• Title/Summary/Keyword: flow cytometry

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Impact of Allogenic and Autologous Transfusion on Immune Function in Patients with Tumors

  • Guo, Jian-Rong;Xu, Feng;Jin, Xiao-Ju;Shen, Hua-Chun;Liu, Yang;Zhang, Yi-Wei;Shao, Yi
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.467-474
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    • 2014
  • Objective: To observe the effects of allogeneic and autologous transfusion on cellular immunity, humoral immunity and secretion of serum inflammatory factors and perforin during the perioperative period in patients with malignant tumors. Methods: A total of 80 patients (age: 38-69 years; body weight: 40-78 kg; ASA I - II) receiving radical operation for gastro-intestinal cancer under general anesthesia were selected. All the patients were divided into four groups based on the methods of infusion and blood transfusion: blank control group (Group C), allogeneic transfusion group (group A), hemodiluted autotransfusion Group (Group H) and hemodiluted autotransfusion + allogenic transfusion Group (A+H group). Venous blood was collected when entering into the surgery room ($T_0$), immediately after surgery ($T_1$) and 24h ($T_2$), 3d ($T_3$) and 7d ($T_4$) after surgery, respectively. Moreover, flow cytometry was applied to assess changes of peripheral blood T cell subpopulations and NK cells. Enzyme linked immunosorbent assays were performed to determine levels of IL-2, IL-10, TNF-${\alpha}$ and perforin. Immune turbidimetry was employed to determine the changes in serum immunoglobulin. Results: Both CD3+ and NK cells showed a decrease at $T_1$ and $T_2$ in each group, among which, in group A, CD3+ decreased significantly at $T_2$ (P<0.05) compared with other groups, and CD3+ and NK cell reduced obviously only in group A at $T_3$ and $T_4$ (P<0.05). CD4+ cells and the ratio of D4+/CD8+ were decreased in groups A, C and A+H at $T_1$ and $T_2$ (P<0.05). No significant intra- and inter-group differences were observed in CD8+ of the four groups (P<0.05). IL-2 declined in group C at $T_1$ and $T_2$ (P<0.05) and showed a decrease in group A at each time point (P<0.05). Moreover, IL-2 decreased in group A + H only at $T_1$. No significant difference was found in each group at $T_1$ (P<0.05). More significant decrease in group ?? at $T_2$, $T_3$ and $T_4$ compared with group A (P<0.05), and there were no significant differences among other groups (P>0.05). IL-10 increased at $T_1$ and $T_2$ in each group (P<0.05), in which it had an obvious increase in group A, and increase of IL-10 occurred only in group A at $T_3$ and $T_4$ (P<0.05). TNF-${\alpha}$ level rose at $T_1$ (P<0.05), no inter- and intra-group difference was found in perforin in all groups (P<0.05). Compared with the preoperation, both IgG and IgA level decreased at $T_1$ in each group (P<0.05), and they declined only in Group A at $T_2$ and $T_3$ (P<0.05), and these parameters were back to the preoperative levels in other groups. No significant differences were observed between preoperative and postoperative IgG and IgA levels in each group at $T_4$ (P>0.05). No obvious inter- and intra-group changes were found in IgM in the four groups (P>0.05). Conclusions: Allogeneic transfusion during the perioperative period could obviously decrease the number of T cell subpopulations and NK cells and the secretion of stimulating cytokines and increase the secretion of inhibiting cytokines in patients with malignant tumors, thus causing a Th1/Th2 imbalance and transient decreasing in the content of plasma immune globulin. Autologous transfusion has little impact and may even bring about some improvement oo postoperative immune function in patients with tumors. Therefore, cancer patients should receive active autologous transfusion during the perioperative period in place of allogeneic transfusion.

