Effect of conjugated linoleic acid in diacylglycerol-rich oil on the lipid metabolism of C57BL/6J mice fed a high-fat high-cholesterol diet

  • Lee, Jeung Hee (Department of Food and Nutrition, Daegu University) ;
  • Cho, Kyung-Hyun (School of Biotechnology, Yeungnam University) ;
  • Lee, Ki-Teak (Department of Food Science and Technology, Chungnam National University)
  • Received : 2014.02.07
  • Accepted : 2014.03.21
  • Published : 2014.03.31


The effect of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) isomers esterified in diacylglycerol (DAG)-rich oil on lipid metabolism was investigated. Since dietary DAG has been known to induce the regression of atherosclerosis, CLA-DAG and olive-DAG oils containing similar levels of DAG (51.4~54.2%) were synthesized from olive oil. Hyperlipidemic C57BL/6J mice were then fed high-fat high-cholesterol diets supplemented with these oils (5% each) for 7 wk. The CLA-DAG diet containing 2.1% CLA isomers (0.78% c9,t11-CLA; 1.18% t10,c12-CLA) remarkably increased the levels of total plasma cholesterol and glutamic oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) along with hepatic cholesterol and triacylglycerol (TAG) contents. Furthermore, the CLA-DAG diet inhibited fat uptake into adipose tissue whereas fat deposition (especially in the liver) was increased, resulting in the development of fatty livers. Hepatic fatty acid composition in the CLA-DAG mice was different from that of the olive-DAG mice, showing higher ratios of C16:1/C16:0 and C18:1/C18:0 in the liver. The activity of hepatic acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) was higher in CLA-DAG mice while plasma lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT) activity and the ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) were lower in CLA-DAG mice compared to the olive-DAG animals. Results of the present study suggest that CLA incorporation into DAG oil could induce atherosclerosis in mice.



