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EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF PRESSURE FLUCTUATIONS ON THE BED OF FLIP BUCKET SPILLWAYS

  • KAVIANPOUR M.R.;POURHASAN M.A.
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.590-591
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    • 2005
  • Hydrodynamic pressure fluctuations and their roles on the design of hydraulic structures has been the subject of many investigations. The studies showed that turbulent pressure fluctuations may cause serious damages to hydraulic structures. In case of high velocity flows, separation of flow from the boundary also causes the local pressure to drop and as a result, the resultant pressure fluctuations may trigger cavitation. Sever hydrodynamic pressures are also associated with the vibration of structures. Therefore, in this work, experiments were performed to determine the intensity of pressure fluctuations and their distribution along the bed of a ski-jump flip bucket. Experiments were completed on a physical model at the Institution of Water Research of Iran. The results consist of the statistical characteristics of pressure fluctuations, its maximum, minimum, and r.m.s values along the bed of the bucket. The spectral analysis of pressure fluctuations which is useful for the instability analysis of such structures is also provided. It is hoped that the present results will help the designer of such structures.

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A Study on the comparison of models for teaching the concept of function (함수개념 지도를 위한 모델 비교 연구)

  • Heo, Hae-Ja;Kim, Jong-Myung;Kim, Dong-Won
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.97-118
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    • 2011
  • This study aimed finding effective models for the teaching the concept of function. We selected two models. One is discrete model which focuses on the 'corresponding relation of the elements of the sets(domain and range). The other is continuous model which focuses on the dependent relationship of the two variables connected in variable phenomenon. A vending machine model was used as a discrete model, and a water bucket model was used as a continuous model in our study. We taught 2 times about the concept of function using two models to the 60 students (7th grade, 2 classes) living in Taebak city, and tested it twice, after class and about 3 months later. A vending machine model was helpful in understanding the definition of function in the 7th grade math textbook. Also, it was helpful to making concept image and to recalling it. On the other hand, students who used the water bucket model had a difficultly in understanding the all independent variables of the domain corresponding to the dependent variables. But they excelled in tasks making formula expression and understanding changing situations.

Investigation on the Penetration Resistance of Suction Bucket Foundation in Sand using Model Test (모형실험을 통한 모래지반에서 석션버켓기초의 관입저항력 평가)

  • Kim, Keunsoo;Kwon, Osoon;Oh, Myounghak;Jang, Insung
    • Journal of the Korean GEO-environmental Society
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    • v.15 no.6
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    • pp.75-83
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    • 2014
  • Suction bucket foundation is installed with the differential pressure created by pumping water out of bucket. Bucket foundation has usually been utilized in mooring anchor for offshore platform or floating oil and gas production facilities in the open sea. After suction bucket foundation successfully was applied as the foundation for offshore wind turbines in Europe, it recently attracts much attention in Korea, too. To estimate the penetration resistance of the suction bucket foundation is one of the important matters that should be considered during its installation. This study carried out a series of model tests to investigate the penetration resistance of suction bucket foundation. And the mobilized soil strength factor was reviewed through comparing the experimental results by two installation ways (e.g., push-in-load and suction) and the results calculated by the conventional equation.

Evaluation of Soil Disturbance Due to Bucket Installation in Sand (모래지반에서 버켓기초 설치에 의한 지반교란 평가)

  • Kim, Jae-Hyun;Lee, Seung-Tae;Kim, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of the Korean Geotechnical Society
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.21-31
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    • 2018
  • Bucket foundations are widely used in offshore areas due to their various benefits such as easy and fast installations. A bucket is installed using self-weight and the hydraulic pressure difference across the lid generated by pumping out water from inside the bucket. When buckets are installed in high permeable soil such as sands, upward seepage flow occurs around the bucket tip and interior, leading to a decrease in the effective stress in the soil inside the buckets. This process reduces the penetration resistance of buckets. However, the soil inside and outside the bucket can be disturbed due to the upward seepage flow and this can change the soil properties around the bucket. Moreover, upward seepage flow can create significant soil plug heave, thereby hindering the penetration of the bucket to the target depth. Despite of these problems, soil disturbance and soil plug heave created by suction installation are not well understood. This study aims to investigate the behavior of soil during suction installation. To comprehend the phenomena of soil plug heave during installation, a series of small-scale model tests were conducted with different testing conditions. From a series of tests, the effects of tip thickness of bucket, penetration rate, and self-weight were identified. Finally, soil properties inside the bucket after installation were approximated from the measured soil plug heave.

