• Title/Summary/Keyword: fatty acid

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Identification of Exonic Nucleotide Variants of the Thyroid Hormone Responsive Protein Gene Associated with Carcass Traits and Fatty Acid Composition in Korean Cattle

  • Oh, Dong-Yep;Lee, Yoon-Seok;La, Boo-Mi;Lee, Jea-Young;Park, Yong-Soo;Lee, Ji-Hong;Ha, Jae-Jung;Yi, Jun-Koo;Kim, Byung-Ki;Yeo, Jung-Sou
    • Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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    • v.27 no.10
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    • pp.1373-1380
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    • 2014
  • The thyroid hormone responsive protein (THRSP) gene is a functional gene that can be used to indicate the fatty acid compositions. This study investigates the relationships of exonic single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the THRSP gene and fatty acid composition of muscle fat and marbling score in the 612 Korean cattle. The relationships between fatty acid composition and eight SNPs in the THRSP gene (g.78 G>A, g.173 C>T, g.184 C>T, g.190 C>A, g.194 C>T, g.277 C>G, g.283 T>G and g.290 T>G) were investigated, and according to the results, two SNPs (g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T) in exon 1 were associated with fatty acid composition. The GG and CC genotypes of g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had higher unsaturated fatty acid (UFA) and monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) content (p<0.05). In addition, the $ht1^*ht1$ group (Val/Ala haplotype) in a linkage disequilibrium increased MUFAs and marbling scores for carcass traits (p<0.05). As a result, g.78 G>A and g.184 C>T had significantly relationships with UFAs and MUFAs. Two SNPs in the THRSP gene affected fatty acid composition, suggesting that GG and CC genotypes and the $ht1^*ht1$ group (Val/Ala haplotype) can be markers to genetically improve the quality and flavor of beef.

Comparison of Inclusion Complex Formation Capacity of Cyclodextrins with Various Molecules and Characterization of Cyclodextrin-fatty Acid Complex (Cyclodextrin의 Inclusion Complex 형성능과 Fatty Acid와의 Complex 형성조건과 특성)

  • 이용현;정승환박동찬
    • KSBB Journal
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.149-158
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    • 1995
  • The capacity of inclusion complex formation between ${\alpha}$-, ${\beta}$-, ${\gamma}$-cyclodextrins(CDs) and various compounds, such as pH indicators, biloslalns, glycoside, amino acid, and fatty acids, was compared. Fatty acid was identified as the most suitable ligand for fractionation of CDs in terms of capacity and selectivity. The effects of complex formation conditions, such as, mixing ratio of CD and fatty acid, pH, ionic strength, and temperature, on the capacity of fatty acrid-CD complex was also investigated. The carbon number of fatty acids was identified as the most significant factor determining the capacity and selectivity of inclusion complex formation of CDs. Capric acid(C10) and palmitic acid(C16) showed high specificity for ${\alpha}$- and ${\beta}$-CDs, respectively. Under the optimal conditions, the molar ratio of complex formed was found to be 1.0:2.6 for ${\alpha}$-CD/capric acid and 1.0:1.9 for ${\beta}$-CD/palmitic acid. X-ray diffraction and infrared spectrum of the formed inclusion complex were analyzed. The changes of enthalpy($\Delta$H) of the inclusion complex formation reaction was evaluated by differential scanning calorimetry, showed that the reaction was endothermic.

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Increasing trends in dietary total fat and fatty acid intake among Korean children: using the 2007-2017 national data

