The Performance Analysis of Digital Watermarking based on Merging Techniques

  • Received : 2011.04.24
  • Accepted : 2011.08.02
  • Published : 2011.07.30


Even though algorithms for watermark embedding and extraction step are important issue for digital watermarking, watermark selection and post-processing can give us an opportunity to improve our algorithms and achieve higher performance. For this reason, we summarized the possibilities of improvements for digital watermarking by referring to the watermark merging techniques rather than embedding and extraction algorithms in this paper. We chose Cox's function as main embedding and extraction algorithm, and multiple barcode watermarks as a watermark. Each bit of the multiple copies of barcode watermark was embedded into a gray-scale image with Cox's embedding function. After extracting the numbers of watermark, we applied the watermark merging techniques; including the simple merging, N-step iterated merging, recover merging and combination of iterated-recover merging. Main consequence of our paper was the fact of finding out how multiple barcode watermarks and merging techniques can give us opportunities to improve the performance of algorithm.



Supported by : University of Ulsan


  1. A Primer on Electronic Document Security, Technical whitepaper
  2. C. I. Podilchuk and E. J. Delp, "Digital Watermarking: Algorithms and Applications," IEEE Signal Processing Magazine, July 2001
  3. Vidyasagar Potdar, Song Han, Elizabeth Chang and Chen Wu, "Subjective and Objective Watermark Detection using a Novel Approach Barcode Watermarking," Int'l Conference on Computational Intelligence and Security, pp. 1203- 1208, Nov 2006
  4. Mohammad Reza Soheili, "Redundant Watermarking Using Wavelet Packets," AICCSA 2008 proceedings, pp. 591-598, April
  5. Cox, J. Kilian, F. T. Leighton, and T. Shamoon, "Secure Spread Spectrum Watermarking for Multimedia," IEEE Trans. Image Processing, vol. 6, pp. 1673-1687, Dec. 1997
  6. I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and J. A. Bloom, "Digital Watermarking,"Morgan Kaufmann, 2001
  7. Batgerel Ariunzaya, Chu Hyung Suk, Kang Jung Sun and An Chong Koo, "Improved Triplet Based Quantization Watermarking for Gray-scale Image," ICICT2009, pp. 155 160, August 2009
  8. Kang Jung Sun, Batgerel Ariunzaya, Chu Hyung Suk, An Chong Koo, "Digital Image Watermarking Based on Exponential Form with Base of 2," ICICT 2009, pp. 172 177, August 2009
  9. Batgerel Ariunzaya, Master thesis on "Digital Image Watermarking for Copyright Protection of Electronic Publication," Feb 2010