• Title/Summary/Keyword: grain quality

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Changes in the Grain Quality of Rice with Respect to the Duration of Lodging Time

  • Hwang, Tai-Jeong;Lee, Won-Jong;Shin, Jin-Chul;Lee, Chul-Won;Kim, Suk-Shin
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.1459-1463
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    • 2009
  • The specific objective of this study was to determine the changes in grain quality of lodged rice with respect to the duration of lodging time and compare the changes with those of unlodged one. The rice 'Janganbyeo' was cultivated and half of paddy field was totally lodged at 30 days after heading. Both lodged paddy and unlodged paddy were harvested at intervals and used for the grain quality determination. The lodged rice did not show any remarkable changes in grain quality until the $4^{th}$ day of lodging for rough rice and until the $2^{nd}$ or the $4^{th}$ day of lodging for brown rice and white rice. The overall grain quality of lodged rice could be kept for 2 to 4 days of lodging.

Relationship between rice grain quality traits and starch pasting properties using early maturing rice cultivars in Chungnam plain area

  • Yun, Yeo-Tae;Chung, Chong-Tae;Lee, Jae-Chul;Lee, Young-Ju;Na, Han-Jung;Lee, Kwang-Won;Yoon, Young-Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural Science
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    • v.42 no.3
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    • pp.151-158
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    • 2015
  • This study was conducted to know the variation and relationship of rice grain quality and starch pasting properties by transplanting times. Two early maturing rice cultivars which accounted for the most area of early maturing rice cultivar in Chungnam province were used. The experiment was laid out in a split-plot design with 3 replications. The main plot consisted of three transplanting times viz. early (April 25), ordinary (May 25) and late (June 25) with sub-plots containing two cultivars. According to the transplanting times, most of rice grain quality and starch pasting properties showed significant difference and Joami showed higher grain quality than Unkwang in all transplanting times. Especially, rice grain quality was improved when transplanted late, showing high head rice and glossiness of cooked rice due to the lower mean temperature during grain filling stage. Glossiness of cooked rice was positively correlated with head rice ratio, amylose content and setback value, and negatively correlated with chalky rice ratio and protein content. The highest positive and negative correlation were observed between breakdown value and peak viscosity ($r=0.98^{**}$), and breakdown and setback ($r=-0.94^{**}$), respectively. These results provide some information for rice researchers and producers producing cultivars with an improved quality, suggesting that rice quality is highly influenced by temperature at grain filling stage, and transplanting times is crucial in improving rice quality. In addition, starch pasting properties are useful for determining rice quality because rice grain quality and starch pasting properties are dependent on each other.

Proteomic Analysis of Drought Stress-Responsive Proteins in Rice Endosperm Affecting Grain Quality

  • Mushtaq, Roohi;Katiyar, Sanjay;Bennett, John
    • Journal of Crop Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.4
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    • pp.227-232
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    • 2008
  • Drought stress is one of the major abiotic stresses in agriculture worldwide. We report here a proteomic approach to investigate the impact of post-fertilization drought on grain quality in rice seed endosperm (Oryza sativa cv. IR-64). Plants were stressed for 4 days at 3 days before heading. Total proteins of endosperm were extracted and separated by two-dimensional gel electrophoresis. Not many protein spots showed differential accumulation in drought-stressed samples. More than 400 protein spots were reproducibly detected, including three that were up-regulated and five down-regulated. Mass spectrometry analysis and database searching helped us to identify six spots representing different proteins. Functionally, the identified proteins were related to protein synthesis and carbohydrate metabolism, such as Granule-Bound Starch Synthase (GBSS, Wx protein), which is thought to play a very important role in starch biosynthesis and quality, a very crucial factor in determining rice grain quality.