  • Song, SuJin;Shim, Jae Eun
    • Nutrition Research and Practice
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    • v.16 no.2
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    • pp.260-271
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    • 2022
  • BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The prevalence of obesity has been increasing in Korean children. As an unhealthy diet is known as one of the major determinants of childhood obesity, assessing and monitoring dietary fat intake of children is needed. SUBJECTS/METHODS: This analysis included 9,998 children aged 3-11 yrs from the 2007-2017 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys. Dietary data were obtained from a single 24-h dietary recall. Intakes of total fat and fatty acids, including saturated fatty acid (SFA), monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA), polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), n-3 fatty acid (n-3 FA), and n-6 fatty acid (n-6 FA) were evaluated as the absolute amount (g) and proportion of energy from each fatty acid (% of energy). The total fat and SFA intake were also assessed according to compliance with dietary guidelines. Linear trends in the dietary fats intake across the survey period were tested using multiple regression models. RESULTS: Total fat intake significantly increased from 38.5g (20.3% of energy) to 43.4g (23.3% of energy) from 2007 to 2017. This increase was mainly accounted for the increases in intakes of SFA (7.2% to 8.4% of energy) and MUFA (6.2% to 7.5% of energy). PUFA intake increased from 4.4 to 4.7% of energy during the 11-yrs period: from 0.57 to 0.63% of energy for n-3 FA and from 3.8 to 4.1% of energy for n-6 FA. The proportions of children who consumed amounts exceeding the dietary guidelines for total fat and SFA significantly increased from 2007 to 2017, with increases from 9.8% to 17.4% for total fat and from 36.9% to 50.9% for SFA. CONCLUSIONS: Prominent increasing trends in the consumption of total fat and SFA but tiny change in n-3 FA intake were observed in Korean children. The healthy intake of dietary fats should be emphasized in this population.

Fatty Acid Profiles, Meat Quality, and Sensory Palatability of Grain-fed and Grass-fed Beef from Hanwoo, American, and Australian Crossbred Cattle

  • Hwang, Young-Hwa;Joo, Seon-Tea
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.37 no.2
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    • pp.153-161
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    • 2017
  • Fatty acid profiles in relation to meat quality traits and sensory palatability of grain-fed and grass-fed beef from Hanwoo, American, and Australian crossbred cattle were examined in this study. There were significant (p<0.001) differences in fat content and fatty acid compositions between grain-fed and grass-fed beef. Grain-fed Hanwoo had significantly (p<0.001) lower saturated fatty acid (SFA) proportion but higher monounsaturated fatty acid (MUFA) proportion compared to grass-fed cattle. The proportion of oleic acid in grain-fed Hanwoo was significantly (p<0.001) higher than that in grass-fed Hanwoo, Australian crossbred, or American crossbred cattle. Grain-fed Hanwoo had significantly (p<0.001) lower percentages of drip loss and cooking loss compared to other cattle. Overall palatability panel scores of grain-fed cattle were significantly (p<0.001) higher than those of grass-fed cattle. Consequently, sensory overall palatability was negatively correlated with proportions of SFA and polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA), but positively correlated with the proportion of MUFA. In particular, the proportion of oleic acid was strongly and positively correlated with fat content (r=0.91, p<0.001) and overall palatability (r=0.92, p<0.001). These results implied that high-concentrate grain-fed could increase intramuscular fat (IMF) content and the proportion of oleic acid, thus increasing the sensory palatability of Hanwoo beef.

Determination of Fatty Acid Composition and Total Trans Fatty Acids in Meat Products

  • Yilmaz, Ismail;Gecgel, Umit
    • Food Science and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.350-355
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    • 2009
  • In this research, fatty acid composition and trans fatty acids of 22 selected meat products produced by Turkish companies were analyzed by capillary gas liquid chromatography (GLC). Total fat contents of the meat products ranged from 11.60-42.50%. Salami had the lowest fat content 11.60% and sucuk (soudjuk) the highest 42.50%. Major fatty acids were C$_{16:0}$, C$_{18:0}$, trans C$_{18:1}$, cis C$_{18:1}$, and C$_{18:2}$ in the samples. Total unsaturated fatty acid contents have changed from 38.73 to 70.71% of total fatty acids, and sausage had the highest percentage among the samples. The majority of samples contain trans fatty acids and the level ranged from 2.28 to 7.95% of the total fatty acids. The highest amount of total trans fatty acids was determined in kavurma (Cavurmas) (7.95%), and total trans fatty acids of meat products such as pastrami contained more than 5% of the total fatty acids.

