• Title/Summary/Keyword: biomaterials

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Evaluation of Water Stress Using Canopy Temperature and Crop Water Stress Index (CWSI) in Peach Trees (복숭아나무의 엽온 및 작물수분스트레스 지수를 이용한 수분스트레스 평가)

  • Yun, Seok Kyu;Kim, Sung Jong;Nam, Eun Young;Kwon, Jung Hyun;Do, Yun Soo;Song, Seung-Yeob;Kim, Minyoung;Choi, Yonghun;Kim, Ghiseok;Shin, Hyunsuk
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.20-27
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    • 2020
  • The study was performed to calculate canopy temperatures and crop water stress index (CWSI) of 2-year-old 'Yumi' peach trees using thermal infrared imaging under different soil water conditions, and to evaluate availability for water stress determination. Canopy temperatures showed similar daily variations to air temperatures and they were higher during the daytime than air temperatures. Canopy temperatures for 24 h were correlated highly to air temperatures (r2 =0.95), solar radiations (r2 =0.74), and relative humidity (r2 =-0.88). In addition, soil water potential showed a highly negative correlation to canopy temperatures (r2 =-0.57), temperature differences between leaf and air (TD) (r2 =-0.71), and CWSI (r2 =-0.72) during the daytime (11 to 16 h). CWSI for 24 h was highly related to canopy temperatures (r2 =0.90) and TD (r2 =0.92), whereas CWSI was not correlated to soil water potential (r2 =-0.27) for 24 h but related highly to water potential (r2 =-0.72) during the daytime (11 to 16 h). Correlation coefficients between CWSI (y) and soil water potential (x) were highest from 11 to 12 h and a regression equation was deduced as y = -0.0087x + 0.14. CWSI was calculated as 0.575 at -50 kPa, which soil water stress generally occurs. Thus our result suggests that this regression equation using thermal infrared imaging is useful to evaluate soil water stress of peach trees.

The analysis of useful components in Flammulina velutipes fruit body, Flammulina velutipes mycelium and Cordyceps militaris mycelium (팽이버섯 자실체, 팽이버섯 균사체 및 동충하초 균사체의 유용성분 분석)

  • Kim, Yong-Doo;Kwak, Sang-Ho;Kim, Kyung-Je;Seo, Kyoung-Sun;Park, Tae-Young;Yu, Kang-Yeol;Jin, Seong-Woo
    • Journal of Mushroom
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    • v.12 no.3
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    • pp.193-200
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    • 2014
  • Flammulina velutipes fruit body, Flammulina velutipes mycelium and Cordyceps militaris mycelium were analyzed for their proximate composition, protein-bound polysaccharide, nucleic acid and amino acids. The content of ash and crude fiber in F. velutipes fruit body were higher than F. mycelium and C. militaris mycelium. C. militaris mycelium showed the highest crude fat content while F. velutipes fruit body had lowest. Nitrogen free extract content of the samples varied from 56.8% in F. velutipes fruit body to 61.9% in F. velutipes mycelium. The compositions of total protein and total free sugars of protein-bound polysaccharide were found to be significant differences for all samples. Nucleic acid related compounds were identified the 5'-GMP, 5'-XMP, 5'-IMP in all samples. The content of total nucleic acids were high in the orders of F. velutipes myclial (286.71 mg%), F. velutipes fruit body(187.36 mg%) and C. militaris mycelial(76.85 mg%). The highest content of 5'-GMP was found in F. velutipes fruit body. The most nucleic acid of F. velutipes mycelial and C. militaris mycelial were the 5'-XMP. As for the analysis of total amino acids, seventeen amino acids were identified by HPLC and the major amino acid was glutamic acid in all samples. The content of total amino acids were high in the orders of F. velutipes fruit body(19,919 mg%), F. velutipes mycelium(19,018 mg%) abd C. militaris mycelium(18,965 mg%). We determined the developing new food product such as amino acid drink and amino acid containing food using extracts of Flammulina velutipes fruit body, Flammulina velutipes mycelium and Cordyceps militaris mycelium.

