Antioxidant Activity of Gomchi (Ligularia fischeri) Leaves

  • Choi, Eun-Mi (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Ding, Van (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Nguyen, Huu Tung (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Park, Sang-Heock (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University) ;
  • Kim, Young-Ho (College of Pharmacy, Chungnam National University)
  • Published : 2007.10.31


Ligularia fischeri (LF) has been used to treat jaundice, scarlet-fever, rheumatoidal arthritis, and hepatic diseases. This study was carried out to determine the antioxidant activity of the extract from the leaves of LF by using various established in vitro systems with ${\alpha}$-tocopherol as positive control. The results showed that the ethanol extract of LF (0.05-0.5 mg/mL) displayed a strong free radical scavenging activity against 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl, ${O_2}^{{\cdot}-}$, and $H_2O_2$ radicals. It was observed that LF extract (1 mg/mL) significantly decreased the levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) to 69 and 89% of control, measured by ferric thiocyanate (FTC) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) test, respectively. LF extract (0.5-2 mg/mL) was also found to inhibit significantly the amount of malondialdehyde formed from liver homogenate to 69-56% of control. Similarly, in the high $Fe^{2+}/ascorbate$ induction system LF extract (1-2 mg/mL) inhibited carbonyl formation measured by 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine reaction to 89-79% of control. Like antioxidant activity, the reducing power of LF extract was excellent at concentration of 0.5-2 mg/mL. These results indicate that LF could be used as a potential source of natural antioxidant.



