• Title/Summary/Keyword: modal logic

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Verifying Correctness of Rail Signal Control Protocols Specified in LTS (LTS로 명세화 된 철도 신호제어용 프로토콜 검증)

  • 서미선;정창현;이재호;황종규;김성운
    • Proceedings of the IEEK Conference
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    • pp.454-457
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    • 2003
  • 대규모 시스템 명세의 올바름을 검증하기 위한 유한상태 LTS(Labeled Transition System)에 기반을 둔 CTL(Computation Tree Logic) 논리 적용의 문제점은 시스템 내부의 병렬 프로세스간 상호 작용으로 인한 상태폭발이다. 그러나 medal mu-calculus 논리를 시스템 안전성 및 필연성 특성 명세에 사용하면, 행위에 의한 순환적 정의가 가능하므로 상태폭발 문제가 해결된다. 본 논문에서는 LTS 로 명세화 된 철도 신호제어용 프로토콜 모델의 안전성 및 필연성 특성을 모형 검사 기법에 의해 검증하기 위해 시제 논리로 사용된 modal mu-calculus를 사용하여 해당 검정 알고리즘을 구현 및 적용하였다.

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A Simulation of "Self-Organizing Fuzzy Controller" for a Dynamic System under Irregular Disturbance (확률론적 가진을 받는 동적계에 대한 자기구성 퍼지제어기의 구현)

  • Yeo, Woon-Joo;Oh, Yong-Sul;Jung, Quen-Yong;Heo, Hoon
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society for Noise and Vibration Engineering Conference
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    • pp.1058-1062
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    • 2003
  • This paper proposes a self-organizing fuzzy controller (SOFC) design technique applied to the vibration control of a dynamic system under irregular disturbance. In this controller, the fuzzy rules generate control signal continuously using the array of input and output pairs without using any special controller model. The generated rules are saved in the fuzzy rule matrix in real-time by self-organizing methods. This fuzzy logic control is demonstrated by simulation and shows the efficiency of the real-time self-organizing fuzzy controller in this system.

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A Study on Multi-modal Near-IR Face and Iris Recognition on Mobile Phones (휴대폰 환경에서의 근적외선 얼굴 및 홍채 다중 인식 연구)

  • Park, Kang-Ryoung;Han, Song-Yi;Kang, Byung-Jun;Park, So-Young
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics Engineers of Korea CI
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 2008
  • As the security requirements of mobile phones have been increasing, there have been extensive researches using one biometric feature (e.g., an iris, a fingerprint, or a face image) for authentication. Due to the limitation of uni-modal biometrics, we propose a method that combines face and iris images in order to improve accuracy in mobile environments. This paper presents four advantages and contributions over previous research. First, in order to capture both face and iris image at fast speed and simultaneously, we use a built-in conventional mega pixel camera in mobile phone, which is revised to capture the NIR (Near-InfraRed) face and iris image. Second, in order to increase the authentication accuracy of face and iris, we propose a score level fusion method based on SVM (Support Vector Machine). Third, to reduce the classification complexities of SVM and intra-variation of face and iris data, we normalize the input face and iris data, respectively. For face, a NIR illuminator and NIR passing filter on camera are used to reduce the illumination variance caused by environmental visible lighting and the consequent saturated region in face by the NIR illuminator is normalized by low processing logarithmic algorithm considering mobile phone. For iris, image transform into polar coordinate and iris code shifting are used for obtaining robust identification accuracy irrespective of image capturing condition. Fourth, to increase the processing speed on mobile phone, we use integer based face and iris authentication algorithms. Experimental results were tested with face and iris images by mega-pixel camera of mobile phone. It showed that the authentication accuracy using SVM was better than those of uni-modal (face or iris), SUM, MAX, NIN and weighted SUM rules.

Development of Communication Protocol Verification Tool for Vital Railway Signaling Systems

  • Hwang, Jong-Gyu;Jo, Hyun-Jeong;Lee, Jae-Ho
    • Journal of Electrical Engineering and Technology
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.513-519
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    • 2006
  • As a very important part in development of the protocol, verifications for developed protocol specification are complementary techniques that are used to increase the level of confidence in the system functions by their specifications. Using the informal method for specifying the protocol, some ambiguity may be contained therein. This indwelling ambiguity in control systems can cause the occurrence of accidents, especially in the case of safety-critical systems. To clear the vagueness contained in the designed protocol, we use the LTS (Labeled Transition System) model to design the protocol for railway signaling. And then, we verify the safety and the liveness properties formally through the model checking method. The modal ${\mu}$-calculus, which is an expressive method of temporal logic, has been applied to the model checking method. We verify the safety and liveness properties of Korean standard protocol for railway signaling systems. To perform automatic verification of the safety and liveness properties of the designed protocol, a communication verification tool is implemented. The developed tools are implemented by C++ language under Windows XP. It is expected to increase the safety and reliability of communication protocol for signaling systems by using the developed communication verification tool.

