• Title, Summary, Keyword: instrumentalism

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Teachers' and Students' Understanding of the Nature of Science (중 . 고등학교 과학교사와 학생들의 과학의 본성에 대한 인식 조사)

  • Han, Ji-Sook;Chung, Young-Lan
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.119-125
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    • 1997
  • In the last few years, there has been a significant growth of interest in how the philosophy of science can be related to science education. Adequate understanding of the philosophy and history of science can promote understanding of the nature of science in teacher and student. The 6th curriculum in Korea has also placed emphasis upon understanding of the nature of science. From this point of view, to ensure effective school science education it is necessary to investigate how teachers and students are understanding the nature of science. To do this 45 secondary science teachers and 191 students of 7 schools in Seoul are administered Nott and Wellington's questionaire(1993). This questionaire is consisted of 24 Likert Scale statements and asks questions on 5 subscales of philosophy of science :Relativism-Positivism, Inductivism-Deductivism, Contextualism-Decontextualism, Instrumentalism-Realism, Thinking science education as a Process or a Content. The results of this study are as follows : 1. Teachers' view of the nature of science was relativism, deductivism, decontextualism and instrumentalism. And they thought process is more important than content in science education. 2. There was no difference in teachers' conceptions on the nature of science according to experience and gender. 3. Students' view of the nature of science was relativism, deductivism, decontextualism and instrumentalism. And they thought process is more important than content in science education. 4. There was no difference in students' conceptions on the nature of science according to schools level(middle vs high) and gender. But, female students exhibited higher score than male students on deductivism(p<.05). 5. Teachers' and students' conception of the nature of science was in agreement with each other.

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A Study on Dewey's Experientialism on Mathematics Education (Dewey의 경험주의 수학교육론 연구)

  • Woo Jeong Ho;Kang Heung Kyu
    • Journal of Educational Research in Mathematics
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    • v.15 no.2
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    • pp.107-130
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    • 2005
  • The aims of this study are to identify Dewey's theory on mathematics education and to clarify its influence on the modern theories of mathematics education. For this purpose, we have examined Dewey's theory of knowledge named as pragmatism or instrumentalism, and studied the Dewey's theory of education in which he maintained education is the reconstruction of experiences. And then, we have examined Dewey's theory on mathematics education, such as theory of mathematics, purpose of mathematics education, contents of mathematics education, and methods of mathematics education respectively. After that, we have analyzed how his theory on mathematics education is connected with the diverse theories of modern mathematics education, such as Piaget's operational constructivism, Freudenthal's theory of realistic mathematics education, Polya's theory on mathematical problem-solving, and social constructivism. Through this study, we might say that Dewey's theory on mathematics education is a prototype of modern theories of mathematics education and a comprehensive paradigm which is very suggestive to the phenomena of mathematics education.

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Elementary Preservice Teachers' Conceptions about and its Changes in the Nature of Science and Constructivist' View of Learning. (교육대학생의 과학의 본성 개념과 구성주의 학습관의 연관성 및 변화 조사)

  • Kwon, Sung-Gi;Pak, Sung-Jae
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.104-115
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    • 1995
  • Teachers' conception about the nature of science is considered to be an important factor to improve the students' conceptions of that. It is assumed that teachers' conception of the nature of science may be influenced by their views of learning. The first purpose of this study was to investigate the exploratory relationships between teachers' conceptions about the nature of science and their views of learning. The second one was to compare the their conceptions and views of learning before and after science education lectures during 1 semester. We administered the questionnaires for the nature of science and for constructivist's learning, respectively, consisted of 5 dimensions (relativism-positivism; inductivism- deductivism; decontextualism-contextualism; content-process; instrumentalism-realism) and of 6 aspects (student; learning; instruction; teacher; curriculum; evaluations) were administered to 57 pre-service elementary teachers (female=44; male=13) before and after lectures. In pre-test it was revealed that respondents had not the consistent conceptions about the nature of science. The conception of relativism was more dominant than those of positivism, deductivism than inductivism, decontextualism than contextualism, process than content and instrumentalism than realism. They had more constructivist views in the respect of process of learning than in other respects, that is, students, instruction, teacher, curriculum and evaluation. But no significant correlations between the dimensions of the nature of science and the aspects of the views of learning suggest that constructivst views of learning was not deeply related with their conceptions of the nature of science. In post-test we had similar results with those of the pre-test, but the process-content dimensions of the nature of science was correlated with the constuctivist views of learning. Therefore we concluded that elementary pre-service teachers had the constructivist views of learning which was isolated with their conceptions of the nature of science although they had science educations course. We need to develop the course to make the conceptions of the nature of science relate view of learning.

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Hilbert and Formalism (힐버트와 형식주의)

  • Choi, Won-Bae
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.24 no.4
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    • pp.33-43
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    • 2011
  • In this paper I discuss if we can regard Hilbert at the time of Hilbert's program as an instrumentalist. For this I first provide some textual evidences for the instrumentalist interpretation, then examine the three recent criticisms in turn. I argue that the reading Hilbert as an instrumentalist is still tenable in spite of these criticisms.

Issues and Methodological Status of System Dynamics (시스템다이내믹스의 발전과 방법론적 위상)

  • 문태훈
    • Korean System Dynamics Review
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    • v.3 no.1
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    • pp.61-77
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    • 2002
  • This paper reviews issues and methodological status of system dynamics and suggest some research agenda for its development in Korea. After reviewing some characteristics of system dynamics approach, including dynamic feedback perspective and endogenous point of view, the paper pointed out methodological characteristics of system dynamics. It seems to be the most notable characteristics of System Dynamics that it use both quantitative and qualitative approach in explaining and modelling reality. Besides, System Dynamicists rely more heavily on refutationism than instrumentalism and this allows System Dynamicists follow more strict way of scientific inquiry. For the development of System Dynamics in Korean academic circle, developing training program and curriculum, networking scattered System Dynamicist all over the country, would be the most important task.

