• Title/Summary/Keyword: protein kinase C

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Direct effect of protein kinase C inhibitors on cardiovascular ion channels

  • Son, Youn-Kyoung;Hong, Da-Hye;Kim, Dae-Joong;Firth, Amy L.;Park, Won-Sun
    • BMB Reports
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    • v.44 no.9
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    • pp.559-565
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    • 2011
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) is a central enzyme that modulates numerous biological functions. For this reason, specific PKC inhibitors/activators are required to study PKC-related signaling mechanisms. To date, although many PKC inhibitors have been developed, they are limited by poor selectivity and nonspecificity. In this review, we focus on the nonspecific actions of PKC inhibitors on cardiovascular ion channels in addition to their PKC-inhibiting functions. The aim of this paper is to urge caution when using PKC inhibitors to block PKC function. This information may help to better understand PKC-related physiological/biochemical studies.

Role of Protein Kinase C on Norepinephrine Induced Inhibition of Calcium Current in Rat Sympathetic Neurons (흰쥐 교감신경세포에서 Norepinephrine 에 의한 칼슘전류 억제에 미치는 Protein Kinase C 의 역할)

  • ;Keith S. Elmslie
    • Progress in Medical Physics
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.29-38
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    • 2000
  • The signal transduction pathway for most neurotransmitter induced inhibition of $Ca^{2+}$ channels in sympathetic neurons involves a G-protein mediated, membrane-delimited mechanism without the participation of any known protein kinase. However, activation of protein kinase C (PKC) has been proposed as one of the intracellular mechanisms mediating some neurotransmitter induced $Ca^{2+}$ channel inhibition. In the present study, we investigated the effects of phorbol-12, 13-dibutyrate (PDBu) on $Ca^{2+}$ channel currents of acutely dispersed neurons from adult rat superior cervical ganglion (SCG) neurons using whole cell variant of the patch clamp technique. PDBu (500 nM), the activator of PKC, increased $Ca^{2+}$ channel currents and retarded the deactivation of tail currents. The effects of PDBu were voltage dependent and the maximal increase in the current amplitudes was observed between -10 to 10 mV (n=4). PDBu attenuated $Ca^{2+}$ current inhibition induced by norepinephrine (NE), which modulates $Ca^{2+}$ channels via a pertussis toxin (PTX)-sensitive pathway. Inhibition of PDBu by staurosporine (1 $\mu$M) blocked the effects of PDBu on current amplitudes and NE-induced G-protein mediated inhibition of $Ca^{2+}$ currents. Further experiment should be done to know if G-protein or $Ca^{2+}$ channel itself is the target of PKC phosphorvlation.phosphorvlation.

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Effect of Cold Stress on Activities of Protein kinase C Subspecies in Rat Brain Regions

  • 이재란;최명언
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Applied Pharmacology
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    • 1994.04a
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    • pp.259-259
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    • 1994
  • Protein kinase C (PKC) participates in many cellular signal transduction. Previously we found that PKC activity of whole rat brain was altered after an exposure to cold temperature of 4 $^{\circ}C$ (Lee and Choi, Exp. Neurobiol., 2, 6, 1993). In this time PKC activity in each region of rat brain was investigated in order to know each regions is affected mostly by the stress.

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Effect of n-3 Fatty Acids on Estrogen Dependency and Protein Kinase C Activity of Human Breast Cancer Cell

  • Cho, Sung-Hee;Oh, Sun-Hee;Park, Hee-Sung
    • Preventive Nutrition and Food Science
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.220-226
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    • 1996
  • To investigate the effect of long chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids on breast cancer cell growth, estrogen-dependent MCF-7 human breast cancer cells were cultured serum-free DMEM media containing 0.5$\mu\textrm{g}$/ml of differnet kinds of fatty acids; linoleic acid(LA), arachidonic acid(AA), eicosapentaenoic acid(EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid acid(DHA) and 1, 0.1, 0.2, 0.5and 1.0ng/ml 17$\beta$-estradiol as well as 10$\mu\textrm{g}$/mi insulin and 1.25 mg/ml delipidized bovine serum albumin for 3 days. Cell growth monitored by MTT assay was lower in DHA and EPA treatments as compared to LA treatment, but not with AA treatment. Estrogen concentrations at which cell growth was initially stimulated were 0.1ng/ml for LA and DHA treatments and 0.2ng/ml for EPA and AA treatments, but the degree of stimulation was 25~30% lower in DHA and EPA treatments than in LA treatment. Fatty acid analysis showed that each fatty acid in culture medium was well incoporated into celluar lipid. Protein kinase C activity of cells was most elevated in LA treatment from 2 to 8 hours of culture followed by DHA, EPA, and AA treatments. It is concluded that inhibitions of n-3 DHA and EPA on breast cancer cell growth as compard with n-6 LA is mediated via changes in membrane fatty acid composition reducing estrogen sensitivity and increasing protein kinase C activity.