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Determination and Effects of N and Si Fertilization Levels on Grain, Quality and Pests of Rice after Winter Green-house Water-melon Cropping

  • Cho Young-Son;Jeon Weon-Tae;Bae Soon-Do;Park Chang-Young;Park Ki-Do;Kang Ui-Gum;Muthukumarasamy Ramachandran
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.274-281
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    • 2006
  • In Korea, rice cultivars have been changing to 'quality' rice rather than high yielding cultivars. However, more than 10% of paddy field has been changed to greenhouse in winter season for cropping of water-melon, oriental-melon, straw berry and et cetra. This experiment has been made to identify the usefulness of critical N and Si fertilization(SF) level to obtain high grain quality rice with reduced insect pest damage by N and SF combination. Before the experiment, watermelon-rice cropping system was maintained for three seasons by farmer from 1998 to 2001. The experiment of N and Si (silicate) fertilization levels was evaluated with Hwayoung-byeo (Oryza sativa L., medium-maturing variety) in 2002 and 2003 in Uiryeong, Korea. Nitrogen fertilization (NF) levels were three and five in 2002 and 2003, respectively, and three SF levels were compared for getting the valuable N/SF level in both years. TOYO-value was positively affected by Si application in N100% plot but it was negatively related with NF level. Normal grain percentage was positively related with TOYO-value and it was highest in 0N plot and Si plots in N100%. Other appearance qualities like powdered, damaged, and cracked grain, were decreased with increasing N fertilization level. SF improved appearance quality in N100% plots but no effects in other treatments. Leaf sheath related diseases were significantly decreased by SF but it was negatively related with NF. In conclusion, SF could be improve grain quality at the same yield levels of conventional fertilization and it also could be reduce the diseases damages of rice plant in all N treatments. NF treatment reduced grain quality and improved grain yield at N50% level, however NF above N50% could not get any kind of benefits. So, compared with conventional fertilizer, reduced NF level is recommended for high grain quality with reduced insect pest damage.

Growth Characteristics and Grain Quality of Naked Barley Infected by Barley Yellow Mosaic Virus (보리호위위병(BaYMV)이병에 따른 쌀보리 품종의 생육특성 및 품질)

  • 이중호;김양길;서재환;박종철;최재성;김수동
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.48 no.6
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    • pp.501-505
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    • 2003
  • The growth characteristics and damage of naked barley infected with barley yellow mosaic virus (BaYMV) were investigated between resistant and susceptible varieties in habitual field plot of BaYMV BaYMV of the barley plants with typical disease symptom were identified by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) test. The visual degree (0-9) based on disease symptoms of BaYMV was different as 9 and 1 between susceptible variety Baegdong and resistant variety Naehanssalbori, respectively. Susceptible variety, Baegdong showed significant damage in culm length, number of kernel per spike and tiller per square meter but not in 1,000 kernel weight, so these results caused yield reduction to only 80% comparing to the control. Seed germination did not affected by BaYMV infection both in susceptible and resistant variety. In grain quality test, abortive grain yale and crude protein content were significantly increased compared to the control. The relationships between BaYMV infection and growth characteristics showed the negative correlations in culm length, number of tiller, 1000 kernel weight and yield, but it showed the positive correlation in crude protein contents. These results implied that BaYMV can affect not only barley growth and yield but grain quality.

Mapping QTL for Grain Quality Traits Using an Introgression Line Population from a Cross between Ilpumbyeo and Moroberekan in Rice (일품벼/모로베레칸 이입계통을 이용한 미질특성 관련 QTL 분석)

  • Ju, Hong-Guang;Kim, Dong-Min;Oh, Chang-Sik;Kim, Myung-Ki;Kim, Kee-Jong;Ahn, Sang-Nag
    • Korean Journal of Breeding Science
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.429-436
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    • 2009
  • We conducted a QTL analysis of grain quality traits using 117 $BC_3F_4$ and $BC_3F_5$ lines developed from a cross between Ilpumbyeo and Moroberekan. Genotypes of 117 $BC_3F_5$ lines were determined using 134 simple sequence repeat (SSR) markers. A linkage map constructed using 134 SSR markers was employed to characterize quantitative trait loci (QTL). The 117 $BC_3F_4$ and $BC_3F_5$ lines were evaluated for eleven grain quality traits in 2005 and 2006. A total of 18 QTLs were identified for eleven traits, and the phenotypic variance explained by each QTL ranged from 9.9% to 35.2%. Moroberekan alleles contributed positive effects in the Ilpumbyeo background at two QTL loci for 1,000 grain weight. Four QTLs, two for chalky rice and one each for 1,000 grain weight and head rice were consistently detected in two consecutive years indicating that these QTLs are stable. Clusters of QTLs were observed in three chromosome regions. One cluster harboring five QTLs including head rice and brown rice ratio near SSR markers RM190 and RM314 was detected on chromosome 6. Another cluster harboring grain weight and white belly was detected on chromosome 2. Increase in white belly at this locus might be due to the increase in grain weight due to the presence of the Moroberekan allele. The Moroberekan alleles at two QTL loci, gw3 and gw4 associated with increased grain weight might be useful in breeding programs to develop high-yielding cultivars.