  1. Ametaj BN, Bobe G, Lu Y, Young JW, Beitz DC. 2003. Effect of sample preparation, length of time, and sample size on quantification of total lipids from bovine liver. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 51:2105-2110.
  2. Arbones-Mainar JM, Navarro MA, Acin S, Guzman MA, Arnal C, Surra JC. Carnicer R, Roche HM, Osada J. 2006. Trans-10, cis-12- and cis-9, trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid isomers selectively modify HDL-apolipoprotein composition in apolipoprotein E knockout mice. Journal of Nutrition 136:353-359.
  3. Benzie IF, Strain JJ. 1996. The ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP) as a measure of antioxidant power: the FRAP assay. Analytical Biochemistry 239:70-76.
  4. Bierbachm H. 1983. Triacylglycerol biosynthesis in human small intestinal mucosa Acyl-CoA: monoglyceride acyltransferase. Digestion 28:138-147.
  5. Chang TY, Chang CCY, Cheng D. 1997. Acyl-coenzyme A: cholesterol acyltransferase. Annual Review of Biochemistry 66:613-618.
  6. Cho KH, Han JM, Jeong TS, Kim HY, Lee JH, Lee KT. 2006. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of a new synthetic functional oil containing mono- and diacylglycerol from corn oil. Annals of Nutrition and Metabololism 50:467-475.
  7. Dobrzynm A, Ntambi JM. 2005. Stearoyl-CoA desaturase as a new drug target for obesity treatment. Obesity Reviews 6:169-174.
  8. Flickinger BD, Matuso N. 2003. Nutritional characteristics of DAG oil. Lipids 38:129-132.
  9. Gavino VC, Gavino G, Leblanc MJ, Tuchweber B. 2000. An isomeric mixture of conjugated linoleic acids but not pure cis-9,trans-11-octadecadienoic acid affects body weight gain and plasma lipids in hamsters. Journal of Nutrition 130: 27-29.
  10. Han JM, Jeong TS, Lee WS, Choi I, Cho KH. 2006. Structural and functional properties of V156K and A158E mutants of apolipoprotein A-I in the lipid-free and lipid-bound states. Journal of Lipid Research 46:589-596.
  11. Hoeg JM, Santamarina-Fojo S, Berard AM. 1996. Over expression of lecithin:cholesterol acyltransferase in transgenic rabbits prevents diet-induced atherosclerosis. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of USA 93:11448-11453.
  12. Javadi M, Beynen AC, Hovenier R, Lankhorst E, Lemmens AG, Terpstra AHM, Geelen MJH. 2004. Prolonged feeding of mice with conjugated linoleic acid increases hepatic fatty acid synthesis relative to oxidation. Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry15:680-687.
  13. Kelly DS, Bartolini GL, Warren JM, Simon VA, Mackey BE, Erikson KL. 2004. Contrasting effects of t10,c12- and c9,t11-conjugated linoleic acid isomers on the fatty acid profiles of mouse liver lipids. Lipids 39:135-141.
  14. Kritchevsky D, Tepper SA, Wright S, Czarnecki SK. 2002. Influence of graded levels of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) on experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits. Nutrition Research 22:1275-1279.
  15. Lee JH, Cho KH, Lee KT, Kim MR. 2005. Antiaterogenic effects of structured lipid containing conjugated linoleic acid in C57BL/6J mice. Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry 53:7295-7301.
  16. Lee JH, Yu F, Vu PL, Choi MS, Akoh CC, Lee KT. 2007. Compositional study on rice bran oil after lipase-catalyzed glycerolysis and solvent fractionations. Journal Food Science 72:C163-167.
  17. Meng A, Zou D, Shi Z, Duan AZ. 2004. Dietary diacylglycerol prevents high-fat diet-induced lipid accumulation in rat liver and abdominal adipose tissue. Lipids 39:37-41.
  18. Munday JS, Thompson KG, James KAC. 1999. Dietary conjugated linoleic acids promote fatty acid streak formation in the C57BL/6 mouse atherosclerosis model. British Journal of Nutrition 81:251-255.
  19. Murase T, Aoki M, Wakisaka T, Hase T, Tokimitsu I. 2002. Anti-obesity effect of dietary diacylglycerol in C57BL/6J mice: dietary diacylglycerol stimulates intestinal lipid metabolism. Journal of Lipid Research 43:1312-1319.
  20. Murota K, Matusi N, Kawada T, Takahashi N, Fushuki T. 2001. Inhibitory effect of monoacylglycerol in fatty acid uptake into rat intestinal epithelial cells. Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry 65:1441-1443.
  21. Mutata M, Ide T, Hara K. 1977. Reciprocal responses to dietary diacylglycerol of hepatic enzymes of fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in the rat. British Journal of Nutrition 77: 107-201.
  22. Nakanishi T, Oikawa D, Koutoku T, Hirakawa H, Kido Y, Tachibana T, Furuse M. 2004. $\gamma$-Linoleic acid prevents conjugated linoleic acid-induced fatty liver in mice. Nutrition 20:390-393.
  23. Navarro V, Macarulla MT, Fernandez-Quintela A, Rodriguez VM, Simon E, Portillo MP. 2007. Effects of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid on cholesterol metabolism in hypercholesterolaemic hamsters. European Journal of Nutrition 46:213-219.
  24. Noto A, Zahradka P, Yurkova N, Xie X, Nitschmann E, Ogborn M, Taylor CG. 2006. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces hepatic steatosis, improves liver function, and favorably modifies lipid metabolism in obese insulin-resistant rats. Lipids 41:179-188.
  25. Ota N, Soga S, Hase T, Tokimitsu I, Nurase T. 2007. Dietary diacylglycerol induces the regression of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Journal of Nutrition 137:1194-1197.
  26. Sakashita N, Miyazaki A, Takeya M, Horiuchi S, Chang CCY, Chang TY, Takahashi K. 2000. Acyl coenzyme A:cholesterol acyltransferase (ACAT) in macrophase-derived foam cells and its distribution in human organs. Acta Histochemica et Cytochemica 33:189-194.
  27. SAS Institute. 2000. SAS Statistics Software; release 8.2. Cary, N.C.
  28. Stein O, Stein Y. 1999. Atheroprotective mechanisms of HDL. Atherosclerosis 144:285-300.
  29. Tada N, Yoshida H. 2003. Diacylglycerol on lipid metabolism. Current Opinion in Lipidology 14:29-33.
  30. Takahashi Y, Kushiro M, Shinohara K, Ide T. 2003. Activity and mRNA levels of enzymes involved in hepatic fatty acid synthesis and oxidation in mice fed conjugated linoleic acid. Biochimica et Biophysica Acta 1631:265-273.
  31. Valeille K, Ferezou J, Amsler G, Quignard-Boulange A, Parquet M, Gripois D, Dorovska-Taran V, Martin JC. 2005. A cis-9,trans-11-conjugated linoleic acid-rich oil reduces the outcome of atherogenic process in hyperlipidemic hamster. American Journal of Physiology: Heart and Circulatory Physiology; 289:H652-659.
  32. Viswanadha S, McGilliard ML, Herbein JH. 2006. Desaturation indices in liver, muscle, and bone of growing male and female mice fed trans-10, cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid. Lipids 41:763-770.
  33. Vohl MC, Neville TAM, Kumarathasan R, Brashci S, Sparks DL. 1999. A novel lecithin-cholesterol acyltransferase antioxidant activity prevents the formation of oxidized lipids during lipoprotein oxidation. Biochemistry 38:5976-5981.
  34. Whigham LD, Watras AC, Schoeller, DA. 2007. Efficacy of conjugated linoleic acid for reducing fat mass: a meta-analysis in humans. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition 85:1203-1211.
  35. Wilson TA, Nicolosi RJ, Chrysam M, Kritchevsky D. 2000. Conjugated linoleic acid reduces early aortic atherosclerosis greater than linoleic acid in hypercholesterolemic hamsters. Nutrition Research 20:1795-1805