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Immunohistochemical localization of protein kinase C and nitric oxide synthase in the vomeronasal organ of the horse (말 서골코기관에서 protein kinase C 및 nitric oxide synthase의 면역조직학적 관찰)

  • Lee, Kwanghyup;Ahn, Meejung;Lee, Yongduk;Ha, Theyoung;Kim, Heeseok;Shin, Thekyun
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.41 no.3
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    • pp.269-273
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    • 2001
  • The expression of protein kinase C(PKC) isoforms and nitric oxide synthase (NOs) isoforms was studied in the equine vomeronasal organ(VNO), a pheromone receptor organ, using immunohistochemistry. All PKC isoforms including PKC $\alpha$, ${\beta}I$, $\delta$, and $\theta$ were detected in the supporting cells, sensory receptor cells, and basal sensory epithelial cells, while constitutive PKC $\alpha$ and ${\beta}I$ were stained more intensely than novel PKC $\delta$ and ${\theta}$. There was also a varying degree of immunostaining for PKCs in the glandular acini and VNO nerve. Constitutive neuronal and endothelial NOSs, and inducible NOS were detected in the VNO sensory epithelia. There was intense immunoreactivity for endothelial NOS in the VNO sensory epithelia but weak reactivity for neuronal NOS, while inducible NOS showed little immunoreactivity in the adjacent section. These findings suggest that both PKCs and NOSs may be involved in the process of pheromone reception in the horse. Constitutive isoforms of these enzymes may play a more important role in signal trasduction in the VNO of the horse.

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Effects of TPA and IAA on Corn Coleoptile Elongation (옥수수 자엽초의 신장에 미치는 TPA와 IAA의 효과)

  • 정은수
    • Journal of Plant Biology
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    • v.35 no.1
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    • pp.77-84
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    • 1992
  • In view of the well-established role of protein kinase C effector element in signal transduction of animal systems, the possibility of diacylglycerol (DAG) and its analog 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA) having an effect on auxin-induced growih of com coleoptiles was explored. Both DAG and TP A were found to promote cell elongation in the coleoptile tissue_ Treatment of tissue with these protein kinase C-activating agents resulted in increase in the growth rate over the control by about 300%. When 1M was applied to TPA-pretreated coleoptiles. auxin effect appeared synergistic. Morever. coleoptile growth was found to be inhibited by staurosporine and methylated TPA, both of which are known to specifically inhibit protein kinase C. Electrophoretic and autoradiographic patterns of soluble proteins from the coeoptiles indicated that either 1M or TPA tereatment resulted in increased phosphorylation of certain proteins of 205 Kd. 66 Kd and 32 Kd in size. The results obtained from the present work suggest that protein kinase C may be associated with auxin action on cell elongation in the corn coleoptile segments.gments.

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Studies on the Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Cells in vitro:Protein Kinase C in the Differentiation of Skeletal Muscle Cells (근세포 분화에 관한 연구 : 근세포 분화에 있어서 Protein Kinase C)

  • 최원철;김한도;김정락
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.34 no.2
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    • pp.131-141
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    • 1991
  • Treating 12-O-tetradecanoyIphorboI 13-acetate -TPA) or platelet~derived growth factor(PDGF), the signal transduction of protein Idnase C (PKC) is occurred by the phosphoryladon. However the targeting proteins phosphorylated by PKC were found to be different proteins in molecular weights when WA or PDGF wa~ treated to the myoblast. In the WA-treated myoblast cells, the protein of Mr. 20 I(d was phosphorylated. In the PDGF-treated cells, the protein of Mr. 40 Kd was phosphrylated, while the protein of Mr. 20 Kd which phosphorylated in the WA-treatment was dephosphorylated. These results indicate that not only WA and PDGF &e different in activating the signal transduction pathways, but also they may involve in the down reguladon of PI(C during the long-term treatment But PDGF gave rise more rapidly down reguladon than in the case of WA. Using immunocytochemical approach, two disdnct PKC isozymes, PKC II and PKC III, have been localized in cytoplasm and both cytoplasm and nuclsolus, respectively. Ther'efore, the expression of two types of PKC in the myoblast suggests that the isozymes of PKC may involve in each different pathway of signal transduction or down-reguladon.

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Regulation of thyroxine release in the thyroid by protein kinase C (갑상선에서 protein kinase C에 의한 thyroxine 유리조절)

