Effect of Korean Red Ginseng Extract on Cell Death Responses in Peroxynitrite-Treated Keratinocytes

  • Kim, Hyoung-Do (Division of Biological Science, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Ha, Se-Eun (Division of Biological Science, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Kang, Jea-Ran (Division of Biological Science, Wonkwang University) ;
  • Park, Jong-Kun (Division of Biological Science, Wonkwang University)
  • Received : 2010.04.22
  • Accepted : 2010.05.27
  • Published : 2010.09.30


Korean red ginseng (KRG) has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we determined the effect of KRG on the responses of HaCaT cells to peroxynitrite ($ONOO^-$). Cells has been used worldwide as a traditional medicine for the treatment of various diseases, including cancer. In this study, we determined the effect of KRG on the responses of HaCaT cells to peroxynitrite ($ONOO^-$). Cells treated with $ONOO^-$ (2 mM) prior to incubation with control medium for 12 hours displayed reduced viability, as determined using the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assay (viability about 48% of that of non-treated control cells). When KRG was added to the post-incubation medium, the negative effects of $ONOO^-$ on cell viability were significantly reduced. Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis indicated that KRG alone did not significantly alter p53 or "growth arrest and DNA damage" (GADD)45 mRNA levels. However, the addition of KRG to the post-incubation medium significantly and dose-dependently reduced levels of p53 and GADD45 mRNA in $ONOO^-$-treated cells. Western blot analyses revealed that incubation with KRG decreased p53 and GADD45 protein levels in $ONOO^-$-treated cells, relative to those in cells incubated with control medium. Collectively, these results suggest that Korean red ginseng extract protects cells against $ONOO^-$-induced genotoxicity by increasing cell viability through modulating the expression of p53 signaling intermediates.



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