Numerical simulation for unsteady flow over marine current turbine rotors

  • Hassanzadeh, A. Reza;Yaakob, Omar bin;Ahmed, Yasser M.;Ismail, M. Arif
    • Wind and Structures
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.301-311
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    • 2016
  • The numerous benefits of Savonius turbine such as simple in structure, has appropriate self-start ability, relatively low operating velocity, water acceptance from any direction and low environmental impact have generated interests among researchers. However, it suffers from a lower efficiency compared to other types of water turbine. To improve its performance, parameters such flow pattern, pressure and velocity in different conditions must be analyzed. For this purpose, a detailed description on the flow field of various types of Savonius rotors is required. This article presents a numerical study on a nonlinear two-dimensional flow over a classic Savonius type rotor and a Benesh type rotor. In this experiment, sliding mesh was used for solving the motion of the bucket. The unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier-Stokes equations were solved for velocity and pressure coupling by using the SIMPLE (Semi-Implicit Method for Pressure linked Equations) algorithm. Other than that, the turbulence model using $k-{\varepsilon}$ standard obtained good results. This simulation demonstrated the method of the flow field characteristics, the behavior of velocity vectors and pressure distribution contours in and around the areas of the bucket.

Verticality 3D Monitoring System for the Large Circular Steel Pipe (대형 원형강관 수직도 모니터링을 위한 3D 모니터링 시스템)

  • Koo, Sungmin;Park, Haeyoung;Oh, Myounghak;Baek, Seungjae
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.21 no.11
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    • pp.870-877
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    • 2020
  • A suction bucket foundation, especially useful at depths of more than 20m, is a method of construction. The method first places an empty upturned bucket at the target site. Then, the bucket is installed by sucking water or air into it to create negative pressure. For stability, it is crucial to secure the verticality of the bucket. However, inclination by the bucket may occur due to sea-bottom conditions. In general, a repeated intrusion-pulling method is used for securing verticality. However, it takes a long time to complete the job. In this paper, we propose a real-time suction bucket verticality monitoring system. Specifically, the system consists of a sensor unit that collects raw verticality data, a controller that processes the data and wirelessly transmits the information, and a display unit that shows verticality information of a circular steel pipe. The system is implemented using an inclination sensor and an embedded controller. Experimental results show that the proposed system can efficiently measure roll/pitch information with a 0.028% margin of error. Furthermore, we show that the system properly operates in a suction bucket-based model experiment.

Improvements to the Terrestrial Hydrologic Scheme in a Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer Model (토양-식생-대기 이송모형내의 육지수문모의 개선)

  • Choi, Hyun-Il;Jee, Hong-Kee;Kim, Eung-Seok
    • Proceedings of the Korea Water Resources Association Conference
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    • pp.529-534
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    • 2009
  • Climate models, both global and regional, have increased in sophistication and are being run at increasingly higher resolutions. The Land Surface Models (LSMs) coupled to these climate models have evolved from simple bucket models to sophisticated Soil-Vegetation-Atmosphere Transfer (SVAT) schemes needed to support complex linkages and processes. However, some underpinnings of terrestrial hydrologic parameterizations so crucial in the predictions of surface water and energy fluxes cause model errors that often manifest as non-linear drifts in the dynamic response of land surface processes. This requires the improved parameterizations of key processes for the terrestrial hydrologic scheme to improve the model predictability in surface water and energy fluxes. The Common Land Model (CLM), one of state-of-the-art LSMs, is the land component of the Community Climate System Model (CCSM). However, CLM also has energy and water biases resulting from deficiencies in some parameterizations related to hydrological processes. This research presents the implementation of a selected set of parameterizations and their effects on the runoff prediction. The modifications consist of new parameterizations for soil hydraulic conductivity, water table depth, frozen soil, soil water availability, and topographically controlled baseflow. The results from a set of offline simulations are compared with observed data to assess the performance of the new model. It is expected that the advanced terrestrial hydrologic scheme coupled to the current CLM can improve model predictability for better prediction of runoff that has a large impact on the surface water and energy balance crucial to climate variability and change studies.