The Anaphoric Theory of Reference and Objections Against It (지칭의 대용어 이론과 이에 대한 비판들)

  • Lee, Byeongdeok
    • Korean Journal of Logic
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.217-241
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    • 2015
  • Brandom upholds the anaphoric theory of reference. On this theory, reference is a relation of anaphoric dependence between linguistic items rather than a substantial relation between linguistic items and non-linguistic objects. In addition, 'refers' is a pronoun-forming operator, which is used to form anaphorically indirect descriptions such as 'the one referred to as "Leibniz"'. Recently, Arbid $B{\aa}ve$ raises three objections against this theory. First, the anaphoric theory distinguishes between ordinary descriptions and anaphorically indirect descriptions in terms of iterability. But this condition is not an adequate ground for asserting that anaphorically indirect descriptions form a distinctive semantic category. Second, sentences containing a pronoun such as 'he' and sentences containing an anaphorically indirect description such as 'the one referred to as "Leibniz"' have different modal statuses. Consequently, indirect descriptions are semantically different from paradigmatic anaphors. Third, on the anaphoric theory, expressions of the form 'a' and the corresponding indirect descriptions of the form 'the one referred to as "a"' are intersubstitutable. But we can make an equivalent claim by using the more general semantic concepts such as equivalence and intersubstitutability, instead of using notions such as 'anaphor' and 'antecedent'. So the anaphoric theory is explanatorily idle. In this paper I argue that these objections do not pose a serious problem for the anaphoric theory of reference. I argue thereby that the anaphoric theory of reference is a promising theory which provides us with the right understanding of the expression 'refers'.

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Local Model Checking for Verification of Real-Time Systems (실시간 시스템 검증을 위한 지역모형 검사)

  • 박재호;김성길;황선호;김성운
    • Journal of Korea Multimedia Society
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.77-90
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    • 2000
  • Real-Time verification is a procedure that verifies the correctness of specification related to requirement in time as well as in logic. One serious problem encountered in the verification task is that the state space grows exponentially owing to the unboundedness of time, which is termed the state space explosion problem. In this paper, we propose a real-time verification technique checking the correctness of specification by showing that a system model described in timed automata is equivalent to the characteristic of system property specified in timed modal-mu calculus. For this, we propose a local model checking method based on the value of the formula in initial state with constructing product graph concerned to only the nodes needed for verification process. Since this method does not search for every state of system model, the state space is reduced drastically so that the proposed method can be applied effectively to real-time system verification.

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Optimum design and vibration control of a space structure with the hybrid semi-active control devices

  • Zhan, Meng;Wang, Sheliang;Yang, Tao;Liu, Yang;Yu, Binshan
    • Smart Structures and Systems
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.341-350
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    • 2017
  • Based on the super elastic properties of the shape memory alloy (SMA) and the inverse piezoelectric effect of piezoelectric (PZT) ceramics, a kind of hybrid semi-active control device was designed and made, its mechanical properties test was done under different frequency and different voltage. The local search ability of genetic algorithm is poor, which would fall into the defect of prematurity easily. A kind of adaptive immune memory cloning algorithm(AIMCA) was proposed based on the simulation of clone selection and immune memory process. It can adjust the mutation probability and clone scale adaptively through the way of introducing memory cell and antibody incentive degrees. And performance indicator based on the modal controllable degree was taken as antigen-antibody affinity function, the optimization analysis of damper layout in a space truss structure was done. The structural seismic response was analyzed by applying the neural network prediction model and T-S fuzzy logic. Results show that SMA and PZT friction composite damper has a good energy dissipation capacity and stable performance, the bigger voltage, the better energy dissipation ability. Compared with genetic algorithm, the adaptive immune memory clone algorithm overcomes the problem of prematurity effectively. Besides, it has stronger global searching ability, better population diversity and faster convergence speed, makes the damper has a better arrangement position in structural dampers optimization leading to the better damping effect.