Comparison of proximate compositions, antioxidant, and antiproliferative activities between blueberry and Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C.Johnst fruit produced in Jeju Island (제주산 블루베리와 상동열매의 일반성분, 항산화 및 항증식 활성 비교)

  • Ko, Gyeong-A;Koh, So Yae;Ryu, Ji-yeon;Cho, Somi Kim
    • Journal of Applied Biological Chemistry
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    • v.60 no.2
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    • pp.161-171
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    • 2017
  • This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the proximate composition, antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of Sageretia thea (Osbeck) M.C.Johnst (S. thea) fruit and blueberry. The calorific value, crude protein, crude fat, crude ash, and carbohydrate were higher in S. thea fruit than in blueberry. S. thea fruit and blueberry have different profile of free sugars, in which amounts of fructose, glucose, and maltose were much higher in S. thea fruit than in blueberry. The methanol extracts of S. thea fruit contain higher amounts of total polyphenol and anthocyanin compared to those of blueberry extracts. In additions, 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), alkyl, and 2,2'-azinobis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulphonic acid) (ABTS) radical scavenging activities are greater in S. thea fruit extracts. Ethyl acetate fractions and n-butanol fractions of S. thea fruit and blueberry show the most potent scavenging activity in DPPH-, alkyl-, and ABTS-radical scavenging assay. The ethyl acetate fractions of S. thea fruit and blueberry are the richest fraction in polyphenol contents while the n-butanol fractions of those are the highest fraction in anthocyanin contents. Furthermore, both S. thea fruit and blueberry extracts protect human dermal fibroblast cells against a $H_2O_2$-induced oxidative stress. The antiproliferative activities of n-hexane and chloroform fraction from S. thea fruit and blueberry were observed in AGS human gastric cancer and MDA-MB-231 human breast cancer cells. Therefore, our results suggest for the first time that the antioxidant and antiproliferative activities of S. thea fruit is comparable to that of blueberry and the nutritional value of the former is even superior to that of the latter.

The effect of thickness and deflection of orthodontic thermoplastic materials on its mechanical properties (교정용 열가소성 재료의 두께와 변형량이 재료의 물리적 특성에 미치는 영향)

  • Min, Sam;Hwang, Chung-Ju;Yu, Hyung-Seog;Lee, Sang-Bae;Cha, Jung-Yul
    • The korean journal of orthodontics
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    • v.40 no.1
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    • pp.16-26
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    • 2010
  • Objective: The purposes of this study were to evaluate the force and stress depending on the type, deflection and thickness of the materials and to evaluate the mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials after repeated loading. Methods: Four types of thermoplastic products were tested. Force until the deflections of 2.0 mm and the stress when the materials were restoring to its resting position were evaluated. The mechanical properties of thermoplastic materials evaluated after 5 repeated loading cycles. Results: The interaction was observed between the thickness and the deflection (p < 0.05) from the regression equation. Thickness and amount of deflection rather than products and materials showed the largest effect on force and stress. In all products, at least 159 gf of force was required for more than 1.0 mm deflection or when materials with 1.0 mm thickness were deflected. The stress recorded was more than 19 gf/$mm^2$. During repeated loading, each group showed significant difference on the force and the stress (p < 0.01), 10 - 17% reduction of force and 4 - 7% reduction of stress in average. Conclusions: Proper thickness of thermoplastic materials and deflection level of tooth movement should be decided for the physiologic tooth movement. Force decay after repeated loading should be considered for the efficient tooth movement.

