POC sampling.



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