An integrated Method of New Casuistry and Specified Principlism as Nursing Ethics Methodology (새로운 간호윤리학 방법론;통합된 사례방법론)

  • Um, Young-Rhan
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.51-64
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of the study was to introduce an integrated approach of new Casuistry and specified principlism in resolving ethical problems and studying nursing ethics. In studying clinical ethics and nursing ethics, there is no systematic research method. While nurses often experience ethical dilemmas in practice, much of previous research on nursing ethics has focused merely on describing the existing problems. In addition, ethists presented theoretical analysis and critics rather than providing the specific problems solving strategies. There is a need in clinical situations for an integrated method which can provide the objective description for existing problem situations as well as specific problem solving methods. We inherit two distinct ways of discussing ethical issues. One of these frames these issues in terms of principles, rules, and other general ideas; the other focuses on the specific features of particular kinds of moral cases. In the first way general ethical rules relate to specific moral cases in a theoretical manner, with universal rules serving as "axioms" from which particular moral judgments are deduced as theorems. In the seconds, this relation is frankly practical. with general moral rules serving as "maxims", which can be fully understood only in terms of the paradigmatic cases that define their meaning and force. Theoretical arguments are structured in ways that free them from any dependence on the circumstances of their presentation and ensure them a validity of a kind that is not affected by the practical context of use. In formal arguments particular conclusions are deduced from("entailed by") the initial axioms or universal principles that are the apex of the argument. So the truth or certainty that attaches to those axioms flows downward to the specific instances to be "proved". In the language of formal logic, the axioms are major premises, the facts that specify the present instance are minor premises, and the conclusion to be "proved" is deduced (follows necessarily) from the initial presises. Practical arguments, by contrast, involve a wider range of factors than formal deductions and are read with an eye to their occasion of use. Instead of aiming at strict entailments, they draw on the outcomes of previous experience, carrying over the procedures used to resolve earlier problems and reapply them in new problmatic situations. Practical arguments depend for their power on how closely the present circumstances resemble those of the earlier precedent cases for which this particular type of argument was originally devised. So. in practical arguments, the truths and certitudes established in the precedent cases pass sideways, so as to provide "resolutions" of later problems. In the language of rational analysis, the facts of the present case define the gounds on which any resolution must be based; the general considerations that carried wight in similar situations provide warrants that help settle future cases. So the resolution of any problem holds good presumptively; its strengh depends on the similarities between the present case and the prededents; and its soundness can be challenged (or rebutted) in situations that are recognized ans exceptional. Jonsen & Toulmin (1988), and Jonsen (1991) introduce New Casuistry as a practical method. The oxford English Dictionary defines casuistry quite accurately as "that part of ethics which resolves cases of conscience, applying the general rules of religion and morality to particular instances in which circumstances alter cases or in which there appears to be a conflict of duties." They modified the casuistry of the medieval ages to use in clinical situations which is characterized by "the typology of cases and the analogy as an inference method". A case is the unit of analysis. The structure of case was made with interaction of situation and moral rules. The situation is what surrounds or stands around. The moral rule is the essence of case. The analogy can be objective because "the grounds, the warrants, the theoretical backing, the modal qualifiers" are identified in the cases. The specified principlism was the method that Degrazia (1992) integrated the principlism and the specification introduced by Richardson (1990). In this method, the principle is specified by adding information about limitations of the scope and restricting the range of the principle. This should be substantive qualifications. The integrated method is an combination of the New Casuistry and the specified principlism. For example, the study was "Ethical problems experienced by nurses in the care of terminally ill patients"(Um, 1994). A semi-structured in-depth interview was conducted for fifteen nurses who mainly took care of terminally ill patients. The first stage, twenty one cases were identified as relevant to the topic, and then were classified to four types of problems. For instance, one of these types was the patient's refusal of care. The second stage, the ethical problems in the case were defined, and then the case was analyzed. This was to analyze the reasons, the ethical values, and the related ethical principles in the cases. Then the interpretation was synthetically done by integration of the result of analysis and the situation. The third stage was the ordering phase of the cases, which was done according to the result of the interpretation and the common principles in the cases. The first two stages describe the methodology of new casuistry, and the final stage was for the methodology of the specified principlism. The common principles were the principle of autonomy and the principle of caring. The principle of autonomy was specified; when competent patients refused care, nurse should discontinue the care to respect for the patients' decision. The principle of caring was also specified; when the competent patients refused care, nurses should continue to provide the care in spite of the patients' refusal to preserve their life. These specification may lead the opposite behavior, which emphasizes the importance of nurse's will and intentions to make their decision in the clinical situations.

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