  • Kim, Jin-shang
    • Korean Journal of Veterinary Research
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    • v.39 no.6
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    • pp.1073-1080
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    • 1999
  • Previous studies suggested that the inhibition of thyroxine ($T_4$) release by ${\alpha}_1$-adrenoceptor and muscarinic receptor stimulation results in activated protein kinase C (PKC) from mouse and guinea pig thyroids. In the present study, the effect of carbachol, methoxamine, phorbol myristate acetate (PMA), and R59022 on the release of $T_4$ from the mouse, rat, and guinea pig thyroids was compared to clarify the role of PKC in the regulation of the release of $T_4$. The thyroids were incubated in the medium containing the test agents, samples of the medium were assayed for $T_4$ by EIA kits. Forskolin, an adenylate cyclase activator, chlorophenylthio-cAMP sodium, a membrane permeable analog of cAMP, and isobutyl-methylxanthine, a phosphodiesterase inhibitor, like TSH (thyroid stimulating hormone), enhaced the release of $T_4$ from the mouse, rat, and guinea pig thyroids. Methoxamine, an ${\alpha}_1$-adrenoceptor agonist, inhibited the TSH-stimulated release of $T_4$ in mouse, but not rat and guinea pig thyroids. In contrast, carbachol, a muscarinic receptor agonist, inhibited the release of $T_4$ in guinea pig, but not mouse and rat thyroids. These inhibition were reversed by prazosin, an ${\alpha}_1$-adrenoceptor antagonist or atropine, a muscarinic antagonist or $M_1$- and $M_3$-muscarinic antagonists, in mouse or guinea pig thyroids. In addition, staurosporine, a PKC inhibitor, reversed methoxamine or carbachol inhibition of TSH stimulation. Furthermore, PMA, a PKC activator, and R59022, a diacylglycerol (DAG) kinase inhibitor, inhibited the TSH-stimulated release of $T_4$ in mouse, rat, and guinea pig thyroids. These inhibition were blocked by staurosporine. These findings suggest that the activation of receptor or DAG inhibits TSH-stimulated $T_4$ release through a PKC-dependent mechanism in thyroid gland.

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Action of Protein Kinase A and C Activators on Germinal Vesicle Breakdown and One-Cell Embryos in the Mouse (생쥐 GV난자와 1-세포기 배아의 핵막붕괴에 미치는 Protein Kinase A와 C의 작용)

  • 이대기;김경진;조완규
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.153-162
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    • 1989
  • Expedments were perfonned to examine the role of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PK-A) and diacylglycerol-dependent protein kinase (PK-C) during the meiodc resumption and the first mitotic cell cycle of mouse embryogenesis. Mejoric GV oocytes and one-cell embryos derived from in vitro fertilization were cultured in vitro, and morphological changes in response to activators of PK-A and PK-C were examined. Treatments with a membrane-permeable cAMP analog, dbcAMP (0.1 mg/mi), phosphodiesterase inhibitor, IBMX (0.1 mM), biologically active phorbol ester, WA (10 nglmi), or a synthetic diacylglycerol, sn-diC8 inhibited resumption of melosis. Combination of PK-A and PK-C activator brought about furiher inhibition. On the contrary, dbcAMP (0.1 mg/mi), IBMX (0.2 mM), WA (10 nglml), and sn-diC8 (0.5 mM) did not inhibit pronucleus membrane breakdown (PNBD) when added S or G2 phase of cell cycle. However, activators of PK-C inhibited cleavage of one-cefl embryos. This result indicates that the action mechanism of PK-A and PK-C on dissolution of nuclear membrane in primary meiotic arrest oocytes may be different from that of mitotic one-cell embryos.

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Effect of Protein Kinase C on Norepinephrine Release in the Rat Hippocampus (흰쥐 해마에서 Norepinephrine 유리에 미치는 Protein Kinase C 의 영향)

  • Kim, Do-Kyung;Lee, Young-Soo;Choi, Bong-Kyu
    • The Korean Journal of Pharmacology
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    • v.31 no.2
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    • pp.145-152
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    • 1995
  • The effects and interactions of $4{\beta}-phorbol$ 12,13-dibutyrate(PDB) and polymyxin B(PMB) with adenosine on the electrically-evoked norepinephrine (NE) release were studied in the rat hippocampus. Slices from the rat hippocampus were equilibrated with $^3H-noradrenaline$ and the release of the labelled product, $^3H-NE$, which evoked by electrical stimulation$(3\;Hz,\;2\;ms,\;5\;VCm^{-1},\;rectangular\;pulses)$ was measured. PDB$(0.3{\sim}10\;{\mu}M)$, a selective protein kinase C(PKC) activator, increased the evoked NE release in a dose related fashion while increasing the basal rate of release. And the effects of $1\;{\mu}M$ PDB were significantly inhibited by $0.3\;{\mu}M$ tetrodotoxin(TTX) pretreatment or $Ca^{++}-free$ medium. $PMB(0.03{\sim}1\;mg)$, a specific PKC inhibitor, decreased the NE release in a dose dependent manner while increasing the basal rate of release. Adenosine $(1{\sim}10\;{\mu}M)$ decreased the NE release without changing the basal rate of release, and this effect was significantly inhibited by 8-cyclopentyl-1,3-dipropylxanthine$(2\;{\mu}M)$, a selective $A_1-receptor$ antagonist, treatment. Also, adenosine effects were significantly inhibited by PDB-and PMB-pretreatment. These results suggest that the PKC plays a role in the NE release in the rat hippocampus and might be participated in a post-receptor mechanism of the $A_1-adenosine$ receptor.

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