• Title/Summary/Keyword: cation

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Impact of sodium or potassium concentration in glucose aquoes solution to fermentation by Kluyveromyces marxianus (배양액내 나트륨과 칼륨의 농도가 고온 발효 균주 Kluyveromyces marxianus의 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Woo-Yong;Shin, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.47 no.3
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    • pp.11-17
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    • 2015
  • In acid hydrolysis process of biomass saccharification. neutralization of acid hydrolyzate is essential step, which resulted in dissolved cations in glucose solution. Impact of cations to Kluyveromyces marxianus in glucose solution was investigated focused on ethanol fermentation. Either potassium or sodium cations decreased the ethanol fermentation and glucose to ethanol conversion. Glucose consumption by K. marxianus was delayed by increasing potassium cation concentration as completely consumed within 12 h in potassium cation 0.46 mol and 0.92 mol but within 24 h in potassium cation 1.38 mol. Also, ethanol fermentation process was slowed down with increasing concentration of the potassium sulfate. Fermentation of glucose solution to ethanol was more inhibited by sodium cation than potassium cation in glucose solution. Glucose was completely consumed within 24 h in sodium cation 0.95 mol. but at 1.90 mol or 2.84 mol in sodium cation could not finish the fermentation within 48 hour. Ethanol concentration was 22.26 g/L at low sodium cation in glucose solution with complete fermentation within 24 h. With increasing sodium cation in glucose solution, final ethanol concentration was reached at 14.10 g/L (sodium cation con) and 0.21 g/L (sodium cation con), which meant delaying of fermentation by sodium cations.

A Study on the Dyeing of CDP(cation dyeable polyester)/Silk Knitted Fabrics With Disperse Type Cation Dyes/Acid Dyes (분산형캐티온염료/산성염료에 의한 CDP(cation dyeable polyester)/견 교편물의 염색에 관한 연구)

  • Sung, Woo-Kyung
    • Fashion & Textile Research Journal
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    • v.13 no.5
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    • pp.797-805
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    • 2011
  • This study was carried out to investigate dyeing characteristics of CDP(cation dyeable polyester)/silk knitted fabrics with disperse type cation dyes/acid dyes by one bath dyeing method in comparison with two bath dyeing method in the interests for rationalization of the dyeing process. The apparent color depth(K/S) of the disperse type cation dyes with CDP and that of acid dyes with silk decreased slowly with increasing pH values of dyebath with the exception of sharp decrease at alkali region for CDP. The contamination behavior of CDP by the acid dyes and that of silk by the disperse type cation dyes decreased with progressing of dyeing. The migration ratio(%) of the disperse type cation dyes with CDP is low compared with that of acid dyes with silk. The sediment in mixed dying solution of disperse type cation dyes and acid dyes remarkably less compared with that of regular type cation dyes and acid dyes at $100^{\circ}C$ regardless applying of preventer agent of precipitation. When CDP/silk knitted fabrics was dyed with by with mixtures of disperse type cation dyes/acid dyes one bath or two bath dyeing method, the characteristic of reflectance spectra of CDP components were greatly influenced by disperse type cation dyes and that of silk components by acid dyes. It was confirmed that K/S values of each components of CDP/silk knitted fabrics dyed by one bath dyeing method decreased slightly compared with two bath dyeing method.

Impact of sodium or potassium cations in culture medium to ethanol fermentation by Saccharomyces cerevisiae (배양액내 나트륨 및 칼륨 이온 농도가 Saccharomyces cerevisiae의 발효에 미치는 영향)

