• Title/Summary/Keyword: verapamil

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Effect of Naringin Pretreatment on Bioavailability of Verapamil in Rabbits

  • Yeum, Cheul-Ho;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.102-107
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    • 2006
  • The aim of present study is to investigate the effect of naringin on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil and its major metabolite, norverapamil in rabbits. The pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil and norverapamil were determined after administering verapamil (9 mg/kg) orally to rabbits in the pretreated with naringin (1.5, 7.5, and 15 mg/kg). Naringin pretreatment significantly altered the pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil. Compared with the control group (given verapamil alone), the $K_a,\;C_{max}$ and AUC of verapamil were significantly (p<0.05 or p<0.01) increased in the pretreatment of naringin, However there were no significant change in $T_{max}\;and\;t_{1/2}$ of verapamil. Consequently, pretreatment of naringin significantly (p<0.05, p<0.01) increased the AB% of verapamil significantly in a dose dependent manner (p<0.05 or p<0.01 ), and elevated the RB% of verapamil by 1.26- to 1.69-fold. the MR of verapamil were significantly (p<0.05) increased in the pretreatment of naringin, implying that pretreatment of naringin may effectively inhibit the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of verapamil. In conclusion, pretreatment of naringin enhanced the oral bioavailability of verapamil. Based on these results, the verapamil dosage should be adjusted when given with naringin or a naringin-containing dietary supplement.

Drug Interaction Between Verapamil and Pioglitazone Long-term Administered to Rats (흰쥐에서 베라파밀과 장기투여된 피오그리타존과의 약물상호작용)

  • Choi, Dong-Hyun;Kim, Hyun-Yong;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Pharmacy
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.6-10
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    • 2008
  • This study investigated the effect of long-term administration of pioglitazone on the pharmacokinetics of verapamil in rats. Pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil were determined after oral administration of verapamil (9 mg/kg) in rats coadministered pioglitazone (0.5 mg/kg) or pretreated with pioglitazone (0.5 mg/kg) for 3 and 9 days. Compared to oral control group, the presence of pioglitazone significantly (p<0.05) increased the area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) of verapamil by 48.6% (coad), 61.1% (3 days) and 56.5% (9 days), and the peak concentration($C_{max}$) by 65.1% (coad), 76.8% (3 days) and 66.4% (9 days). The absolute bioavailability (AB%) of verapamil was significantly (p<0.05) higher by 6.2% (coad), 6.7% (3 days), 6.5% (9 days) compared to control (4.2%), and presence of pioglitazone was no significant change in the terminal half-life ($t_{1/2}$) and the time to reach the peak concentration($T_{max}$) of verapamil. Our results indicate that pioglitazone significantly enhanced oral bioavailability of verapamil in rats, implying that presence of pioglitazone could be effective to inhibit the CYP3A4-mediated metabolism of verapamil in the intestine. Drug interactions should be considered in the clinical setting when verapamil is coadministrated with pioglitazone.

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Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Verapamil and Tamoxifen in Rats (베라파밀과 타목시펜의 약물동태학적 상호작용)

  • Seol, Hyo-Chan;Choi, Jun-Shik
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.380-385
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    • 2005
  • The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of verapamil on the pharmacokinetics of tamoxifen following oral administration of tamoxifen with verapamil to rats. Tamoxifen (10 mg/kg) was administered orally in the presence or absence of verapamil (1, 3 or 6 mg/kg). Compared to the control group (given tamoxifen alone), the presence of verapamil significantly (p<0.05 by 1 mg/kg, p<0.01 by 3 and 6 mg/kg) increased the areas under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak concentrations ($C_{max}$) of tamoxifen. Consequently, the relative bioavailability ($RB\%$) of tamoxifen with verapamil was 1.6-2.1 fold higher than that of the control. But the time to reach peak concentration ($T_{max}$) and the terminal half-life ($t_{1/2}$) of tamoxifen were not altered significantly in the presence of verapamil. The increased AUC and $C_{max}$ of tamox­ifen in the presence of verapamil might be associated with the inhibition by verapamil of the P-glycoprotein and the first­pass metabolizing enzyme CYP3A4 in small intestinal mucosa. The drug interaction should be taken into consideration when tamoxifen is used to the patient with verapamil in the clinical setting.

