• Title/Summary/Keyword: protein kinase C

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Antagonists of NMDA Receptor, Calcium Channel and Protein Kinase C Potentiate Inhibitory Action of Morphine on Responses of Rat Dorsal Horn Neuron

  • Shin, Hong-Kee;Kim, Yeon-Suk;Jun, Jong-Hun;Lee, Seo-Eun;Kim, Jae-Hwa
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.7 no.5
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    • pp.251-254
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    • 2003
  • The present study was designed to examine whether the co-application of morphine with $Ca^{2+}$ channel antagonist $(Mn^{2+},\;verapamil)$, N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist (2-amino-5-phosphonopentanoic acid$[AP_5]$, $Mg^{2+}$) or protein kinase C inhibitor (H-7) causes the potentiation of morphine-induced antinociceptive action by using an in vivo electrophysiological technique. A single iontophoretic application of morphine or an antagonist alone induced weak inhibition of wide dynamic range (WDR) cell responses to iontophoretically applied NMDA and C-fiber stimulation. Although there was a little difference in the potentiating effects, the antinociceptive action of morphine was potentiated when morphine was iontophoretically applied together with $Mn^{2+}$, verapamil, $AP_5$, $Mg^{2+}$ or H-7. However, the potentiating action between morphine and each antagonist was not apparent, when the antinociceptive action evoked by morphine or the antagonist alone was too strong. These results suggest that the potentiating effect can be caused by the interaction between morphine and each antagonist in the spinal dorsal horn.

Protein Kinase C-delta Stimulates Haptoglobin Secretion

  • Oh, Mi-Kyung;Park, Seon-Joo;Kim, Nam-Hoon;Kim, In-Sook
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.130-134
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    • 2007
  • Haptoglobin (Hp) is a glycoprotein that is produced by hepatic cells and secreted into the circulation. While studying the physiologic functions of Hp, we found that Hp synthesized in THP-1 monocytic cells was largely retained within cells, although Hp is considered a secretory protein. To investigate the molecular mechanism on Hp secretion in THP-1 cells, in the present study, we examined the effect of protein kinase C (PKC) on Hp secretion. When several inhibitors of PKC isoforms were tested, only Rottlerin, a specific inhibitor of PKC-$\delta$, completely blocked Hp secretion from cells to culture medium. To confirm the role of PKC-$\delta$ in Hp secretion, Hp-overexpressing COS7 cells were transiently transfected with a wild-type or a dominantnegative mutant of the PKC-$\delta$ gene. Mutant PKC-$\delta$ significantly inhibited Hp secretion, whereas the wild-type gene slightly increased Hp secretion. These results demonstrate that the PKC-$\delta$ signal is involved in Hp secretion.

Lysophosphatidylcholine Enhances Chondrogenesis by the Modulation of Protein Kinase C Isoform Expression

  • Lee, Sun-Ryung;Lee, Young-Sup;Chun, Jang-Soo;Sonn, Jong-Kyoung;Kang, Shin-Sung
    • Animal cells and systems
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.229-232
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    • 1998
  • Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) has been reported to be responsible for the sustained activation of protein kinase C (PKC). As chondroqenesis is known to be regulated by PKC, this study was performed to investigate the effects of LPC on chondrogenesis of chick limb bud mesenchymes in vitro. LPC treatment of mesenchymes during micromass culture significantly enhanced chondrogenic differentiation. The most effective time of LPC on the stimulation of chondrogenesis was the first day of micromass culture. Analysis of LPC effects on the expression of PKC isoforms revealed that LPC treatment increased expression of PKCa, among the multiple PKC isoforms, in the membrane fraction on day one of culture. The stimulatory effect of LPC on chondrogenesis was abolished if PKCa was down regulated by the prolonged treatment of cells with phorbol ester. The results suqqest that LPC promotes chondrogenesis through the activation of PKCa at the early stage of chondrogenic differentiation.

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Identification of Phosphatidylcholine-Phospholipase D and Activation Mechanisms in Rabbit Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