Inhibition of Type II Diabetes in ob/ob Mice and Enhancement of Mitochodrial Biogenesis in C2C12 Myotubes by Korean Mistletoe Extract (한국산 겨우살이 추출물(KME)의 2형 당뇨 억제 및 근육세포 미토콘드리아 생성 증가 효과)

  • Jung, Hoe-Yune;Yoo, Yung Choon;Kim, Inbo;Sung, Nak Yun;Choi, Ok-Byung;Choi, Bo-Hwa;Kim, Jong-Bae
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.44 no.3
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    • pp.324-330
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    • 2015
  • In this study, the anti-diabetic activity of a cold water extract of Korean mistletoe (KME) was investigated in C57BL/6J Lep ob (ob/ob) mice. Oral administration of KME (50 or 100 mg/kg/d) significantly inhibited the level of blood glucose of ob/ob mice after 5 days from the beginning of KME treatment. And the anti-diabetic effect of KME was stabilized 10 days after oral administration, showing a substantial reduction of blood glucose levels by more than 20% as compared with control mice. The results of oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) revealed that oral administration of KME gave rise to a remarkable improvement in overall glucose response. Oral administration of KME in ob/ob diabetic mice also significantly reduced blood total cholesterol (TCHO) and triglyceride (TG) levels compared with the diabetic control mice. Moreover, in an in vitro experiment using C2C12 myotubes, treatment of KME prominently increased glucose uptake. Interestingly, KME significantly increased the expression of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-${\alpha}$ ($PGC-1{\alpha}$), a head regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis and oxidative metabolism, and $PGC-1{\alpha}$-associated genes such as glucose transporter type 4 (GLUT4), estrogen-related receptor-${\alpha}$ ($ERR-{\alpha}$), nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1), and mitochondrial transcription factor A (TmfA) in C2C12 cells. These results suggest that KME has potential as a novel therapeutic agent for diabetes, and its anti-diabetic activity may be related to the regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis.

Comparison of the mechanical properties and microstructures of fractured surface for Co-Cr alloy fabricated by conventional cast, 3-D printing laser-sintered and CAD/CAM milled techniques (주조, 3-D printing을 활용한 laser sintered 및 CAD/CAM milled 기법을 이용하여 제작된 코발트-크롬 합금의 물리적 성질 및 파절 단면 관찰 비교 연구)

  • Choi, Yun-Jung;Koak, Jai-Young;Heo, Seong-Joo;Kim, Seong-Kyun;Ahn, Jin-Soo;Park, Dong-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.52 no.2
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2014
  • Purpose: The purpose of present study is to compare mechanical properties and microstructural characteristics of fractured surface for cast, 3-D printing laser sintered and CAD/CAM milled cobalt-chromium (Co-Cr) alloy specimens and to investigate whether laser sintered technique is adequate for dental applications. Materials and methods: Thirty six flat disc shape Co-Cr alloy specimens were fabricated for surface hardness test and divided into three groups according to the manufacturing methods; 12 specimens for casting (n=12), 12 specimens for laser sintered technology (n=12) and 12 specimens for milled technology (n=12). Twelve dumbbell shape specimens for each group were also fabricated for a tensile test. Statistical comparisons of the mechanical properties for the alloys were performed by Kruskal-Wallis test followed by Mann-Whitney and Bonferroni test. The microstructural characteristics of fractured surfaces were examined using SEM. Results: There were significant differences in the mean Vickers hardness values between all groups and the cast specimen showed the highest (455.88 Hv) while the CAD/CAM milled specimen showed the lowest (243.40 Hv). Significant differences were found among the three groups for ultimate tensile strength, 0.2% yield stress, elongation, and elastic modulus. The highest ultimate tensile strength value (1442.94 MPa) was shown in the milled group and the highest 0.2% yield strength (1136.15 MPa) was shown in the laser sintered group. Conclusion: Different manufacturing methods influence the mechanical properties and microstructure of the fractured surfaces in Co-Cr alloys. The cast Co-Cr alloy specimens showed the highest Vickers hardness, and the CAD/CAM milled specimens revealed the highest tensile strength value. All alloys represent adequate mechanical properties satisfying the ISO standards of dental alloy.

