Cell Viability and Hair Growth Effect on 3T3-L1 Cells of Ethanol Extract from Calendula officinalis L. Flower, Phellinus linteus Fruit Body and Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Whole Plant

금잔화, 상황, 어성초 에탄올 추출물의 세포독성 평가 및 3T3-L1 세포에 대한 육모 효과

  • Received : 2017.09.28
  • Accepted : 2017.11.17
  • Published : 2017.12.30


Background: Hair loss related syndromes are increasing due to environmental pollution and stress. Hair care products are mainly prepared by mixing chemicals and natural extracts, such as those obtained from medicinal plants. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 70% ethanol extracts from the flowers of Calendula officinalis, fruit body of Phellinus linteus, and the whole plant of Houttuynia cordata on the growth of CCD-986 cells, hair follicle dermal papilla cells (HFDPC), and 3T3-L1 cells. Methods and Results: All sample extracts at all concentrations, except for that from P. linteus fruit body at $500{\mu}g/m{\ell}$, were cytotoxic to CCD-986 cells. However, none of the sample extracts were cytotoxic to HFDPC. The lipid differentiation of 3T3-L1 cells regulates hair regeneration via secretion of platelet derived growth factor. The 70% ethanol extract of H. cordata whole plant promoted hair growth. Adipogenesis rate significantly increased in a treatment concentration-dependent manner. Conclusions: These results suggest that 70% ethanol extracts of C. officinalis flower, P. linteus fruit body and H. cordata could be used for the development of hair care products.