BCR/ABL mRNA Targeting Small Interfering RNA Effects on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Chronic Myeloid Leukemia

  • Zhu, Xi-Shan;Lin, Zi-Ying;Du, Jing;Cao, Guang-Xin;Liu, Gang
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.12
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    • pp.4773-4780
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    • 2014
  • Background: To investigate the effects of small interference RNA (siRNA) targeting BCR/ABL mRNA on proliferation and apoptosis in the K562 human chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) cell line and to provide a theoretical rationale and experimental evidence for its potential clinical application for anti-CML treatment. Materials and Methods: The gene sequence for BCR/ABL mRNA was found from the GeneBank. The target gene site on the BCR/ABL mRNA were selected according to Max-Planck-Institute (MPI) and rational siRNA design rules, the secondary structure of the candidate targeted mRNA was predicted, the relevant thermodynamic parameters were analyzed, and the targeted gene sequences were compared with BLAST to eliminate any sequences with significant homology. Inhibition of proliferation was evaluated by MTT assay and colony-formation inhibiting test. Apoptosis was determined by flow cytometry (FCM) and the morphology of apoptotic cells was identified by Giemsa-Wright staining. Western blotting was used to analyze the expression of BCR/ABL fusion protein in K562 cells after siRNA treatment. Results: The mRNA local secondary structure calculated by RNA structure software, and the optimal design of specific siRNA were contributed by bioinformatics rules. Five sequences of BCR/ABL siRNAs were designed and synthesized in vitro. Three sequences, siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786, which showed the most effective inhibition of K562 cell growth, were identified among the five candidate siRNAs, with a cell proliferative inhibitory rate nearly 50% after exposure to 12.5nmol/L~50nmol/L siRNA1384 for 24,48 and 72 hours. The 50% inhibitory concentrations ($IC_{50}$) of siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786 for 24hours were 46.6 nmol/L, 59.3 nmol/L and 62.6 nmol/L, respectively, and 65.668 nmol/L, 76.6 nmol/L, 74.4 nmol/L for 72 hours. The colony-formation inhibiting test also indicated that, compared with control, cell growth of siRNA treated group was inhibited. FCM results showed that the rate of cell apoptosis increased 24 hours after transfecting siRNA. The results of annexinV/PI staining indicated that the rate of apoptosis imcreased (1.53%, 15.3%, 64.5%, 57.5% and 21.5%) following treamtne with siRNAs (siRNA34, siRNA372, siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786). Morphological analysis showed td typical morphologic changes of apoptosis such as shrunken, fragmentation nucleus as well as "apoptotic bodies" after K562 cell exposure to siRNA. Western blot analysis showed that BCR/ABL protein was reduced sharply after a single dose of 50nmol/L siRNA transfection. Conclusions: Proliferation of K562 cells was remarkbly inhibited by siRNAs (siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786) in a concentration-dependent manner in vitro, with effective induction of apoptosis at a concentration of 50 nmol/L. One anti-leukemia mechanism in K562 cells appeared that BCR/ABL targeted protein was highly down-regulated. The siRNAs (siRNA1384, siRNA1276 and siRNA1786) may prove valuable in the treatment of CML.

Megakaryocyte Colony Formation of Fetal Liver Cells (태아 간세포의 거핵구 집락형성)

  • Kwon, Byung O;Ju, Hye Young;Kim, Chun Soo;Jeon, Dong Seok;Kim, Jong In;Kim, Heung Sik
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.45 no.2
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    • pp.247-255
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : This study was undertaken to obtain basic data about the megakaryocyte colony formation of fetal liver cells by using immunocytochemical staining and ex vivo culture with growth factors. Methods : The mononuclear cells were isolated from fetal liver and bone marrow with idiopathic thrombocytopenic purpura(ITP) and pancytopenia. These mononuclear cells were cultured in $MegaCult^{TM}-C$(Stem Cell Tech, Canada) media in the presence of growth factors and CFU-Megakaryocyte( CFU-Mk) colonies were counted on day 12. The expansion of CD34+ and CD41+ cell was analyzed by flow cytometry after 5 days incubation using flask culture. Results : The numbers of CFU-Mk colonies of mononuclear cells obtained from fetal liver in the 11th week gestational age were more than those in the 19th week specimens; growth factors could not enhance the colony expansion in all cases. Total numbers of CFU-Mk colony of fetal liver cells were higher than bone marrow from ITP or pancytopenia groups. The numbers of pure or large CFU-Mk colonies of fetal liver cells were also higher than bone marrow specimens. The rate of CD34+ cell expression of fetal liver was increased after flask culture and the enhancement effect of epression was seen only in cases which added thrombopoietin. The rate of CD41+ cell expression of fetal liver was increased after incubation, but the enhancement effect of growth factors was unclear. Conclusion : This study revealed good results about the megakaryocyte colony assay of fetal liver mononuclear cells using $MegaCult^{TM}-C$ media. This study suggests that the fetal liver could be a good source of megakaryocytic progenitor cells for clinical application in hematopoietic stem cell transplantation.