A Study on the Changes of Fatty Acid Composition of Phospholipid and Glycolipid during Storage Period of Kaesojoo (저장기간에 따른 개소주의 Phospholipid 및 Glycolipid의 지방산 변화에 관한 연구)

  • 박창일;김영직;김영길
    • Food Science of Animal Resources
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    • v.18 no.4
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    • pp.332-338
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    • 1998
  • This experiment was carried out to investigate the changes in phospholipid and glycolipid of Kaesojoo and Kaesojoo added medicinal herbs during storage(30 days) at 4$^{\circ}C$and -18$^{\circ}C$. Two dogs with 12kg live weight(♀, The Korean Jindo dog Hy-breed, 11∼12 month) were slaughtered to obtain samples. The result obtained were as follows: The saturated fatty acids found in phospholipid of Kaesojoo were palmitic acid, stearic acid, myristic acid, while the unsaturated fatty acid found in phospholipid of Kaesojoo with medicinal herbs were palmitic acid, stearic acid, arachidonic acid, while the unsaturated fatty acid were mostly oleic acid, increased during the period of storage. The saturated fatty acid found in glycolipid obtained from Kaesojoo were mostly oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The saturated fatty acid obtained from Kaesojoo with medicinal herbs were palmitic acid, stearic acid, while the unsaturated fatty acid were mostly oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid. The rates of changes in unsaturated and saturated fatty acid were higher at 4$^{\circ}C$ than that of -18$^{\circ}C$ during storage.

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Physiological Responses of Oxygen-Tolerant Anaerobic Bifidobacterium longum under Oxygen

  • Ahn, Jun-Bae;Hwang, Han-Joon;Park, Jong-Hyun
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.11 no.3
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    • pp.443-451
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    • 2001
  • In order to investigate what kind of response anaerobic bifidobacteria has on oxygen stress, five oxygen-tolerant bifidobacteria were isolated from human fecal samples. All were temporarily identified as Bifidobacterium longum through an analysis of carbohydrate utilization patterns and cellular fatty acid profiles. In the presence of oxygen, the lag phase became extended and the cell growth was suppressed. Bifidobacterial cell was able to remove dissolved oxygen in an early stage of growth and to overcome oxygen stress to a certain extent. The cell became long n size and showed a rough surface containing many nodes which were derived from abnormal or incomplete cell division. Cellular fatty acid profiled changed remarkably under a partially aerobic condition, so that the carbon chain of cellular fatty acid became short. All the dimethyl acetals originated from plasmalogen were reduced, any cyclopropane fatty acid, 9, 10-methyleneoctadecanoic acid ($C_{19:0}cyc9,10$), was increased remarkably. Oxygen stress induced a 5.5 kD protein in B. longum JI 1 of the oxygen-teolerant bifidobacteria, that was named Osp protein, and its N-terminal amino acid sequence was as follows: unknown amino acid-Thr-Gly-Val-Arg-Phe-Ser-Asp-Asp-Glu. Therefore, the oxygen-tolerant bifidobacteria seemed to defend against oxygen stress byincreasing the content of short fatty acid and cyclopropane fatty acid, and induction of an oxygen stress protein, but not the plasmalogen.

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Fish Oil Variation during Enzymatic Ethanolysis (어유의 효소적 에탄올화 반응 특성)