  1. Cai W, Xu Y, Shao J, Dai S, Liu Q, Liu Z and Wu W. (2012). Phenolic contents and antioxidant activities of different parts of Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Journal of Medicinal Plants Research 6:1035-1040.
  2. Cheon SJ, Jang MJ, Joe WA, Kang BY, Choi EY, Lee JS, Jeong YS, Kim YS, Lee CE, An BJ and Lee JT. (2006). Antioxidant effects and application as natural ingredients of Sanghwang mushroom(Phellinus linteus). The Journal of Applied Oriental Medicine. 6:1-6.
  3. Choi GS. (2013). Hair characteristics and androgenetic alopecia in Koreans. Journal of the Korean Medical Association. 56:45-54.
  4. Choi JH, Lee MS, Kim HJ, Kwon JI and Lee YK. (2017). Effects of black soybean and fermented black soybean extracts on proliferation of human follicle dermal papilla cells. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 46:671-680.
  5. Choi JH, Park YH, Lee IS, Lee SP and Yu MH. (2013). Antioxidant activity and inhibitory effect of Aster scaber Thunb. extract on adipocyte differentiation in 3T3-L1 cells. Korean Journal of Food Science and Technology. 45:356-363.
  6. Festa E, Fretz J, Berry R, Schmidt B, Rodeheffer M, Horowitz M and Horsley V. (2011). Adipocyte lineage cells contribute to the skin stem cell niche to drive hair cycling. Cell. 146:761-771.
  7. Fonseca YM, Catini CD, Vicentini FT, Nomizo A, Gerlach RF and Fonseca MJ. (2010). Protective effect of Calendula officinalis extract against UVB-induced oxidative stress in skin: Evaluation of reduced glutathione levels and matrix metalloproteinase secretion. Jourmal of Ethnopharmacology. 127:596-601.
  8. Green LM, Reade JL and Ware CF. (1984). Rapid colorimetric assay for cell viability: Application to the quantitation of cytotoxic and Agrowth inhibitory lymphokines. Journal of Immunological Methods. 70:257-268.
  9. Hong JH and Jung HA. (2013). An investigation on oriental cosmetics(herb based shampoo) for the treatment of alopecia. Journal of Daejeon Oriental Medicine. 22:79-90.
  10. Hong YH, Bae SH and Suh HJ. (2015). Effect of herbal complex extract including Houttuynia cordata Thunb on hair growth promotion in C57B/6 mice. Korean Journal of Aesthetic and Cosmetology. 13:321-329.
  11. Hoult JRS and Paya M. (1996). Pharmacological and biochemical actions of simple coumarins: Natural products with therapeutic potential. General Pharmacology. 27:713-722.
  12. Jung JY, Oh YH, Park SH, Yoon MY, Pyo AJ, Kim SJ, Yu YW and Jung IJ. (2014). Antioxidative and Whitening Effects of Houttuynia cordata Extract on Lead Acetate of Hair Dye Component. Journal of Investigative Cosmetology. 10:99-105.
  13. Jurinjak Tusek A, Benkovic M, Belscak Cvitanovic A, Valinger D, Jurina T and Gajdos Kljusuric J. (2016). Kinetics and thermodynamics of the solid-liquid extraction process of total polyphenols, antioxidants and extraction yield from Asteraceae plants. Industrial Crops and Products. 91:205-214.
  14. Kim CS and Li SH. (2012). The effects of pini folium extract on collagen expression and synthesis in normal human dermal fibroblasts. Korean Journal of Aesthetics and Cosmetics Society. 10:817-822.
  15. Kim HJ, Kang L, Ahm JY, Han JS, Kim SU, Lee KW and Kim MH. (2004). The red-ginseng extract alters the cell cycle and viability in the human neuronal stem cells. Journal of Ginseng Research. 28:39-44.
  16. Kim JH, Park SG, Kim WK, Song SU and Sung JH. (2015). Functional regulation of adipose-derived stem cells by PDGF-D. Stem Cells. 33:542-556.
  17. Kim JO, Jung MJ, Choi HJ, Lee JT, Lim AK, Hong JH and Kim DI. (2008). Antioxidative and biological activity of hot water and ethanol extracts from Phellinus linteus. Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition. 37:684-690.
  18. Kim ML. (2009). A study on comparison of characteristics of fermentability and fermented broth for Houttuynia cordata Thunb extracts. Korean Journal of Food Preservation. 16:122-127.
  19. Lee ST, Lee YH, Choi YJ, Shon GM, Lee HJ and Heo JS. (2002). Comparison of quercetin and souble tannin in Houttuynia cordata Thunb. according to growth stages and plant parts. Korean Journal of Medicinal Crop Science. 10:12-16.
  20. Lu HM, Liang YZ and Qian P. (2005). Profile-effect on quality control of Houttuynia cordata injection. Acta Pharmaceutica Sinica. 40:1147-1150.
  21. Mishra AK, Mishra A and Chattopadhyay P. (2010). Calendula officinalis: An important herb with valuable therapeutic dimensions. Journal of Global Pharma Technology. 2:14-23.
  22. Moon DC, Hwang KH, Choi KY, Choi DC, Kim CS, Kim JG, Lee YM and Zee OP. (1995). Some peroxysterols and ceramides from "phellinus ribis", a Korean wild mushroom. Analytical Science and Technology. 8:901-906.
  23. Oh TH, Lee EY and Lee WS. (2004). Effects of substance P on the expression of various factors to control hair growth in human hair follicle culture. Korean Journal of Dermatology. 42:1543-1551.
  24. Park JJ, Park DH and Lee WY. (2017). Quality change of sliced ginseng depending on different drying methods. Korean Journal of Food Preservation. 24:361-366.
  25. Park WS, Sung DS, Kim DK, Cho WH, Lee HK, Lee CH, Park SK and Sim YC. (2004). The effect of hair essence (HHRHG0202-80) containing five herbal extracts on hair growth and the prevention of alopecia in vitro and vivo. Journal of Korean Oriental Medicine. 25:152-160.
  26. Shon MS, Kim RH, Song JH, Kwon OJ, Lee AR, Kim HO, Roh SS and Kim GN. (2016). Potential of fisetin as a nutricosmetics material through evaluating anti-oxidant and antiadipogenic activities. Asian Journal of Beauty and Cosmetology. 14:6-17.
  27. Soma T, Tsuji Y and Hibino T. (2002). Involvement of transforming growth factor-${\beta}2$ in catagen induction during the human hair cycle. Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 118:993-997.
  28. Teng H and Lee WY. (2013). Optimization of microwave-assisted extraction of polyphenols from mulberry fruits(Morus alba L.) using response surface methodology. Journal of the Korean Society for Applied Biological Chemistry. 56:317-324.
  29. Wendt H, Hillmer A, Reimers K, Kuhbier JW, Schafer-Nolte F, Allmeling C, Kasper C and Vogt PM. (2011). Artificial skin-culturing of different skin cell lines for generating an artificial skin substitute on cross-weaved spider silk fibres. PLoS One. 6:e21833. (cited by 2016 November 29).