Response of Rice Yield and Grain Quality as Affected by Rice Leaf Folder (혹명나방 피해 정도에 따른 벼 수량 및 미질 반응)

  • Won, Jong-Gun;Ahn, Duok-Jong;Kim, Se-Jong;Choi, Chung-Don;Lee, Sang-Chul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.53 no.spc
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    • pp.72-77
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    • 2008
  • This study was carried out to determine the response of the rice yield and grain quality by rice leaf folder (RLF, Cnaphalocrocis medinalis G.) and identify the damages caused by different transplanting dates, nitrogen amounts and chlorophyll amounts (SPAD value) of rice leaf. As the damage degree of RLF was getting severer, the ripened grain rate and 1000-grain weight were decreased and due to the increasing of chalky rice rate the rate of head rice was reduced. Therefore, the yield of head rice was decreased by 36% in heavily damaged rice plant. Among the physicochemical characteristics, protein content of rice grain was increased but amylose content was reduced, consequently, the palatability was deteriorated in heavily damaged rice by RLF. The degree of damage of RLF was getting serious as transplanting date was delayed and as the amount of nitrogen was increased. In the relationship between the SPAD value and the damage degree of RLF, as the SPAD value was increased by nitrogen fertilizing, the damage degree was also increased exponential functionally.

Effects of Microbe-inoculated Expanded Rice Hull on Growth, Yield and Grain Quality of Rice

  • Kim, Young Jun;Nunez, John Paolo;Seo, Pil Dae;Ultra, Venecio U. Jr.;Lee, Sang Chul
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.78-83
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    • 2013
  • The excessive and indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers in the past has brought serious soil and other environmental problems so alternatives over this agrochemical are being searched. Our study focuses on the effects of expanded rice hull inoculated with selected beneficial microorganisms on growth (through agronomic characters), yield and yield components, and grain quality indices of rice. Results showed that favorable effects of different expanded rice hull preparations were not readily apparent at vegetative stage and only treatments with supplemental chemical fertilizer application were comparable with the conventional practice. Expanded rice hull combined with 50% rate of chemical fertilizer exhibited a significantly higher yield (6,471 kg $ha^{-1}$) over conventional practice (5,719 kg $ha^{-1}$). Good milling quality indices were observed in treatments having 50% chemical fertilizers plus alternatives from expanded rice hull. Finally, we demonstrated that chemical fertilizer rate can potentially be reduced into 50% if combined with expanded rice hull, and show even better output than chemical fertilizer alone.

Characteristics of Grain Quality at Different Transplanting Times among Rice Cultivars (벼의 품종별 이앙시기가 미질 특성에 미치는 영향 III. 미립의 호화정도와 식미평가)

  • 고재권
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.146-151
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    • 1998
  • A study was carried our to investigate the characteristics of physico-chemical components palatability of cooked rice accoring to different transplanting time. The treatments were consisted of five transplanting time, from May 5 to July 5 at 15 -day intervals, and six cultivars ; two early-maturing, two mid-maturing and two late-maturing cultivars which are clearly identified by evaluation of cumulative temperature and growth duration from seeding to heading of rice plants. In gelatinization characteristics of rice grain, alkali digestion value was low in the earlier transplanting regardlessof maturing types. Initial pasting temeprature maximum viscosity and breakdown as amylogram charcteristics were high at the transplanting of June 5. The palatability of cookedrice was evaluated that early-maturing cultivars were much better in early transplanting than in late transplanting . The optimum transplanting time for palatibility was the periods from May 5 to 20 in early maturing varieties, May 20 to June 5 in mid-maturing and June 5 to June 20 in late-maturing ones at Honam district in Korea.

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