Studies on Radiation Protection Effect of the Beer (맥주의 방사선방어효과에 관한 연구)

  • Sohn, Jong-Gi;Ha, Tae-Young;Hwang, Chul-Hyan;Lee, Young-Hwa
    • The Journal of Korean Society for Radiation Therapy
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.83-90
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    • 2007
  • Purpose: In this study, it was investigated whether commercially produced beer is able to prevent a lymphocyte from radiation induced apoptosis. Materials and Methods: Whole blood samples were acquired from 5 healthy volunteers (male, 26$\sim$38 years old) and the lymphocyte were isolated by density gradient centrifugation. Radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte were investigated by 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy to 5.0 Gy irradiation. In some experiments, the donor drunk beer and then blood samples were collected. In other experiments, melatonin or glycine betain was added to lymphocyte culture medium. Treated or untreated lymphocytes were cultured for 60 hours and radiation induced apoptosis of the lymphocyte was analyzed by annexin-V staining through flow cytometery. Results: Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the untreated lymphocytes is 1.22$\pm$1.1, 1.22$\pm$1.1, 1.38$\pm$1.0, 1.47$\pm$1.1, 1.50$\pm$1.2 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of lymphocytes is isolated from beer drunken donors is 0.97$\pm$1.0, 0.99$\pm$1.0, 1.11$\pm$0.9, 1.29$\pm$1.1, 1.15$\pm$1.1 by radiation doses respectively which are reduced 21.5% compared with untreated lymphocyte. Relative radiation induced apoptosis ratio of the lymphocytes is isolated from non-alcohol beer drunken donors is 1.22$\pm$1.1, 1.17$\pm$1.1, 1.13$\pm$1.3, 1.38$\pm$1.2, 1.32$\pm$1.1 by radiation dose of 0.5 Gy, 1.0 Gy, 2.0 Gy, 3.0 Gy and 5.0 Gy respectively which are reduced 10.8% compared with the untreated lymphocyte. Conclusion: As a result, it is suggested that beer may protect the lymphocyte from radiation damage and inhibit apoptosis.

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Induction of G2/M Arrest and Apoptosis by the Methanol Extract of Typha orientalis in Human Colon Adenocarcinoma HT29 Cells (포황 메탄올 추출물에 의한 인체 대장암 세포주 HT29의 G2/M Arrest 및 Apoptosis 유발)

  • Jin, Soojung;Yun, Seung-Geun;Oh, You Na;Lee, Ji-Young;Park, Hyun-Jin;Jin, Kyong-Suk;Kwon, Hyun Ju;Kim, Byung Woo
    • Microbiology and Biotechnology Letters
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    • v.41 no.4
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    • pp.425-432
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    • 2013
  • Typha orientalis, also known as bulrush or cattail, is a perennial herbaceous plant found in freshwater wetlands and has been widely used in constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Recent data has revealed that SH21B, a mixture composed of seven herbs including T. orientalis, exhibited an anti-adipogenic activity by the inhibition of the expression of adipogenic regulators. However, the anti-cancer effect of T. orientalis and its molecular mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, we evaluated the anti-cancer effect and its mechanism in the methanol extract of T. orientalis (METO) on human colon carcinoma HT29 cells. It was found that METO treatment showed cytotoxic activity in a dose-dependent manner, and induced G2/M cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in HT29 cells. The induction of G2/M arrest by METO was associated with the up-regulation of phospho-Cdc2 (Tyr15), an inactive form of Cdc2 and the down-regulation of Cdc25c phosphatase. METO also induced tumor suppressor p53 and cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21 (WAF1/CIP1) expression. In addition, METO-induced apoptosis was characterized by the proteolytic activation of caspase-3, degradation of poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP), and up-regulation of death receptor FAS and pro-apoptotic Bax expression. Collectively, these results indicate that the cell cycle inhibition and apoptosis induction of METO in HT29 cells allows for the possibility of its use in anti-cancer therapies.

