• Title/Summary/Keyword: soil characteristics

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Pine Forest Soil Characteristics and Major Soil Impact Factors for Natural Regeneration

  • Kim, Min-Suk;Kim, Yong-Suk;Min, Hyun-Gi;Kim, Jeong-Gyu;Koo, Namin
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.50 no.3
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    • pp.179-186
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    • 2017
  • This study was conducted to identify characteristics of domestic pine forest soils and to elucidate major soil influencing factors for natural regeneration. We analyzed the physico-chemical characteristics of the soil samples collected from 23 pine forests and confirmed the similar results with the forest soil characteristics. Soil pH, organic matter content, total nitrogen, exchangeable Ca, silt content, and exchangeable Al were selected as the major soil factors among the exposed soils through 10 days of pine seedlings exposure and cultivation experiments and statistical analysis. Multiple regression analysis showed that soil pH had a positive effect on specific root length (SRL) of red pine seedlings and exchangeable Al was a significant factor affecting negative change in SRL. Taken together, the reduction of exchangeable Al by soil pH adjustment would be helpful for natural regeneration by restoring the forest and improving the fine root and root integrity of pine seedlings. Therefore, soil pH and exchangeable Al could be recommended as a major soil factor to be carefully considered in the monitoring and management of soil in pine forests that need to be renewed in the future.

Effects of Fly Ash Supplementation on the Corn, Rye and Alfalfa Yields by Fertilization of Livestock Waste Composting (석탄회 처리 가축분뇨 퇴비가 옥수수, 호맥 및 알팔파의 생산성에 미치는 영향)

  • 고영두;김재황;김두환;유성오;고병구;이수칠;이종찬;김삼철
    • Journal of Animal Environmental Science
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.63-72
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    • 1999
  • This study was carried out to improve utilization of fly ash. Each animal waste was mixed with fly ash and composted This compost used at forage crops with corn, rye and alfalfa to examine to examine the fertilized efficiency and investigated productivity of forage crops, composition of this copmost and effect of fly ash on soil characteristics and composition. Content of organic matte, P2O5, K2O, CaO, MgO, Mn and B at the soil, which is given fly ash, increased. After the test crops were harvested, pH of the soil was maintained about 7 and contents of organic matter, phosphoric aicd, K, Mg, and B was increased at the soil of used fly ash. As fly ash was mixed, each DM yield of corn and rye was increased 10∼13% and 14∼21% especially alfalfa was increased 35% at the soil which is mixed fly ash with cage layer manure. As fly ash was mixed, each Crude protein (CP) of corn and rye was increased 6∼17% and about 29%, especially, as fly and cage layer manure was mixed CP of alfalfa was increased 33%. In conclusion, as fly ash is mixed with anlmal waste and use at forage crops, It makes the soil good and improve the productivity of forage crops.

The Physico-chemical Properties of the Soil at the Grounds of Replanted Zelkova serrata (Thunberg) Markino in Reclaimed Land from the Sea, Gwangyang Bay (광양만 바다 준설 매립지 느티나무의 식재 지반별 토양 이화학적 특성)

  • 김도균;박종민
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.31 no.6
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    • pp.85-94
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    • 2004
  • This study was carried out to analyze physicochemical properties according to the soil height and to the six types of sites that were used as planting ground in the reclaimed land from the sea, Gwangyang Bay. The physicochemical properties of the soil types were tested by t-test(p<0.01, 0.05), at each of the 6 planting ground sites(p<0.01, 0.05), and at each height(p<0.01) of the planting grounds. These areas were tested by ANOVA and were significantly different. Improved soil was better than reclaimed soil from the sea for Zelkova growth because the improved soil contained lower amounts of pH, ECe, N $a^{+}$, $Ca^{++}$, $Mg^{++}$ SAR. Due to freedom from variables such as salt content in the underground as well as the physical and chemical disturbance of the soil, favorable planting ground for tree growth was recorded at the higher grounds than at the lower ones. Soil detriment to the tree growth in the studied sites included elements such as soil hardness, and the distribution of sodium in the tree root systems. The planting grounds for the favorable growth of landscape trees were determined in the following order: the grounds of mounding> the coved ground of improved soil, and the filled ground of improved soil.l.l.l.

