Digital Image Watermarking Scheme in the Singular Vector Domain

특이 벡터 영역에서 디지털 영상 워터마킹 방법

  • Received : 2015.08.26
  • Accepted : 2015.11.08
  • Published : 2015.10.30


As multimedia information is spread over cyber networks, problems such as protection of legal rights and original proof of an information owner raise recently. Various image transformations of DCT, DFT and DWT have been used to embed a watermark as a token of ownership. Recently, SVD being used in the field of numerical analysis is additionally applied to the watermarking methods. A watermarking method is proposed in this paper using Gabor cosine and sine transform as well as SVD for embedding and extraction of watermarks for digital images. After delivering attacks such as noise addition, space transformation, filtering and compression on watermarked images, watermark extraction algorithm is performed using the proposed GCST-SVD method. Normalized correlation values are calculated to measure the similarity between embedded watermark and extracted one as the index of watermark performance. Also visual inspection for the extracted watermark images has been done. Watermark images are inserted into the lowest vertical ac frequency band. From the experimental results, the proposed watermarking method using the singular vectors of SVD shows large correlation values of 0.9 or more and visual features of an embedded watermark for various attacks.

멀티미디어 정보들이 인터넷 공간에 확산됨에 따라서 원래 정보 소유자의 권리 보호와 원본 증명 등의 문제가 대두되고 있다. DCT, DFT, DWT 등의 여러 영상 변환들을 이용하여 소유권의 징표로 워터마크를 원본 영상에 삽입하는 방법을 많이 사용하였으나, 보다 최근에는 수치해석 분야에 많이 쓰이는 SVD(Singular Value Decomposition) 방법을 부가적으로 사용하고 있다. 본 논문에서는 SVD의 특이 벡터와 동시에 Gabor 코사인과 사인 변환을 이용하여 디지털 표지 영상에 워터마크를 삽입하고 추출하는 방법을 제안한다. 워터마크가 삽입된 영상에 잡음, 공간 변형, 필터링, 압축 등의 공격을 가한 후, GCST-SVD의 워터마크 추출 알고리즘을 적용한다. 워터마킹 성능을 평가하기 위해서 삽입한 워터마크와 추출한 워터마크 사이의 유사성 척도로써 정규화한 상관계수값을 측정한다. 또한 추출한 워터마크 영상으로부터 시각적으로 직접 원본 워터마크인지를 판단한다. 가장 낮은 수직 교류 주파수 대역에 워터마크를 삽입한 실험으로부터 SVD의 특이 벡터를 이용한 워터마킹 방법은 대부분 공격에서 0.9이상의 큰 상관값과 삽입한 워터마크의 특징들을 시각적으로 파악할 수 있었다.



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