Cell Protective Effects of Enzymatic Hydrolysates of Citrus Peel Pectin (귤피 펙틴 유래 효소적 가수분해물의 세포 보호 효과)

  • Kwon, Soon Woo;Ko, Hyun Ju;Bae, Jun Tae;Kim, Jin Hwa;Lee, Geun Soo;Pyo, Hyeong Bae
    • Journal of the Society of Cosmetic Scientists of Korea
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    • v.42 no.1
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    • pp.75-85
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    • 2016
  • Pectin, a naturally occurring polysaccharide, has in recent years attracted considerable attention. Its benefits are increasingly appreciated by scientists and consumers due to its safety and usefulness. The chemistry and gel-forming characteristics of pectin have enabled to be used in pharmaceutical industry, health promotion and treatment. Yet, it has been rarely used in cosmetics because of its incompatibility with many cosmetic ingredients, including alcohols, and unstable viscosity of pectin gels under various pH and salt conditions. However, low-molecular-weight pectin oligomers have excellent biological activities, and depolymerization of pectin to produce cosmetic ingredients would be very useful. In this study, we attempted the development of cosmetic ingredients using pectin with an excellent effect on human skin. We developed a bio-conversion process that uses enzymatic hydrolysis to produce pectin hydrolysates containing mainly low-molecular-weight pectin oligomers. Gel permeation chromatography was used to determined the ratio of hydrolysis. The molecular weight of the pectin hydrolysates obtained varied between 200 and 2,700 Da. The two newly developed low-molecular-weight pectin hydrolysates, LMPH A and B, had higher anti-oxidative activities than pectin or D-galacturonic. Exposure to UVB radiation induces apoptotic cell death in epidermal cells. Annexin V binding and propidium iodide uptake were measured by flow cytometry to evaluate UVB-induced cell death in HaCaT cells. Both LMPH A and B reduced UVB-induced cell death and increased cell proliferation by 22% and 30% at 0.5% concentration respectively, while pectin had no significant activity. In conclusion, this study suggests that the newly developed low-molecular-weight pectin hydrolysates can be used as safe and biologically active cosmetic ingredients.

Ginsenoside F2 attenuates chronic-binge ethanol-induced liver injury by increasing regulatory T cells and decreasing Th17 cells