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Mathematics Education as a Humanities Form of Education-A Brief Introduction to the History of the Philosophy of Mathematics Education

  • Han, Dae-Hee
    • Research in Mathematical Education
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.127-132
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    • 2001
  • Mathematics holds a key position among many subjects of school education. Besides having an instrumental value, mathematics for the general public has been underestimated. Thus, in this paper we examine how western educational theorists have emphasized the value of mathematics as humanities form of education. First of all, we discuss Platonism as a philosophical basis of the ancient Greek mathematics education. Next, we examine the thoughts of Froebel, who provided the theoretical basis for the public education since 19th century, and discuss the value of mathematics teaching in their humanistic educational thoughts. Also, we examine the humanistic value of mathematics education in Dewey\\`s educational philosophy, which criticized the traditional western ethics and epistemology, and established instrumentalism. In this paper, we recognize the humanistic values of mathematics education through the historical examination of the philosophies of mathematics education.

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Naturalizing Intentionality (지향성-문제와접근)

  • 민찬홍
    • Korean Journal of Cognitive Science
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.7-36
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    • 1997
  • Beginning with the historical background under the light of which the program of naturalization proves to presuppose the mechanistic mechanistic materilalism, this paper first exposes what is the problem about intentionality, and then explains and examines the approaches to the program of naturalization of intentionality. Churchland's eliminativism and Dennett's instrumentalism are examined critically. Intentional realism is argued for;however, Dretaske's theory is preferred to than Foder's because the former but not the latter reveals least one of the various possible mechanisms of misrepresentations.

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The Relation of Elementary School Teachers' Point of Views about the Organization of Science Curriculum and the Nature of Science (초등 교사의 과학 교육 과정의 구성에 대한 인식과 과학의 본성에 대한 관점과의 상관)

  • Kim, Myong-Ho;Nam, Il-Kyun;Kwon, Sung-Gi
    • Journal of Korean Elementary Science Education
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    • v.29 no.3
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    • pp.243-251
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    • 2010
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the relationships between elementary school teachers' points of view about the organization of the science curriculum and their views on the nature of science (NOS). We surveyed 132 elementary school teachers' view points about these two kinds of views, analyzed the data by their variables, and compared the two viewpoints with their personal details. The elementary school teachers thought the science curriculum should be emphasized through the process more than contents. They thought the contents of the science curriculum should be integrated rather than separated. As teachers' career progressed, they focused on the contents more than the process. On the other hands, because elementary school teachers showed the NOS views as relativism, deductivism, decontextualism, content, and instrumentalism, when we plotted sub-viewpoints of NOS in process-content dimension, we thought it would be similar distributions with point of views on the organization of science curriculum. However, there was no meaningful relation. This showed that teachers' views on the organization of the curriculum and the NOS are totally different. These findings suggest further research is needed to find how factors influence elementary school teachers' views on the organization of the science curriculum and what inclinations can occur in science classes with their different views.

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A Comparative Study on the Various Perspectives on the Nature of Science through Textbook Analysis Centering on the Consensus View, Features of Science, and Family Resemblance Approach (교과서 분석을 통한 과학의 본성에 대한 여러 관점의 비교 -전통적 접근, 과학의 특성, 가족 유사성 관점을 중심으로-)

  • Jho, Hunkoog
    • Journal of The Korean Association For Science Education
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.681-694
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    • 2019
  • This study intends to delineate the characteristics of various perspectives on the nature of science (NOS) through the textbook analysis. Thus, centering on a science textbook called Science Laboratory Experiments, this study analyzes the elements of the NOS from three different perspectives: the consensus view, features of science (FOS), and family resemblance approach (FRA). While the consensus view highlights the similar elements of the NOS across the topics, the FOS is concerned about empirical ways for doing science. The FRA rather focuses on socio-cultural aspects of science activities. While the consensus view is useful to reify the features of the NOS, the FRA helps to understand science from various viewpoints. Regarding the philosophical account for three perspectives, all of them are ambiguous to some extent. The consensus view holds contradictory dispositions e.g., relativism vs. (post-)positivism, and critical realism and instrumentalism. The FOS supports empirical tradition but cannot effectively cope with the anomalous situation. The FRA is useful to show up the ways of science in both microscopic (personal) and macroscopic (social) viewpoints. However, the broader concept about science may mislead understanding of the NOS. Consequently, this study provides some implication for improving the framework of the NOS and teaching the NOS in the classroom.

Does IT ODA Promote Democracy in Developing Countries? : A challenge to optimistic technological determinism (IT ODA, 개발도상국의 민주주의 발전을 가져오는가? - 낙관적 기술결정론에 대한 도전 -)

  • Song, Hyojin
    • Informatization Policy
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.73-95
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    • 2015
  • This research has a purpose to verify whether the Internet diffusion through the Official Development Assistance (ODA) can bring about democratic changes in authoritarian political system of developing countries. This research has found out that IT ODA has 'positive(+)' effect on the Internet diffusion in recipient countries. It seems to support the expectation of donor countries that they can lead the political democratization by constructing infrastructure and promoting the use of the Internet. However, as the impact of IT ODA on the Internet diffusion is not considerable as well as the Internet diffusion has no strong influence on the development of democracy in developing countries, and also each of these aspects of countries looks different, it is hard to see that the democratization hypothesis based on the optimistic technological determinism is reasonable. Therefore, this paper argues that IT ODA must be based on not blind optimism that IT transfer will lead to the political democratization in developing countries, but the social structuralism which is based on distinctiveness and uniqueness of countries. and suggests that the discuss of the effect of IT ODA proceed with the constructive way.