Pharmacokinetic Behavior and Tissue Distribution of Verapamil and Its Enantiomers in Rats by HPLC

  • He, Langchong;Wang, Sicen
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.26 no.9
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    • pp.763-767
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    • 2003
  • The differences in pharmacokinetic behavior and tissue distribution of verapamil and its enantiomers were investigated in rats. In high-performance liquid chromatographic method, an achiral ODS column (150 mm $\times$ 4.6 mm i.d.) with the mobile phase consisting of methanol-water (73:30, v/v) was used for the determination of the concentration for racemic verapamil, and a Chiralcel OJ column (250 mm$\times$4.6 mm i.d.) with the mixture of n-haxane-ethanol-triethylamine (85:15:0.2, v/v/v) as mobile phase was used to determine the concentrations of verapamil enantiomers. A fluorescence detector in the analytical system was set at excitation and emission wavelengths of 275 nm and 315 nm. The differences between enantiomers were apparent in the pharmacokinetics in rats. The area under the concentration-time curve (AUC) of S-(-) verapamil was higher than that of R-(+) verapamil. The half-distribution time ($T_{1/2(\alpha)}$) of S-(-) verapamil which distributing to tissue from blood was shorter than that of R-(+) verapamil, but the elimination half-time ($T_{1/2(\beta)}$) was longer in rat following oral administration of racemic verapamil. At 1.3 h after oral administration of racemic verapamil, however, there were no significant differences between enantiomers for the distributions in major tissues such as heart, cerebrum, cerebellum, liver, spleen and kidney.

Effect of Verapamil on Renal Function in Dog (Verapamil이 개의 신장기능에 미치는 영향)

  • 고석태;허영근
    • YAKHAK HOEJI
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 1991
  • Verapamil, $Ca^{2+}$-channel blocker, when given into vein or into carotid artery, produced the decrease of urine flow accompanied with the decreased amounts of Na$^{+}$ and $K^{+}$ excreted in urine ($E_{Na}, E_{K}$) and with the decreased clearances of free water (C$_{H_2O}$) and osmolar substance (C$_{osm}$), and then increased reabsorption of Na$^{+}$ and $K^{+}$ in renal tubules (R$_{Na}$, R$_{N}$), glomeruler filtration rate (GFR) and renal plasma flow (RPF) were inhibited when verapamil was given into carotid artery, but were only tendency of reduction when given intravenously. Verapamil, when infused into a renal artery, exhibited diuresis accompanied with the increased GER, RPF, E$_{Na}$ and E$_{K}$, with the decreased filtration fraction (FF) in only infused kidney. At the same time, $C_{H_2O}$ was not changed, R$_{Na}$ and R$_{K}$ were reduced. Antidiuretic action by verapamil administered into vein or into carotid artery in normal kidney was reversed to diuretic action in denervated kidney. At this time, parameters of renal function exhibited the opposite phenomena compared to that elicited by verapamil in normal kidney, wherease renal denervation did not influence the action of verapamil infused into a renal artery. Above results suggest that verapamil produce both antidiuresis through nervous system centrally, not endogenous substances and diuresis by direct action in the kidney. Diurectic action are caused by hemodynamic improvement through dilatioon of vas efferense and by greatly inhibited reabsorption of electrolytes in distal tubules.

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Experimental Study on the Myocardial Protective Effect of Verapamil Cardioplegia (Verapamil 심정지액의 심근보호효과에 관한 실험적 연구)

  • 박표원
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.217-224
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    • 1986
  • Using an isolated rat heart preparation under both aerobic and ischemic condition, we observed the myocardial protective effect of verapamil cardioplegia. Isolated working hearts were subjected to global ischemia at 25oC. Before ischemic arrest, rat hearts were treated with cold potassium cardioplegic solution [K=30 mEq/L] in control group and cold potassium cardioplegic solution added with verapamil [1 mg/L] in other group. After 30 min. of ischemia, hemodynamic parameters and creatine kinase leakage in coronary effluent were observed. Verapamil group exhibited greater percent of recovery in aortic pressure [p<0.01], aortic flow [p<0.01], and stroke volume [p<0.05]. Although there were no significant difference in creatine kinase leakage and the percent recovery of cardiac output between verapamil and control group, verapamil group showed better myocardial function. But the time to recover regular sinus rhythm was significantly [p<0.001] prolonged in verapamil group.