  • Kim, Myung-Ho;Kim, Hee-Hoon;Jeong, Jong-Min;Shim, Young-Ri;Lee, Jun-Hee;Kim, Ye Eun;Ryu, Tom;Yang, Keungmo;Kim, Kyu-Rae;Jeon, Byeong-Min;Kim, Sun Chang;Jung, Jae-Kwang;Choi, Jae-Kap;Lee, Young-Sun;Byun, Jin-Seok;Jeong, Won-Il
    • Journal of Ginseng Research
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.815-822
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    • 2020
  • Background: Recently, beneficial roles of ginsenoside F2 (GF2), a minor constituent of Panax ginseng, have been demonstrated in diverse inflammatory diseases. However, its roles in alcoholic liver inflammation and injury have not been clearly understood. Here, we investigated the underlying mechanism by which GF2 ameliorated alcoholic liver injury. Methods: To induce alcoholic liver injury, C57BL/6J wild type (WT) or interleukin (IL)-10 knockout (KO) mice were orally administered with ethanol (3 g/kg) or ethanol-containing GF2 (50 mg/kg) for 2 wk. Liver injury and infiltration of macrophages and neutrophils were evaluated by serum biochemistry and immunohistochemistry, respectively. The changes of hepatic immune cells were assessed by flow cytometry and polymerase chain reaction analysis. In vitro differentiation of naïve T cells was performed. Results: GF2 treatment significantly attenuated alcoholic liver injury, in which infiltrations of inflammatory macrophages and neutrophils were decreased. Moreover, the frequencies of Foxp3+ regulatory T cells (Tregs) increased but IL-17-producing T (Th17) cells decreased in GF2-treated mice compared to controls. Furthermore, the mRNA expression of IL-10 and Foxp3 was significantly increased, whereas IL-17 mRNA expression was suppressed in GF2-treated mice. However, these beneficial roles of GF2 were not observed in GF2-treated IL-10 KO mice, suggesting a critical role of IL-10. Similarly, GF2 treatment suppressed differentiation of naïve T cells into Th17 cells by inhibiting RORgt expression and stimulating Foxp3 expression. Conclusion: The present study suggests that GF2 treatment attenuates alcoholic liver injury by increasing IL-10 expression and Tregs and decreasing IL-17 expression and Th17 cells.

Use of Human Adipose Tissue as a Source of Endothelial Cells (혈관내피세포 채취의 원천으로 인간 지방조직의 활용)

  • Park, Bong-Wook;Hah, Young-Sool;Kim, Jin-Hyun;Cho, Hee-Young;Jung, Myeong-Hee;Kim, Deok-Ryong;Kim, Uk-Kyu;Kim, Jong-Ryoul;Jang, Jung-Hui;Byun, June-Ho
    • Maxillofacial Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
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    • v.32 no.4
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    • pp.299-305
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    • 2010
  • Purpose: Adipose tissue is located beneath the skin, around internal organs, and in the bone marrow in humans. Its main role is to store energy in the form of fat, although it also cushions and insulates the body. Adipose tissue also has the ability to dynamically expand and shrink throughout the life of an adult. Recently, it has been shown that adipose tissue contains a population of adult multipotent mesenchymal stem cells and endothelial progenitor cells that, in cell culture conditions, have extensive proliferative capacity and are able to differentiate into several lineages, including, osteogenic, chondrogenic, endothelial cells, and myogenic lineages. Materials and Methods: This study focused on endothelial cell culture from the adipose tissue. Adipose tissues were harvested from buccal fat pad during bilateral sagittal split ramus osteotomy for surgical correction of mandibular prognathism. The tissues were treated with 0.075% type I collagenase. The samples were neutralized with DMEM/and centrifuged for 10 min at 2,400 rpm. The pellet was treated with 3 volume of RBC lysis buffer and filtered through a 100 ${\mu}m$ nylon cell strainer. The filtered cells were centrifuged for 10 min at 2,400 rpm. The cells were further cultured in the endothelial cell culture medium (EGM-2, Cambrex, Walkersville, Md., USA) supplemented with 10% fetal bovine serum, human EGF, human VEGF, human insulin-like growth factor-1, human FGF-$\beta$, heparin, ascorbic acid and hydrocortisone at a density of $1{\times}10^5$ cells/well in a 24-well plate. Low positivity of endothelial cell markers, such as CD31 and CD146, was observed during early passage of cells. Results: Increase of CD146 positivity was observed in passage 5 to 7 adipose tissue-derived cells. However, CD44, representative mesenchymal stem cell marker, was also strongly expressed. CD146 sorted adipose tissue-derived cells was cultured using immuno-magnetic beads. Magnetic labeling with 100 ${\mu}l$ microbeads per 108 cells was performed for 30 minutes at $4^{\circ}C$ a using CD146 direct cell isolation kit. Magnetic separation was carried out and a separator under a biological hood. Aliquous of CD146+ sorted cells were evaluated for purity by flow cytometry. Sorted cells were 96.04% positivity for CD146. And then tube formation was examined. These CD146 sorted adipose tissue-derived cells formed tube-like structures on Matrigel. Conclusion: These results suggest that adipose tissue-derived cells are endothelial cells. With the fabrication of the vascularized scaffold construct, novel approaches could be developed to enhance the engineered scaffold by the addition of adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells and periosteal-derived osteoblastic cells to promote bone growth.

