Optimization of Anti-glycation Effect of ʟ-Carnitine, Pyridoxine Hydrochloride and ᴅʟ-α-Tocopheryl Acetate in an Infant Formula Model System Using Response Surface Methodology

ʟ-Carnitine, pyridoxine hydrochloride, ᴅʟ-α-tocopheryl acetate를 이용한 분유모델시스템의 마이얄반응생성물 저감화 조건 최적화

  • Jung, Hye-Lim (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Nam, Mi-Hyun (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Hong, Chung-Oui (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Pyo, Min-Cheol (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University) ;
  • Oh, Jun-Gu (Human Milk R&D Team, Maeil Dairies, Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kim, Young Ki (Human Milk R&D Team, Maeil Dairies, Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Choi, You Young (Human Milk R&D Team, Maeil Dairies, Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Kwon, Jung Il (Human Milk R&D Team, Maeil Dairies, Co., Ltd.) ;
  • Lee, Kwang-Won (Department of Food Bioscience and Technology, College of Life Science & Biotechnology, Korea University)
  • Received : 2014.08.16
  • Accepted : 2014.11.26
  • Published : 2015.02.28


The Maillard reaction is a non-enzymatic reaction between amino and carbonyl groups. During milk processing, lactose reacts with milk protein through this reaction. Infant formulas (IFs) are milk-based products processed with heat-treatments, including spray-drying and sterilization. Because IFs contain higher Maillard reaction products (MRPs) than breast milk, formula-fed infants are subject to higher MRP exposure than breast milk-fed ones. In this study, we investigated the optimization of conditions for minimal MRP formation with the addition of $\small{L}$-carnitine ($\small{L}$-car), pyridoxine hydrochloride (PH), and $\small{DL}$-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl acetate (${\alpha}$-T) in an IF model system. MRP formation was monitored by response surface methodology using fluorescence intensity (FI) and 5-hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) content. The optimal condition for minimizing the formation of MRPs was with $2.3{\mu}M$ $\small{L}$-car, $15.8{\mu}M$ PH, and $20.6{\mu}M$ ${\alpha}$-T. Under this condition, the predicted values were 77.4% FI and 248.7 ppb HMF.

본 연구는 분유모델시스템에 $\small{L}$-carnitine, pyridoxine hydrochloride, $\small{DL}$-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl acetate를 첨가하여 Maillard 반응에 의해 생성된 MRPs를 저감화 시키기 위한 최적조건을 찾기 위해 RSM의 CCD를 이용하였다. $\small{L}$-Carnitine ($X_1$), pyridoxine hydrochloride($X_2$), $\small{DL}$-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl acetate ($X_3$)의 농도를 독립변수로 하고 형광도와 HMF 함량을 종속변수로 각각 설정하였다. 종속변수 회귀식의 결정계수($R^2$)는 각각 0.942, 0.861로 반응표면분석 모델에 적합하였다. 형광도와 HMF 함량은 $\small{L}$-carnitine과 pyridoxine hydrochloride의 농도가 낮을 때 $\small{DL}$-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl acetate의 농도가 감소할수록 그 값이 급격히 감소하였다. $\small{L}$-Carnitine의 농도가 높을 때 pyridoxine hydrochloride의 농도가 $20{\mu}M$ 이하로 감소할수록 형광도가 감소하였고 HMF 함량은 $\small{L}$-carnitine의 농도에 관계없이 pyridoxine hydrochloride의 농도가 $20{\mu}M$ 이하로 감소할수록 감소하는 경향을 나타냈다. 본 실험에서 분유모델시스템에서 생성된 MRPs를 저감화 할 수 있는 최적조건으로 $\small{L}$-carnitine, pyridoxine hydrochloride, $\small{DL}$-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl acetate의 농도는 각각 2.26, 15.77, $20.63{\mu}M$이었다. 이때 형광도는 77.4%였고 HMF 함량은 248.7 ppb로 각각 유단백질-유당 마이얄 반응생성물(LC, lactose+sodium caseinate)대비 MRPs를 22.6, 23.1% 감소시킬 수 있다고 예측할 수 있었다. 또한, RSM을 통해 찾은 최적 조건의 실험값으로 형광도는 79.3%였고 HMF 함량은 247.6 ppb로 각각 LC대비 MRPs를 20.7, 17.8% 감소 시켰다. 따라서, $\small{L}$-carnitine, pyridoxine hydrochloride, $\small{DL}$-${\alpha}$-tocopheryl acetate의 최적화된 혼합을 통하여 분유 제조 시 MRPs 생성을 저감화 시킬 수 있을 것으로 생각된다.



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