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Effects of Verapamil on Norepinephrine-, Phenylephrine- and Clonidine-induced Pressor Response in Rabbits and Rats (가토(家兎) 및 Rat에서 Norepinephrine, Phenylephrine 및 Clonidine의 승압반응(昇壓反應)에 대한 Verapamil의 영향(影響))

  • Shin, Dong-ho;Choi, Soo-hyung
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.28 no.1
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    • pp.29-36
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    • 1988
  • To examine the selectivity of verapamil, used in the cardiovascular diseases, on alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptor-induced pressor rsponses, effects of verapamil on alpha-adrenoceptor agonist-induced pressor responses were investigated in urethane-anesthetized rabbits, spinal rabbits, rats and pithed rats. To evaluate the effects of verapamil on each pressor response induced by norepinephrine, phenylephrine and clonidine, these agonists were previously injected into a ear vein, and then same procedures were performed 1~2 min after treatment with intravenous verapamil. The results are summarized as follows: 1. Intravenous verapamil produced dose-dependent depressor response in rabbits and rats. 2. Pressor responses to intravenous norepinephrine($10{\mu}g/kg$) and phenylphrine($30{\mu}g/kg$) were inhibited by pretreatment with intravenous verapamil in rabbits and no difference was noted between the degree of both inhibitions of the pressor response by verapamil. 3. Pressor responses to intravenous norepinephrine($3{\mu}g/kg$), phenylephrine($20{\mu}g/kg$) and clonidine ($300{\mu}g/kg$) were inhibited by pretreatment with intravenous verapamil in spinal rabbits. No difference was noted between the inhibition of norepinephrine-induced pressor response and that of phenylephrine-induced pressor response by verapamil. The inhibition of clonidine-induced pressor response by verapamil was more prominent than that of norepinephrine- or phenylephrine-induced pressor response. 4. Pressor responses to intravenous norepinephrine($3{\mu}g/kg$) and phenylephrine($10{\mu}g/kg$) were inhibited by pretreatment with intravenous verapairlil in rats and no difference was noted between the degree of both inhibitions of the pressor response by verapamil. 5. Pressor responses to intravenous norepinephrine ($3{\mu}g/kg$), phenylephrine($30{\mu}g/kg$) and clonidine($100{\mu}g/kg$) were inhibited by pretreatment with intravenous verapamil in pithed rats. No difference was noted between the inhibition of norepinephrine-induced pressor response and that of phenylephrine-induced pressor response by verapamil. The inhibition of clonidine-induced pressor response by verapamil was more prominent than that of norepinephrine- or phenylephrine-induced pressor response. These results suggest that verapamil significantly inhibits both pressor responses mediated by alpha-1 and alpha-2 adrenoceptors and the inhibition is greater in alpha-2 adrenoceptor-induced response than in alpha-1 adrenoceptor-induced one, and calcium channel takes part in the process of the pressor response mediated by alpha-1 adrenoceptors as well as alpha-2 adrenoceptors.

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Protective Effects of Verapamil against H2O2-Induced Apoptosis in Human Lens Epithelial Cells

  • Wang, Zhuo;Wang, Dan;Li, Yan;Zhang, Xiuli
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.553-557
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    • 2014
  • Verapamil is used in the treatment of hypertension, angina pectoris, and atrial fibrillation. Recently, several studies have demonstrated that verapamil increased the optic nerve head blood flow and improved the retrobulbar circulation. All these show that verapamil is potentially useful for ophthalmic treatment. Thus, the aim of this study is to investigate whether verapamil could protect human lens epithelial cell (HLEC) from oxidative stress induced by $H_2O_2$ and the cellular mechanism underlying this protective function. The viability of HLEC was determined by the MTT assay and apoptotic cell death was analyzed by Hoechst 33258 staining. Moreover, Caspase-3 expression was detected by immunocytochemistry and flow cytometry analysis. We also detected Caspase-3 mRNA expression by reverse-transcription-polymerase chain reaction and the GSH content in cell culture. The results showed that oxidative stress produced significant cell apoptotic death and it was reduced by previous treatment with the verapamil. Verapamil was effective in reducing HLEC death mainly through reducing the expression level of apoptosis-related proteins, caspase-3, and increasing glutathione content. Therefore, it was suggested that verapamil was effective in reducing HLEC apoptosis induced by $H_2O_2$.