The Vegetation, Soil Characteristics, and Soil Microarthropods of Maebongsan Urban Forest in Cheongju-si, Korea (청주시 매봉산 도시림의 식생, 토양특성 및 토양미소절지동물상 분석)

  • Kim, Heung-Tae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Environmental Restoration Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.1-17
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    • 2016
  • The study was aimed to understand the ecological status of the Maebongsan urban forest in Cheongju-si through investigating the vegetation, soil characteristics, and soil microarthropods. Phytosociological analysis for twenty plots revealed that the plant communities were classified into Pinus rigida community, Robinia pseudoacacia community, Castanea crenata community, Quercus acutissima community, Pinus strobus community, Pinus koraiensis community, and Larix kaempferi community. The importance value showed that afforestation tree species like Castanea crenata, Robinia pseudoacacia, and Pinus rigida dominate the urban forest. DBH analysis indicated that although the plant communities seem to be under the succession to Quercus forest, the dominance of Castanea crenata and Robinia pseudoacacia might still persist for several more decades. The properties of soils from the plant communities showed that loamy sand and sandy loam in soil texture, low organic matters, and severe acidification. The abundance of soil microarthropods were not different among the plant communities except Castanea crenata community and Pinus koraiensis community. The two communities showed especially low abundance of collembola and acarina. Thus, we can say that Castanea crenata community and Pinus koraiensis community seem to have been influenced strongly by anthropogenic activities.

An Analysis of Riparian Vegetation Distribution Based on Physical Soil Characteristics and Soil Moisture Content -Focused on the Relationship between Soil Characteristics and Vegetation- (토양의 물리적 특성 및 수분조건에 다른 하반식물의 분포 -토양환경과 식생과의 관계를 중심으로-)

  • 안홍규
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.28 no.5
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    • pp.39-47
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    • 2000
  • This study is to investigate the conditions closely related to the establishment of vegetation in the riparian zone: the soil condition, an important factor along with climate and light. Especially, the soil structure of the microtopographical formations in the specific area known as the riparian microtopographical zone investigated. In addition, the effect of the riparian microtopographical features on the ground water level, soil moisture content, and vegetation was studied. The results of this study are as follows; 1) At all sample sites, below the sand layer, a gravel layer is always present. This is the result of past floods. 2) Although Salix koreensis experiences frequent disturbances such as increase in river level and floods, this vegetation establishes itself in the most secure are in the microtopographical zone. 3) The growth of Phragmites japonica is closely related to the underground water level. 4) It is clear that Miscanthus sacchariflorus grows concentrated in dry areas. 5) The soil accumulation conditions differ according to the soil moisture content of each microtopgraphical feature. Accordingly, the moisture content of the soil is clearly different within the microtopographical zone. The continuous and long-term investigation and research on the relation of riparian reproduction and the relevance with location surrounding factors are necessary in the future.

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Cover Crop Effects of Winter Rye (Secale cereale L.) on Soil Characteristics and Conservation in Potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) Slope Field (경사밭 감자(Solanum tuberosum L.) 재배 시 휴한기 호밀(Secale cereal L.) 재배에 따른 토양 특성 및 토양 보전 효과)

  • Bak, Gyeryeong;Lee, Jeong-Tae
    • Journal of Environmental Science International
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    • v.30 no.12
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    • pp.1015-1025
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    • 2021
  • Our research work aimed to evaluate cover crop effects of winter rye on soil characteristics, soil conservation, and yield productivities on potato fields with 15% slope during a fallowed period. There were two controls of bared field without any cultivation and conventional potato cultivation without winter rye. Potato cultivation increased soil pH, organic matter, available phosphate, and exchangeable cation regardless of cover crop cultivation. Sub-soil, particularly, all components of soil chemical properties showed higher value in winter rye cultivation than conventional cultivation. Higher soil density was observed on cover crop cultivation than conventional cultivation resulting from root residues of the cover crop both topsoil and subsoil. Cover crop residues positively affected plant growth and reduced the amount of soil erosion by holding the soil. Although severe soil erosion was seen in conventional cultivation, winter rye cultivation declined soil erosion by 47% during the fallow period on potato slope fields. Distinct soil bacterial communities were detected among treatments and some OTU(Operational Taxonomic Unit)s showed significantly higher abundance in winter rye treatment. Total yield and commercial rate demonstrated no significant differences while higher tuber phosphate, K+, and Mg2+ contents were observed in winter rye cultivation.

Effect of Barley Mixtures on Forage Production and Soil Characteristics in Dry Riverbed of Ansancheon (안산천에서 청보리 혼파조합이 사초 생산성과 토양 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Ko, Ki-Hwan;Kwon, Chan-Ho
    • Korean Journal of Organic Agriculture
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.701-710
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    • 2013
  • This experiment was carried out to determine the forage production and soil characteristics in mixtures of barley and annual legumes at riverbed. The dry matter (DM) and total digestible nutrients (TDN) in barley and hairy vetch mixture were higher compared to other mixtures. Barley, single cropping was the highest in DM content. Comparing different mixtures, barley and crimson clover mixture was higher than other mixtures in DM contest. The crude protein (CP) content of barely and hairy vetch mixture was highest, but ether extract (EE) and TDN contents were lower than other mixtures. Barely and hairy vetch mixture significantly removed organic matter and phosphorus from riverbed through forage production (P<0.05). The total nitrogen (TN) of barley and hairy vetch mixture was highest because of high nitrogen fixation in riverbed soil. Single barley was highest in organic matter (OM) of soil. Comparing different mixtures, barley and crimson clover mixture was higher than other mixtures in OM contest. The available P2O5 of soil in barley and crimson clover mixture and barley and rape mixture were higher than others, and that of barley and hairy vetch was lower than other mixtures. The barely and hairy vetch mixture was highest in cation exchange capacity (CEC) content. Therefore barley and hairy vetch mixture is more suitable in forage mixtures because of high forage production and protein, and reduction of soil phosphorus in riverbed.