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A Survey on the Machanization for Beef Cattle Farm in West Chung-Nam (충남 서부지역의 육우 축산 기계화 실태조사)

  • 이승기;권순홍
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.97-104
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    • 1998
  • In order to advise how to solve the problems and suggest on the mechanization of beef farm, the facilities and equipment for feeding and supplying water to the animals and transporting manure, and farm machineries of sixty-seven beef cattle farms in western Chungnam Province were surveyed. The results are as follows; 1. The proportions of number of heads per farm for above 70, 50∼70, 30∼50, 10∼30 and below 10 heads were 26, 18, 29, 13 and 13, respectively. The farms with the annual income more than 30 million won are consisted of 67.6% of the farms surveyed which showed to be higher than national average. 2. Only 19% of farms had automatic feeding system. Water was supplied by water cup(45%), opening and shutting water tab(27.6%) and bucket. 3. Cattle manure was transported by manpower (46%) by loader (34%) and by gravitational flow (14%). Most of manure(97%) was composted after treatment of drying or piling up outside. 4. More instruction and education were required because of the insufficient routine checking and fixing for farming machines, and unsystematic education for learning skills. 5. 65% of farms felt unsatisfied about after service(A/S) for their machinery. The main reason why the farmers were not satisfied was that it took too much time to be repaired. 6. When the farms purchased facilities, equipment and machinery, they did not analyze economic value of them and keep a diary. To make effective use of machines, the most available model for purchasing and managing of machines must be developed and applied to various scales of management.

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Hydrological Consequences of Converting Forestland to Coffee Plantations and Other Agriculture Crops on Sumber Jaya Watershed, West Lampung, Indonesia

  • Manik, Tumiar Katarina;Sidle, Roy Carl
    • Journal of Forest and Environmental Science
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    • v.34 no.4
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    • pp.293-303
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    • 2018
  • Sumber Jaya (54,194 hectares) is a district in West Lampung, Indonesia, located at the upper part of Tulang Bawang watershed. This watershed is one major water resource for Lampung Province, but has become a focal point of discussion because of the widespread conversion of forestland to coffee plantations and human settlements which lead to environmental and hydrological problems. This research aimed to evaluate Sumber Jaya watershed affecting by rapid land use change using hydrological methods as a base for watershed management. Nested catchment structure consisted of eight sub-catchments was employed in this research to assess scaling issues of land use change impacts on rainfall-runoff connections. Six tipping bucket rain gages were installed on the hill slopes of each sub-catchment and Parshall flumes were installed at the outlets of each sub-catchment to monitor stream flow. First, unit hydrograph that expressed the relationship of rainfall and runoff was computed using IHACRES model. Second, unit hydrograph was also constructed from observations of input and response during several significant storms with approximately equal duration. The result showed that most of the storm flow from these catchments consisted of slow flow. A maximum of about 50% of the effective rainfall became quick flow, and only less than 10% of remaining effective rainfall which was routed as slow flow contributed to hydrograph peaks; the rest was stored. Also, comparing peak responses and recession rates on the hydrograph, storm flow discharge was generally increased slowly on the rising limb and decreased rapidly on the falling limb. These responses indicated the soils in these catchments were still able to hold and store rain water.

Estimation of the Optimum Number of Machines and Equipments for Professional Dairy Farm (낙농 전업농의 기계장치 최적 규모 추정)

  • 유병기;이용범;장진택;이동현;권두중;기광석;성시흥;이대원
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.27-39
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    • 1996
  • A survey was conducted for dairy farmer to estimate the optimum number of machine and equipment in 1994. Labor hours, operation costs and operation methods for each dairy processing were investigated and analyzed for the farmers to find the expected numbers of machine and equipment on the basis of the desired farm scale. And also, the estimated models were compared and analyzed with the conventional models which more than half dairy farmers used bucket milker in tie stall barn. Some of the results are as follows : 1. Analysis results of conventional model showed that a dairy farm could raise to 15 heads of dairy cow with family labor of 1.5 men, labor hours of 2, 700 in you and total operation costs of 734 thousand won per head. 2. The result, used in conjunction with minimum operation costs in tie stall barn, showed that 28 dairy cows could be raised by using concentrates feeding by hoppers, water supply by water cups, milking by pipeline milker, and manure cleaning by barn cleaner with total operation costs of 520 thousands won per head. 3. The total operation costs of a loose barn system is higher than those of tie stall barn system to raise about 30 heads. For the loose barn system, the herringbone parlour was used for milking, concentrate feeding by automatic concentrate feeder, water supply by thermal insulation feeder, and manure cleaning by scraper with total operation costs of 582 thousands won per head every year.

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