  • Song, Woo-Yong;Seung, Hyun-A;Shin, Soo-Jeong
    • Journal of Korea Technical Association of The Pulp and Paper Industry
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.17-23
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    • 2015
  • In bioethanol from acid hydrolysis process, neutralization of acid hydrolyzate is essential step, which resulted in dissolved cations in glucose solution. Impact of cations to Saccharomyces cerevisiae in glucose solution was investigated focused on ethanol fermentation. Both potassium and sodium cations decreased the ethanol fermentation and glucose to ethanol conversion as potassium or sodium cations. In sodium cation, more than 1.13 N sodium cation in glucose solution led to ethanol production less than theoretical yield with severe inhibition. In 1.13 N sodium cation concentration, ethanol fermentation was slowed down to reach the maximum ethanol concentration with 48 h fermentation compared with 24 h fermentation in control (no sodium cation in glucose solution). In case of potassium cation, three different levels of potassium led to silimar ethanol concentration even though slight slow down of ethanol fermentation with increasing potassium cation concentration at 12 h fermentation. Sodium cation showed more inhibition than potassium cation as ethanol concentration and glucose consumption by Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Theoretical and Experimental Studies on the Kinetics of Cation Redistribution Processes in Complex Oxides

  • Shi, Jianmin;Becker, Klaus-Dieter
    • Journal of the Korean Ceramic Society
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    • v.47 no.1
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    • pp.39-46
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    • 2010
  • The kinetics of cation reequilibration have been studied theoretically and experimentally in complex oxides after an external perturbation of equilibrium by temperature jumps. A general kinetic model for cation redistribution amongst non-equivalent sites in complex oxides is derived based on a local homogeneous point defect mechanism involving cation vacancies. Temperature-jump optical relaxation spectroscopy has been established to investigate cation kinetic processes in spinels and olivines. The kinetic model satisfactorily describes the experimental absorbance relaxation kinetics in cobalt containing olivines and in nickel containing spinels. It is found that the kinetics of cation redistribution in complex oxides shows a strong temperature- and composition-dependence. Activation energies for cation redistribution in Co-Mg olivines are found to range between 200 and 220 kJ/mol whereas an energy barrier of about 230 kJ/mol is observed in the case of nickel gallate spinel.

Chloride diffusion in concrete associated with single, dual and multi cation types

  • Song, Zijian;Jiang, Linhua;Zhang, Ziming
    • Computers and Concrete
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    • v.17 no.1
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    • pp.53-66
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    • 2016
  • Currently, most of the investigations on chloride diffusion were based on the experiments and simulations concerning single cation type chlorides. Chloride diffusion associated with dual or multi cation types was rarely studied. In this paper, several groups of diffusion experiments are conducted using chloride solutions containing single, dual and multi cation types. A multi-ionic model is also proposed to simulate the chloride diffusion behavior in the experimental tests. The MATLAB software is used to numerically solve the nonlinear PDEs in the multi-ionic model. The experimental and simulated results show that the chloride diffusion behavior associated with different cation types is significantly different. When the single cation type chlorides are adopted, it is found that the bound rates of chloride ions combined with divalent cations are greater than those combined with monovalent cations. When the dual/multi cation type chlorides are adopted, the chloride bound rates increase with the $Ca^{2+}/Mg^{2+}$ percentage in the source solutions. This evidence indicates that the divalent cations would markedly enhance the chloride binding capacity and reduce the chloride diffusivity. Moreover, on the basis of the analysis, it is also found that the complicated cation types in source solutions are beneficial to reducing the chloride diffusivity.

DFT Study of Water-Assisted Intramolecular Proton Transfer in the Tautomers of Thymine Radical Cation

  • Kim, Nam-Joon
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.27 no.7
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    • pp.1009-1014
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    • 2006
  • Density functional theory calculations are applied to investigate the intramolecular proton transfer in the tautomers of thymine radical cation and its hydrated complexes with one water molecule. The optimized structures and energies for 6 tautomers and 6 transition states of thymine radical cation are calculated at the B3LYP/6-311++G(d,p) level. It is predicted that the order of relative stability for the keto and enol tautomers of thymine radical cation is the same with that of the neutral thymine tautomers, though the enol tautomers are more stabilized with respect to the di-keto form in the radical cation than in the neutral state. A new channel of proton transfer from >C5-$CH_{3}$ of thymine is found to open and have the lowest energy barrier of other proton transfer processes in thymine radical cation. The roles of hydration are also investigated with thymine-water 1 : 1 complex ions. The presence of water significantly lowers the barrier of the proton transfer, which clearly shows the assisting role of hydration even with one water molecule