Apoptosis Induction by Dendropanax morbiferus Leaves Extract in Human Breast Cancer Cells SK-BR-3 through MAPK Pathway (유방암 세포에서 황칠나무 잎 추출물의 MAPK 경로를 통한 apoptosis 유도)

  • Jung, Gi Hwan;Kim, Sung Hyun;Woo, Joong Seok;Yoo, Eun Seon;Lee, Jae Han;Han, So Hee;Jung, Soo Hyun;Kim, Sae Man;Kim, Eun Gee;Shin, Man Jae;Cho, Ho Min;Jung, Ji Youn
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.827-833
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    • 2021
  • Dendropanax morbiferus leaves (DPL) has been used as a medicine since ancient times in various diseases such as inflammation, diabetes, and cancer. In particular, it has been found to have anticancer effects on several types of cancer cells, but the anticancer effect on breast cancer cells SK-BR-3 has not yet been revealed. Therefore, in this study, DPL caused proliferation inhibition in breast cancer cells SK-BR-3 and the anticancer effect by inducing apoptosis was confirmed, through an in vitro experiment. In order to examine the effect of DPL on cell viability, MTT assay was performed to confirm a significant decrease in the concentration of cell viability. DAPI staining was performed to examine the effect of DPL on cellular morphological changes and increase of apoptotic bodies. To supplement this, an increase in the apoptosis rate was also confirmed through flow cytometry after staining with annexin V/PI. Western blot was performed to confirm apoptosis-related proteins. DPL increased the expression of Cleaved-PARP, Bax whereas decreased the expression of Bcl-2. Changes in the expression levels of MAPK pathway proteins p-ERK1/2, p-JNK, and p-p38 were also confirmed, and a significant increase in p-p38 was observed. These results indicated that DPL induced apoptosis, through p-p38 MAPK signal pathway in SK-BR-3 breast cancer cells.

Effects and Molecular Mechanisms of Eupatorium chinensis var. simplicifolium Extract on Abnormal Proliferation of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells (등골나물추출물의 혈관 평활근 세포의 비정상 증식에 대한 억제 효과 및 분자기작)

  • Kim, Min-Jeong;Kim, Jihee;Lee, Jin-Ho;Kim, Minah;Woo, Keunjung;Kim, Han Sung;Kim, Tack-Joong
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.31 no.9
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    • pp.787-795
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    • 2021
  • Eupatorium chinensis var. simplicifolium (EUC) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. Young sprouts of EUC have been used as food for a long time, and the whole EUC plant has been used as an herbal remedy in oriental medicine. Arteriosclerosis, or chronic inflammation in arterial vessels, is a cardiovascular disease and is involved in various disorders. Cardiovascular diseases such as restenosis and neuropathic hyperplasia are mainly caused by abnormal growth and movement due to multiple growth factors in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a mitogen released from damaged vessel walls and is involved in the proliferation and migration of VSMCs. To determine the effects of EUC on the abnormal proliferation and migration of VSMCs, the present study investigated intracellular signaling pathways in PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs treated with and without EUC. Pretreating PDGF-BB-induced VSMCs with EUC tended to effectively decrease cell proliferation and migration. Subsequently, the intracellular growth-related signaling pathways of AKT, phospholipase C gamma (PLC-γ), and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) were investigated using western blotting to confirm inhibited phosphorylation. Furthermore, flow cytometry data showed that EUC blocked the cell cycle of VSMCs. These results suggest that EUC can inhibit the proliferation and migration of VSMCs by controlling the cell cycle and growth factor receptors. Furthermore, this indicates that EUC can be used as a preventative against cardiovascular disease resulting from abnormal proliferation and migration of VSMCs.