  • Chung, Jin-Ho;Chae, Joo-Byung;Chung, Sung-Hyun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.11-16
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    • 1996
  • The present study showed that receptor-mediated activation of rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells by angiotensin II, the $Ca^{2+}$ ionophore A23187, or the protein kinase C activator phorbol myristate acetate (PMA) all stimulated phospholipase D (PLD). This was demonstrated by the increased formation of phosphatidic acid, and in the presence of 0.5% ethanol, phosphatidylethanol (PEt) accumulation. Angiotensin II leads to a rapid increase in phosphatidic acid and diacylglycerol, and phosphatidic acid formation preceeded the formation of diacylglycerol. This result suggests that some phosphatidic acid seems to be formed directly from phosphatidylcholine hydrolyzed by Pill. On the other hand, EGTA substantially attenuated angiotensin II and A23187-induced PEt formation, and when the cells were pretreated with verapamil angiotensin II-induced Pill activation was completely abolished. These results provide the evidence that calcium ion influx is essential for the agonist-induced Pill activation. In addition, staurosporine, an inhibitor of protein kinase C, strongly inhibited PMA-induced PEt formation, but was ineffective on angiotensin II-induced PEt accumulation. $GTP{\gamma}S$ also stimulates PEt formation in digitonin-permeabilized cells, but pretreatment of the cells with pertussis toxin failed to suppress angiotensin II-induced PEt formation. From these results, we conclude that in the rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells the mechanisms of angiotensin II- and PMA-induced Pill activation are different from each other and mediated via a pertussis toxin-insensitive trimeric G protein.

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Brazilin Inhibits Activities of Protein Kinase C and Insulin Receptor Serine Kinase in Rat Liver

  • Kim, Seong-Gon;Kim, You-Me;Khil, Lee-Yong;Jeon, Sun-Duck;So, Dhong-Su;Moon, Chang-Hyun;Moon, Chang-Kiu
    • Archives of Pharmacal Research
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    • v.21 no.2
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    • pp.140-146
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    • 1998
  • Hypoglycemic action of brazilin was found to be based on the improvement of peripheral glucose utility, and this action might be correlated with the insulin action pathway. In the present study we investigated the effect of brazilin on the insulin receptor autophosphorylation, protein kinase C (PKC), protein phosphatase and insulin receptor serine kinase in order to confirm whether the hypoglycemic mechanism is concerned with insulin action pathway. Brazilin was found to inhibit PKC and insulin receptor serine kinase, which are involved in the regulation of insulin signal pathway. But any significant effect was not shown on insulin receptor tyrosine kinase activity, autophosphorylation and phosphatase activity. These findings suggest that brazilin might enhance insulin receptor function by decreasing serine phosphorylation, which might mediate hypoglycemic effect of brazilin.

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Bradykinin-Mediated Stimulation of Phospholipase D in Rabbit Kidney Proximal Tubule Cells

  • Park, Kyung-Hyup;Jung, Jee-Chang;Chung, Sung-Hyun
    • Biomolecules & Therapeutics
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 1994
  • The present study was undertaken to demonstrate whether or not bradykinin activates a phospholipase D in rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells. By measuring the formation of [$^3$H]phosphatidic acid and [$^3$H]phosphatidylethanol we could elucidate the direct stimulation of phospholipase D by bradykinin. Bradykinin leads to a rapid increase in [$^3$H]phosphatidic acid and [$^3$H]diacylglycerol, and [$^3$H]phosphatidic acid formation preceded the formation of [$^3$H]diacylglycerol. This result suggests that some phosphatidic acid seems to be formed directly from phosphatidylcholine by the action of phospholipase D, not from diacylglycerol by the action of diacylglycerol kinase. In addition, the other mechanisms by which phospholipase D is activated was examined. We have found that phospholipase D was activated and regulated by extracellular calcium ion and pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein, respectively. It has also been shown that bradykinin may activate phospholipase D through protein kinase C-dependent pathway. In conclusion, we are now, for the first time, strongly suggesting that bradykinin-induced activation of phospholipase D in the rabbit kidney proximal tubule cells is mediated by a pertussis toxin-insensitive G protein and is dependent of protein kinase C.

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Phosphorylation of a 66 kDa Protein, a Putative Protein Kinase C Substrate, is Related to Chondrogenesis of Chick Embryo Mesenchymes In Vitro

  • Lee, Sun-Ryung;Sonn, Jong-Kyung;Yoo, Byung-Je;Lim, Young-Bin;Kang, Shin-Sung
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.350-354
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    • 1998
  • To understand the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the regulation of chondrogenesis, we examined proteins which are phosphorylated by PKC. Stage 23/24 chick embryo wing mesenchymes were micromass-cultured to induce chondrogenesis and cell extracts were phosphorylated in a condition that activates PKC. Several proteins including 63 and 66 kDa proteins were phosphorylated. The 66 kDa protein was phosphorylated only in the presence of phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA) and phosphatidylserine CPS), and the phosphorylation was almost completely diminished by bisindolylmaleimide, a PKC inhibitor. In addition, partially purified PKC increased the phosphorylation of the 66 kDa protein. Treatment of cultures with lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) promoted chondrogenesis and phosphorylation of 66 kDa protein, while PMA and thymeleatoxin inhibited both of the two events. Our results suggest that the 66 kDa protein is a putative substrate of PKC, and phosphorylation of the 66 kDa protein, probably by $PKC\alpha$ is required for chondrogenesis.