$\pi$-Participation in Bicyclo [3.2.1]oct-6-en-2-yl Cation. $^{19}F$ NMR Spectroscopy as a Probe

  • Chae Jong-Kun;Shin Jung-Hyu
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.12-14
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    • 1994
  • p-Fluorophenyl bicyclo[3.2.l]oct-6-en-2-yl cation (3) prepared in $FSO_3H-SO_2-CIF$ solution at -90$^{\circ}$C and examined by fluorine-19 nmr spectroscopy. The nmr data give a clear evidence for the formation of a stabilized ${\pi}$-bridging cation species in superacids. The degree of ${\pi}$delocalization in this cation is found to be inferior to the onset of nonclassical stabilization in 2-norbornenyl cation.

$^{13}C-^{1}H$ Coupling Constant as a Criterion for the Presence of $\pi$ Bridging in Substituted 9-Benzonorbornenyl Cation

  • Gweon-Young Ryu;Jung-Hyu Shin
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.14 no.5
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    • pp.546-548
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    • 1993
  • The discrete structure of substituted 9-benzonorbornenyl cation 3a and 3c was studied using the empirical ${\Delta}$J equation which was developed by Kelly and coworker$^5$. The ${\Delta}$J values of substituted 9-benzonorbornenyl cations were obtained from p-methyl-6,7-dimethyl benzonorbornen-9-yl (3a) and 9-methyl-6,7-dimethyl benzonorbonen-9-yl (3c) cations under stable ion conditions, and were compared with those of the corresponding ketone analog; these cations were generated by dissolving the corresponding carbinols in superacid at -120$^{\circ}$C and the nmr spectra taken at -60$^{\circ}$C~-90$^{\circ}$C. The ${\Delta}$J values are 8.7 Hz for the bridgehead carbons in cation 3c and 3.1 Hz for cation 3b. The ${\Delta}$J values at C5,8 in fused benzene ring are 14.3 Hz for cation 3c and 8.7 Hz for cation 3a. The excellent correlation of the ${\Delta}$J values with 1$^9F$ chemical shifts of p-fluorophenyl-6,7-dimethylbenzonorbornenyl cation (3d) indicate that ${\Delta}$J value is a reliable probe to charge density at adjacent cationic carbon. These NMR parameters strongly support that the symmetrically ${\pi}$-bridged nonclassical structure (type 2) of substituted 9-benzonorbornenyl cations in stable ion conditions.

New Mechanism for the Reaction of Thianthrene Cation Radical Perchlorate with tert-Butyl Peroxide

  • Park, Bo-Kyung;Sohn, Chang-Kook;Lee, Wang-Keun
    • Bulletin of the Korean Chemical Society
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.103-106
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    • 2002
  • A new reaction mechanism is proposed for the reaction of thianthrene cation radical perchlorate $(Th^{+{\cdot}}CIO_4^-}$ and tert-butyl peroxide in acetonitrile at room temperature on the basis of experimental and theoretical results. Rapid C-O bond rupture instead of O-O bond cleavage was observed by a good peroxy radical trapping agent, thianthrene cation radical. Products were N-tert-butyl acetamide, thianthrene 5-oxide (ThO), thianthrene 5,5-dioxide $(SSO_2)$, and thianthrene (Th). Thianthrene 5,10-dioxide (SOSO) was not obtained. A comparative computational study of the cation radical of tert-butyl peroxide is made by using B3LYP and CBS-4. The computational results are helpful to explain the reaction mechanism.