Position of maxillary central incisor and intercanine width in Korean adults (한국 유치악 성인의 상악 중절치 위치 및 견치간 거리에 관한 연구)

  • Yang, Dong-Hun;Lee, Jee-Yun;Ban, Jae-Sam;Oh, Gye-Jeong;Park, Sang-Won
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.51 no.3
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    • pp.147-152
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    • 2013
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to propose the position of maxillary anterior teeth and intercanine width measurements based on the incisive papilla in accordance with the cephalic type and gender of dentate Korean adult with normal teeth alignment. Materials and methods: 42 students with Class I normal occlusion, without crowding or spacing, were selected from the Chonnam National University School of Dentistry. The lateral skull radiographs of the subjects were taken and were classified as different cephalic types, based on their PFH / AFH ratios. 42 casts of their maxilla were prepared and both the distance between the upper central incisors and the middle of the incisor papilla was measured with a vernier caliper (A) and the distance between the maxillary canine cusp tips (B) were measured. Statistical analysis was performed using SPSS version 15 and their significance was investigated. Results: For dolichocephalic group, the mean values for A and B were 8.43 (SD: 0.61) and 36.73 (SD: 2.17), respectively. The mean value for A was 8.51 (SD: 1.27) for the mesocephalic group and 8.76 (SD 1.03) for the brachycephalic group. The mean value for B was 35.91 (SD: 1.86) for the mesocephalic group and 37.34 (SD: 2.23) for the brachycephalic group. For the male group, the mean A value was 8.86 (SD: 1.04) and the mean B value was 37.60 (SD: 0.24). For the female group, the mean A value was 8.41 (SD: 0.93) and the mean B value was 36.18 (SD: 2.01). The difference between male and female group in A values were not statistically significant (P>.05). The B values of the male subjects were greater than those of the female subjects and was statistically significant (P<.05). Conclusion: 42 students with normal dentition and occlusion in korea, the distance from the incisive papilla and the incisal edge of maxillary central incisors had no difference in cephalic type or gender. However, the distance between the cusp tip of both canines had significant difference in gender where the male showed higher values than the female, while having no difference in cephalic types.

Color stability of three dimensional-printed denture teeth exposed to various colorants (다양한 색소에 대한 3D 프린팅 인공치의 색 안정성)

  • Koh, Eun-Sol;Cha, Hyun-Suk;Kim, Tae-Hyung;Ahn, Jin-Soo;Lee, Joo-Hee
    • The Journal of Korean Academy of Prosthodontics
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    • v.58 no.1
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    • pp.1-6
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: This study evaluated color stability of Dentca 3D-printed denture teeth, in comparison to color stabilities of four conventional types of denture teeth, upon being immersed in various colorants. Materials and methods: Four types of conventional prefabricated denture teeth (Surpass, GC, Artic 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Premium 6, Heraeus Kulzer, Preference, Candulor), 3D-printed denture teeth (Dentca); and Z250 (Filtek Z250, 3M ESPE) were prepared for testing. The samples were immersed in erythrosine 3%, coffee, cola, and distilled water (DW) at 37℃. Color change (ΔE) was measured by spectrophotometer before immersion and at 7, 14, and 21 days after immersion. One-way analysis of variance was performed along with Tukey's honestly significant difference multiple comparisons test (P<.05). Results: No great difference was observed between the color change of Dentca denture teeth and that of conventional denture teeth in most cases (P>.05). The color change of Dentca denture teeth immersed in erythrosine 3% was greater than that of Surpass (ΔE = 0.67 ± 0.25) after 1 week; Artic 6 (ΔE = 1.44 ± 0.38) and Premium 6 (ΔE = 1.69 ± 0.35) after 2 weeks; and Surpass (ΔE = 1.79 ± 0.49), Artic 6 (ΔE = 2.07 ± 0.21), Premium 6 (ΔE = 2.03 ± 0.75), and Preference (ΔE = 2.01 ± 0.75) after 3 weeks (P<.05). Conclusion: A color change was observed in Dentca denture teeth when immersed in some colorants; however, the maximum value of ΔE for Dentca denture teeth was within the clinically acceptable range.