Pharmacokinetic Interaction between Verapamil and Quercetin in Rabbits (베라파밀과 퀠세틴의 토끼에서의 약물동태학적 상호작용)

  • Choi, Jun-Shik;Burm, Jin-Pil
    • Journal of Pharmaceutical Investigation
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    • v.34 no.1
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    • pp.15-21
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    • 2004
  • The pharmacokinetics of orally administered verapamil (10 mg/kg) was studied in six rabbits after 20 min pretreatment with quercetin ad coadministration of quercetin (2.0 mg/kg, 1 mg/g and 20 mg/kg, respectively). Pretreatment with quercetin significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increased the plasma concentration of verapamil. However, coadministration of quercetin showed no significantly effect on the pharmacokinetic parameters of verapamil. The elimination rate constant $(K_{el})$ of verapamil pretreated with quercetin (1 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) was significantly (p < 0.05) reduced compared with control. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC) and the peak concentration $(C_{max})$ of verapamil pretreated with quercetin (2.0 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) were increased significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) compared with control. Pretreatment with quercetin (2.0 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) significantly (p < 0.01, p < 0.05) increased the relative bioavailability of verapamil to 159 - 219%. These results suggest that quercetin alters disposition of verapamil by inhibition of P-glycoprotein efflux pump and its first-pass metabolism. The dosage of verapamil should be adjusted when it is administered chronically with quercetin in a clinical situation.

Effect of Verapamil on Cellular Uptake of Tc-99m MIBI and Tetrofosmin on Several Cancer Cells (수종의 암세포에서 Verapamil이 Tc-99m MIBI와 Tetrofosmin의 섭취에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Dae-Hyun;Yoo, Jung-Ah;Suh, Myung-Rang;Bae, Jin-Ho;Jeong, Shin-Young;Ahn, Byeong-Cheol;Lee, Kyu-Bo;Lee, Jae-Tae
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.38 no.1
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    • pp.85-98
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    • 2004
  • Purpose: Cellular uptake of $^{99}mTc$-sestamibi (MIBI) and $^{99}mTc$-tetrofosmin (TF) is low in cancer cells expressing multidrug resistance(MDR) by p-glycoprotein(Pgp) or multidrug related protein(MRP). Verapamil is known to increase cellular uptake of MIBI in MDR cancer cells, but is recently reported to have different effects on tracer uptake in certain cancer cells. This study was prepared to evaluate effects of verapamil on cellular uptake of MIBI and TF in several cancer cells. Materials and Methods: Celluar uptakes of Tc-99m MIBI and TF were measured in erythroleukermia K562 cell, breast cancer MCF7 cell, and human ovarian cancer SK-OV-3 cells, and data were compared with those of doxorubicin-resistant K562(Ad) cells. RT-PCR and Western blot analysis were used for the detection of mdr1 mRNA and Pgp expression, and to observe changes in isotypes of PKC enzyme. Effects of verapamil on MIBI and TF uptake were evaluated at different concentrations upto $200{\mu}M\;at\;1{\times}10^6\;cells/ml\;at\;37^{\circ}C$. Radioactivity in supernatant and pellet was measured with gamma counter to calculate cellular uptake ratio. Toxicity of verapamil was measured with MTT assay. Results: Cellular uptakes of MIBI and TF were increased by time in four cancer cells studied. Co-incubation with verapamil resulted in an increase in uptake of MIBI and TF in K562(Adr) cell at a concentration of $100{\mu}M$ and the maximal increase at $50{\mu}M$ was 10-times to baseline. In contrast, uptakes of MIBI and TF in K562, MCF7, SK-OV3 cells were decreased with verapamil treatment at a concentration over $1{\mu}M$. With a concentration of $200{\mu}M$ verapamil, MIBI and TF uptakes un K562 cells were decreased to 1.5 % and 2.7% of those without verapamil, respectively. Cellular uptakes of MIBI and TF in MCF7 and SK-OV-3 cells were not changed with $10{\mu}M$, but were also decreased with verapamil higher than $10{\mu}M$, resulting 40% and 5% of baseline at $50{\mu}M$. MTT assay of four cells revealed that K562, MCF7, SK-OV3 were not damaged with verapamil at $200{\mu}M$. Conclusion: Although verapamil increases uptake of MIBI and TF in MDR cancer cells, cellular uptakes were further decreased with verapamil in certain cancer cells, which is not related to cytotoxicity of drug. These results suggest that cellular uptakes of both tracers might differ among different cells, and interpretation of changes in tracer uptake with verapamil in vitro should be different when different cell lines are used.