  • Shin, Sang-Kyu;Yoo, Hong-Suk;Pack, Hyun-Duk;Chun, Byung-Soo
    • Journal of Marine Bioscience and Biotechnology
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    • v.1 no.4
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    • pp.311-316
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    • 2006
  • Enzymatic ethanolysis of fish oil with immobilized lipase was investigated for reducing the free fatty acid contents and enhancing the function of fish oil. Ethanolysis reactions were carried out in erlenmeyer flask (25ml) containing a mixture of squid viscera oil and 99.9% ethanol using 1% (based on w/w squid viscera oil) immobilized lipase. The reaction mixtures were incubated at $50^{\circ}C$ and shaken at 100rpm. Ethanol was added into the mixture by stepwise addition method of Shinmada[9]. Measurement of free fatty acid molar amounts was studied by Acid Value. Tendency of oil variation during transesterification was studied by TLC method. Enzymatic ethanolysis composed diglyceride, monoglyceride and fatty acid ethyl ester with reducing free fatty acid contents. Also, selective ethanolysis by Lipozyme TL-IM and Lipozyme RM-IM mostly did not react at the sn-2 position of squid viscera oil. Lipozyme RM-IM was more suitable enzyme to reduce the free fatty acid contents by ethanolysis than Lipozyme TL-IM. Squid viscera oil was transformed into suitable properties (5 in Acid Value) for functional fish oil production.

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Effects of Feeding the Mixture of Lineseed and Sunflower Seed Oil on the Fatty Acid Composition in Lipid of Brain and Heart in Dietary Hyperlipidemic Rats (아마인유와 해바라기 종자유의 혼합급이가 식이성 고지혈증 흰쥐의 뇌 및 심장지질의 지방산 조성에 미치는 영향)

  • 최운정;김한수;김성희;서인숙;김군자;정승용
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.205-211
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    • 1994
  • This study was carried out to investigate the effect of the feeding mixture of linseed oil, rich in n-6 PUFA on the lipid metabolism in the dietary hyperlipidemic rats. After male Sprague-Dawley rats were induced hyperlipidemia by feeding the diet containing lard, butter and cholesterol for 3 weeks. then they were fed with the diet containing lard 3.0% and butter 12.0% for control, the mixture in different proportion of both linseed oil and sunflower seed oil, and antihyperlipidemic drugs for 2 weeks. Analysis of the fatty acid composition of the brain and heart lipids showed following results. In the fatty acid composition of brain lipids, C20:4 and C22:6 were the major fatty acids but showed little difference among the groups. In the fatty acid of heart lipids,C18:2 was the major fatty acid. The proportion of C20:4 decreased gradually as n-3P/n-6P ratio of the test lipids increased in groups 5 (linseed oil 12.0%) to 9 (sunflower seed oil 12.0%) while the proportion of C22:6 was not affected by the fatty acid composition of the test lipids.

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The Role of Membranes and Intracellular Binding Proteins in Cytoplasmic Transport of Hydrophobic Molecules : Fatty Acid Binding Proteins and Long Chain Fatty Acids (세포내 소수성 물질 이동에서 막과 세포내 결합단백질의 역살 : 지방산 결합 단밸직과 장쇄 지방산)

  • 김혜경
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.30 no.6
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    • pp.658-668
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    • 1997
  • Path of a small hydrophobic molecule through the aqueous cytoplasma is not linear. Partition may favor membrane binding by several orders of magnitude : thus significant membrane association will markedly decrease the cytosolic transport rate. The presence of high concentration of soluble binding proteins for these hydrophobic molecules would compete with membrane association and thereby increase transport rate. For long chain fatty acid molecules, a family of cytosolic binding proteins collectively known as the fatty acid binding proteins(FABP), are thought to act as intracellular transport proteins. This paper examines the mechanism of transfer of fluorescent antyroyloxy-labeled fatty acids(AOFA) from purified FABPs to phosholipid membranes. With the exception of the liver FABP, AOFA is transferred from FABP by collisional interaction of the protein with a acceptor membrane. The rate of transfer increased markedly when membranes contain anionic phospholipids. This suggests that positively charged residues on the surface of the FABP may interact with the membranes. Neutralization of the surface lysine residues of adipocyte FABP decreased fatty acid transfer rate, and transfer was found to proceed via aqueous diffusion rather than collisional interaction. Site specific mutagenesis has further shown that the helix-turn-helix domain of the FABP is critical for interaction with anionic acceptor membranes. Thus cytosolic FABP may function in intracellular transport of fatty acid to decrease their membranes association as well as to target fatty acid to specific subcellular sites of utilization.

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