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Endosulfan Induces CYP1A1 Expression Mediated through Aryl Hydrocarbon Receptor Signal Transduction by Protein Kinase C

  • Han, Eun Hee;Kim, Hyung Gyun;Lee, Eun Ji;Jeong, Hye Gwang
    • Toxicological Research
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    • v.31 no.4
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    • pp.339-345
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    • 2015
  • CYP1A1 is a phase I xenobiotic-metabolizing enzyme whose expression is mainly driven by AhR. Endosulfan is an organochlorine pesticide used agriculturally for a wide range of crops. In this study, we investigated the effect of endosulfan on CYP1A1 expression and regulation. Endosulfan significantly increased CYP1A1 enzyme activity as well as mRNA and protein levels. In addition, endosulfan markedly induced XRE transcriptional activity. CH-223191, an AhR antagonist, blocked the endosulfan-induced increase in CYP1A1 mRNA and protein expression. Moreover, endosulfan did not induce CYP1A1 gene expression in AhR-deficient mutant cells. Furthermore, endosulfan enhanced the phosphorylation of calcium calmodulin (CaM)-dependent protein kinase (CaMK) and protein kinase C (PKC). In conclusion, endosulfan-induced up-regulation of CYP1A1 is associated with AhR activation, which may be mediated by PKC-dependent pathways.

Effects of Tobacco-Specific Carcinogen on Protein Kinase C Isoforms (흡연특이성 발암물질이 특정 Protein Kinase C Isoform에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Hyung-Seok;Ko, Moo-Sung;Park, Ki-Sung;Lee, Sub;Jheon, Sang-Hoon;Kwon, Oh-Choon
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.36 no.9
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    • pp.666-673
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    • 2003
  • Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of the lung cancer. However, mechanism of action underlying the carcinogenesis in the lung still remains to be elucidated. The present study attempted to look into the carcinogenic potential of tobacco-specific nitrosamine, NNK (4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone) and the effects of protein kinase C (PKC) isoforms in an immortalized human epithelial cell model. Material and Method: Immortalized human epithelial cells were exposed with NNK and examined for its carcinogenic potential as measured by saturation density, soft-agar colony formation, and cell aggregation assay. The specific isoform of PKCs involved in the cellular transformation was analysed through western blot with monoclonal antibody and measured separately in cytosolic fraction and membrane fraction. Result: Human epithelial cells exposed with NNK showed prominent carcinogenic potential in saturation density, soft agar colony formation, and cell aggregation assay. PKC isoform analysis results are as follows: PKC- $\alpha$ showed significant translocation of protein levels from cytosolic fraction to membrane fraction, as analyzed by immunoblot. PKC- $\varepsilon$ showed a dose-dependent increase of translocation. PKC- λ was not affected by NNK treatment. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that there was a certain specificity in the patterns of isoform induction following chemical carcinogen exposure. Thus, it is suggested that identification of specific isoform be a clue to find target molecules in the carcinogenesis.

The Role of Protein Kinase C in the Cardiac Injury Induced by Skin Burn (피부화상으로 유도된 심근손상에서 Protein Kinase C의 역할)

  • Moon, Hye-Jung;Cho, Hyun-Gug;Park, Won-Hark
    • Applied Microscopy
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    • v.33 no.4
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    • pp.299-313
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    • 2003
  • The aim of the present study was to assess the role of protein kinase C (PKC) in the development of cardiac injury following scald burn. Sprague-Dawley rats were induced a scald burn a 15% total body surface area. Phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 2 mg/kg) and bisindolylmaleimide (BIS, 0.05 mg/kg) were immediately administered i.p. after burn injury. 5 h and 24 h later, heart was removed and examined biochemical assay, ultrastructural changes and stereological analysis. The activity of serum aspartate aminotransferase was significantly increased at 5h (p<0.01) and 5h+BIS (p<0.001) after burn compared with that of control. The activity of serum creatinine was significantly decreased in PMA-treated groups after burn compared with postburn 5 h. PMA caused a decrease in MPO activity and induced wavy fibers in cardiac myocytes at postburn 5 and 24h. BIS induced contraction band, separation of intercalated disk and abnormal mitochondria in cardiac myocytes at postburn 5 and 24h. In stereological analysis, treatment of rats with PMA increased volume density of myofibril and mitochondria compared with postburn 5 and 24h. Our data suggest that the activation of PKC in scald burned heart decreases inflammation and protects the myocardium.