• Kim, Dae-Geun (Department of Civil & Environmental Engineering, Daebul University) ;
  • Seo, Il-Won (Department of Civil Engineering, Seoul National University)
  • Published : 2002.10.01


In this study, breakwater model which has several outlet pipes to discharge water is settled in the experimental open channel and mean velocity distributions of multi wall jet are measured. The length of flow of flow establishment of wall jet is shorter than that of free jet and decay rate of jet centerline longitudinal velocity along x is linear in 0.3 $\leq$ x/$\l_q$ $\leq$ 17. The rate of vertical width and lateral width spreading of multi wall jet is respectively 0.0753, 0.157~0.190.



  1. Bakke, P. (1957). 'Experimental investigation of wall jet.' J. of Fluid Mechnics, vol. 2, pp. 467-472
  2. Davis, M.R. and Winarto, H.(1980). 'Jet diffusion from a circular nozzle above a solid plane.' J. of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 101, pp. 201-221
  3. Fischer, H.B., List, E.J., Koh, R.C.Y., Imberger, J. and Brooks, N.H. (1979). Mixing in inland and coastal waters, ACADEMIC PRESS, INC.
  4. Glauert, M.B. (1956). 'The wall jet.' J. of Fluid mechanics, vol. 1, pp. 625-635
  5. Johnston, A.J. and Vloker, R.E. (1993). 'Round buoyant jet entering shallow water.' J. of hydraulic research, Vol. 31, No. 1, pp. 121-138
  6. Katz, Y, Horev, E., Wygnanski, I. (1992). 'The forced turbulent wall jet.' J. of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 242, pp. 577-609
  7. Launder, B.E. and Rodi, W. (1983). 'The turbulent wall jet - measurements and modeling.' Annual Reviews of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 15, pp. 429-459
  8. Newmann, B.G., Patel, R.P., Savage, S.B., and Tjio, H.K. (1972). 'Three dimensional wall jet originating from a circular orifice.' Aero quart., Vol. 23, pp. 188-200
  9. Rajaratnam, N. (1965). 'Submerged hydraulic jump.' J. of hydraulics div., ASCE, Vol. 91, HY4, pp. 71-96
  10. Rajaratnam, N. (1976). Turbulent jets. Elsevier Scientific Publishing Co.
  11. Rajaratnam, N. (1976). Humphries, J.A. (1983). 'Diffusion of bluff wall jets in finite depth tailwater.' J. of hydraulic eng. ASCE, Vol. 109, No. 11, pp. 1471-1486
  12. Schwarz, W.H. and Cosart, W.P. (1961). 'The two-dimensional turbulent wall-jet.' J. of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 10, pp. 481-495
  13. Wood, I.R., Bell, R.G., and Wilkinson, D.L. (1993). Ocean disposal of wastewater., World Scientific
  14. Wu, S. and Rajaratnam, N. (1995). 'Feee jumps, submerged jumps and wall jets.' J. of hydraulic research, Vol. 33, No. 2, pp. 197-212
  15. Wygnanski, I., Katz, Y., and Horev, E. (1992). 'On the application of various scaling laws to the turbulent wall jet.' J. of Fluid Mechanics, Vol. 234, pp. 669-690