  1. Oh JH, Kim EO, Lee SK, Woo MH, Choi SW. Antioxidant activities of the ethanol extract of hamcho (Salicornia herbacea L.) cake prepared by enzymatic treatment. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 16: 90-98 (2007)
  2. Kim EO, Oh JH, Lee SK, Lee JY, Choi SW. Antioxidant properties and quantification of phenolic compounds from safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) seeds. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 16: 71-77 (2007)
  3. JH Choi, Nam JO, Kim JY, Kim JM, Paik HD, Kim CH. Antioxidant, antimicrobial, and antitumor activities of partially purified substance(s) from green tea seed. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 15: 672-676 (2006)
  4. David JM, Barreisors ALBS, David JP. Antioxidant phenylpropanoid esters of triterpenes from Dioclea lasiophylla. Pharm. Biol. 42: 36-38 (2004)
  5. Dasgupta N, De B. Antioxidant activity of Piper betle L. leaf extract in vitro. Food Chem. 88: 219-224 (2004)
  6. Choi JW, Park JK, Lee KT, Park KK, Kim WB, Lee JH, Jung HJ, Park HJ. Inhibitory effect of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis and its active component, 3,4-dicaffeoylquinic acid on the hepatic lipid peroxidation in acetaminophen-treated rat. Nat. Prod. Sci. 10: 182- 189 (2004)
  7. Park HJ, Kwon SH, Yoo KO, Sohn IC, Lee KT. Sesquiterpenes from the leaves of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis. Planta Med. 66: 783-784 (2000)
  8. Jeong SH, Koo SJ, Choi JH, Park JH, Ha JH, Park HJ, Lee KT. Intermedeol isolated from the leaves of Ligularia fischeri var. spiciformis induces the differentiation of human acute promyeocytic leukemia HL-60 cells. Planta Med. 68: 881-885 (2002)
  9. Shimada K, Fujikawa K, Yahara K, Nakamura T. Antioxidative properties of xanthan on the autoxidation of soybean oil in cyclodextrin emulsion. J. Agr. Food Chem. 40: 945-948 (1992)
  10. Fukuda Y, Nakata S. Effect of roasting temperature in sliced almonds and sesame seeds on the antioxidative activities. J. Jpn. Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 46: 786-791 (1999)
  11. Aruoma OI, Halliwell B, Hoey BM, Butler J. The antioxidative action of taurine, hypotaurine, and metabolic precursors. Biochem J. 256: 251-255 (1988)
  12. Osawa T, Namiki M. A novel type of antioxidant isolated from leaf wax of Eucalyptus leaves. Agr. Biol. Chem. Tokyo 45: 735-739 (1981)
  13. Kikuzaki H, Nakatani N. Antioxidant effects of some ginger constituents. J. Food Sci. 58: 1407-1410 (1993)
  14. Hong H, Johnson P. Antioxidant enzyme activities and lipid peroxidation levels in exercised and hypertensive rat tissues. Int. J. Biochem. Cell B 27: 923-931 (1995)
  15. Bishayee S, Balasubramanian AS. Assay of lipid peroxide formation. J. Neurochem. 18: 909-920 (1971)
  16. Ohkawa H, Ohishi N, Yagi K. Assay for lipid peroxides in animal tissues by thiobarbituric acid reaction. Anal. Biochem. 9: 351-358(1979)
  17. Gassen M, Glinka Y, Pinchasi B, Youdim MBH. Apomorphine is highly potent free-radical scavenger in rat brain mitochondial fraction. Eur. J. Pharmacol. 308: 219-225 (1996)
  18. Cao G, Cutler RG. Protein oxidation and aging. 1. Difficulties in measuring reactive protein carbonyls in tissues using 2,4-dinitrophenylhydrazine. Arch. Biochem. Biophys. 320: 106-114 (1995)
  19. Levine RL, Garland D, Oliver CN, Amici A, Climent I, Lenz AG, Ahn BW, Shaltiel S, Stadtman ER. Determination of carbonyl content in oxidatively modified proteins. Method Enzymol. 186: 464-478 (1990)
  20. Oyaizu M. Antioxidative activity of browning products of glucosamine fractionated by organic solvent and thin-layer chromatography. J. Jpn. Soc. Food Sci. Technol. 35: 771-775 (1986)
  21. Preieto P, Pineda M, Aguilar M. Spectrophotometric quantitation of antioxidant capacity through the formation of a phosphomolybdenum complex: specific application to the determination of vitamin E. Anal. Biochem. 269: 337-341 (1999)
  22. Zhishen J, Mengcheng T, Jianming W. The determination of flavonoid contents in mulberry and their scavenging effects on superoxide radicals. Food Chem. 64: 555-559 (1999)
  23. Amarowicz R, Naczk M, Shahidi F. Antioxidant activity of crude tannins of canola and rapeseed hulls. J. Am. Oil. Chem. Soc. 77: 951-961 (2000)
  24. Jawahar L, Gupta PC. Galactomannan from the seeds of Cassia fistula. Planta Med. 21: 70-77 (1972)
  25. Halliwell B, Gutteridge JMC. Role of free radicals and catalytic metal ions in human disease: an overview. Method Enzymol. 186: 1-85 (1990)
  26. Hansen E, Skibsted LH. Light-induced oxidative changes in a model dairy spread. Wavelength dependence of quantum yields. J. Agr. Food Chem. 48: 3090-3094 (2000)
  27. Dean RT, Gieseg S, Davies MJ. Reactive species and their accumulation on radical damaged proteins. Trends Biochem. Sci. 18: 437-441 (1993)
  28. Iwai K, Sato M, Matsue H. Relationship between antioxidant activity of commercial tea drinks by XYZ - dish method and their concentrations of catechins. Food Sci. Biotechnol. 10: 508-512 (2001)
  29. Pacifici RE, Davies KJ. Protein, lipid, and DNA repair systems in oxidative stress: the free-radical theory of aging revisited. Gerontology 37: 166-180 (1991)
  30. Samuni AM, Barenholz Y. Stable nitroxide radicals protect lipid acyl chains from radiation damage. Free Radical Bio. Med. 22: 1165-1174 (1997)
  31. Dean RT, Fu S, Stocker R, Davies MJ. Biochemistry and pathology of radical-mediated protein oxidation. Biochem. J. 324: 1-18 (1997)
  32. Stadtman ER, Levine RL. Protein oxidation. Ann. NY Acad. Sci. 899: 191-208 (2000)
  33. Diplock AT. Will the 'good fairies' please prove to us that vitamin E lessens human degenerative of disease? Free Radical Res. 27: 511- 532 (1997)
  34. Yildrim A, Oktay M, Bilaloglu V. the antioxidant activity of the leaves of Cydonia vulgaris. Turkish J. Med. Sci. 31: 23-27 (2001)
  35. Meir S, Kanner J, Akiri B, Hadas SP. Determination and involvement of aqueous reducing compounds in oxidative defense systems of various senescing leaves. J. Agr. Food Chem. 43: 1813-1817 (1995)
  36. Yen GC, Duh PD, Chuang DY. Antioxidant activity of anthraquinones and anthrone. Food Chem. 70: 437-441 (2000)
  37. Jeong SW, Kim EJ, Hwangbo HJ. Effects of Ligularia fischeri extracts on oxidation of low density lipoprotein. Korean J. Food Sci.Technol. 30: 1214-1221 (1998)
  38. Jadwiga R, Ryszard JG. Flavonoids are scavengers of superoxide anions. Biochem. Pharmacol. 37: 837-841 (1998)
  39. Yugari T, Tan BKH, Das NP. The effects of tannic acid on serum and liver lipids of RAIF and RICO rats fed high fat diet. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. 104: 339-343 (1993)
  40. Pietta PG. Flavonoid as antioxidants. J. Nat. Prod. 63: 1035-1042 (2000)
  41. Kanner J, Frankel E, Granit R, German B, Kinsella JE. Natural antioxidants in grapes and wines. J. Agr. Food Chem. 42: 64-69 (1994)