The Effects of 7 Fertilizers on the Growth and Nutrient Concentrations of Fraxinus rhynchophylla, Fraxinus mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, and Abies holophylla Seedlings (7가지 시비처리가 물푸레나무, 들메나무, 잣나무, 전나무 묘목의 생장 및 양분농도에 미치는 영향)

  • Han, Si Ho;Byun, Jae Kyung;Cho, Min Seok;An, Ji Young;Park, Gwan Soo;Kim, Se Bin;Park, Byung Bae
    • Journal of Korean Society of Forest Science
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    • v.105 no.2
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    • pp.177-185
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    • 2016
  • Fertilization is required to keep the balance of tissue nutrients and to produce high quality seedlings at the permanent nursery. This study was conducted to verify the optimum fertilization method for Fraxinus rhynchophylla, F. mandshurica, Pinus koraiensis, and Abies holophylla seedlings with vector diagnosis method. Seven treatments include nitrogen (N, $13.8g{\cdot}m^{-2}$), phosphorus (P, $6.1g{\cdot}m^{-2}$), potassium ($7.5g{\cdot}m^{-2}$) fertilization and 1x (N $6.9g{\cdot}m^{-2}$, P $3.05g{\cdot}m^{-2}$, K $3.65g{\cdot}m^{-2}$), 2x (twice of 1x), 4x (four times of 1x) fertilization and no fertilization. Soil pH decreased as fertilization increased. Nitrogen and NPK fertilization decreased exchangeable $Ca^{2+}$ and $Mg^{2+}$ concentrations. Height and root collar diameter of F. rhynchophylla and F. mandshurica significantly increased with N and NPK fertilization, but those of P. koraiensis and A. holophylla did not. The biomass of F. rhynchophylla and F. mandshurica was about twice higher at NPK fertilization compared to the control. The responses of vector diagnosis were different by tree species and fertilization treatment: F. rhynchophylla was in the status of N "dilution", which means the N concentration decreases with N content. Phosphorus and K were "sufficiency" state with 4x fertilization. F. mandshurica showed "retranslocation" as N content decreased without change of dry weight at N, P, K fertilization, but "dilution" state at NPK fertilization. This result suggested that optimal fertilization was required for F. rhynchophylla and F. mandshurica in seedling production stage, but was not essential for P. koraiensis and A. holophylla.

Chemical Composition and Immunostimulating Activity of the Fermented Korean Ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) with Mushroom Mycelium by Solid Culture (균사체를 이용한 수삼 고체발효물의 화학적 조성 및 면역 활성)

  • Park, Chang-Kyu;Kim, Hoon;Tu, Qi;Yu, Kwang-Won;Jeong, Heon-Sang;Lee, Hyeon-Yong;Jeong, Jae-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition
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    • v.38 no.9
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    • pp.1145-1152
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    • 2009
  • For the utilization of Korean ginseng (Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer) in the functional drink, we prepared the fermented Korean ginseng with mushroom mycelia (Ganoderma lucidum; WG-GL, Hericium erinaceum; WG-HE and Phellinus linteus; WG-PL) by solid culture. A proximate analysis showed that the fermented Korean ginseng contained significantly more crude fat (4.66$\sim$12.02%) than Korean ginseng (WG, 1.61%) whereas crude protein content of WG (13.64%) was higher value than those of the ferments (7.60$\sim$12.57%). When we also evaluated effects of the fermented Korean ginseng on the mitogenic activity, hot-water extract from WG-PL was significantly higher than those of WG or mycelia only fermentation (GL, HE and PL) as analyzed by IL-2 production (1.64-fold of the saline control) and proliferation of splenocytes (1.47-fold). In addition, the lysosomal phosphatase activity (WG-HE; 1.32-fold) and NO/TNF-$\alpha$ production (WG-HE; 2.27-fold of the saline control at 50 ${\mu}g$/mL, WG-PL; 3.56-fold, respectively) from macrophage in the presence of the fermented Korean ginseng were higher than those of WG or mycelia fermentation. These results indicate that hot-water extracts from the fermented Korean ginseng with mushroom mycelia by solid culture contain chemical ingredients different from the Korean ginseng, and that it might provide beneficial immunostimulating activity.