Effect of Tillage System on the Forage Production and Soil Characteristics of Silage Corn (경운방법이 사일리지용 옥수수의 사초생산성 및 토양특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, Jong-Duk;Kwon, Chan-Ho;Gu, Yang-Hae;Shin, Mung-Su
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.28 no.4
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    • pp.307-314
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    • 2008
  • No comprehensive tillage system of corn (Zea mays L.) has been conducted in Korea. Therefore, this experiment was carried to determine soil characteristics, weed and forage production in tillage system of corn. Plot was allotted to one of four treatments in a randomized block design using tillage system. The four treatments were (T1) conventional tillage, plow and rotary till, (T2) rotary till, (T3) disk till, and (T4) no-till system. In soil characteristics before planting and after harvest of corn, pH and organic matter at planting date was higher than at harvest date, however, there were no difference among tillage system. Days from planting to silking of no-till was the longest among tillage system. Lodging resistance of disk and no-till were higher than conventional and rotary till due to its thicken stem diameter. Main weed in corn field are barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgall), velvetleaf(Abutilon avicennae), crabgrass (Digitatia saguinalis), and redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus). Weed population was lower in no-till than others tillage system. Dry matter (DM) content and ear percentage of conventional and rotary till were higher than others in corn field. However, DM and total digestible nutrients (TDN) yields of disk and no-till were higher than those of conventional and rotary till. Therefore, disk and no-till are more suitable in corn silage system because of high lodging resistance and forage yield, and low weed population.

Investigation of Soil Characteristics and Landslides Probability in East Island of Dok-Do (독도 동도지역의 토질특성 및 산사태가능성 조사)

  • Song, Young-Suk;Chae, Byung-Gon;Cho, Yong-Chan;Lee, Choon-Oh
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.665-671
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    • 2007
  • In this study, the soil characteristics and the landslide probability are investigated in East Island of Dok-do. The distribution and depth of soil layer were investigated and the soil samples were taken from the soil layer in East Island. As the results of field investigation, the soil layer was partly distributed in specific location and the soil depth was ranged from 1cm to 50cm. Also, the soil depth was mainly ranged about 10cm in the large part of soil layer. The soils were classed as the weathered residual soils and involved many organic contents such as rotten roots and leaves. The average of water contents is 23.2%, and the average of liquid limits is 42.2%. Also, the soils is non-plastic condition. Also, the soils were mainly classed as the poor graded sand including loam contents. Meanwhile, the landslide probability was investigated through a survey of the soil layer distribution in East Island. The soil depth was very shallow in the large part of the soil layer, and the distribution area of soil layer was small. Therefore, it may predict that the landslide probability is very low due to the dissatisfaction of landslide occurrence condition.

Soil Characteristics according to the Geological Condition of Natural Slopes in Busan Area (부산지역 자연사면의 지질조건에 따른 토질특성)

  • Kim, Kyeong-Su
    • The Journal of Engineering Geology
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.471-481
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    • 2007
  • The Landslide in natural slope is occurred mostly by a heavy rain of the summer. This landslide is influenced in soil property of the surface than the rock mass. Soils in natural slope are created by weathering phenomena of the bedrock. These soils differed to the geological conditions such as sedimentary rock, metamorphic rock and volcanic rock. Therefore, estimation of landslide in natural slope is the most important analysis of the bedrock distributions and soil characteristics. This study analyzed the soil property to the natural slopes of Busan area where is distributed to volcanic rock, granite and sedimentary rock. Soil sample conducted various soil tests for estimate the soil physical property and soil engineering characteristics, and analysis of the correlation of geological conditions. In the experiment result, soils were mainly classified by a clayey sand. It is also established that $1.07{\sim}1.99kg/cm^3$ for wet density, $28.2{\sim}39.6^{\circ}$ for angle of shearing resistance, and $8.10{\times}10^{-5}{\sim}8.38{\times}10^{-2}cm/sec$ for coefficient of permeability. From the physical parameter, the soils are estimated to the permeable ground with good shear strength, and soil properties are showed a differential tendency for each geological condition.