• Title/Summary/Keyword: Smoking status

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Differences in Food and Nutrient Intake Associated with Smoking Status of Korean

  • Kim, Youngok
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.22-28
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the differences in food and nutrient intake by smoking status among Korean. Food and nutrient intake in relation to smoking status was studied in 7,370 adults, aged 20 years and older in 1998 Korean National Health and Nutrition Survey, in which 24 hour recall method was used for dietary survey. Information of subject's smoking status was collected by interview as a part of health behavior survey. Analysis of variance was used to test the differences in food and nutrition intake among subjects following after Duncan's multiple range test among four different smoking exposure categories. Food intake of male ex-smoker was the highest in most of the food groups among the four groups of daily current smoker, occasional current smoker, ex-smoker and never smoker. There was significant differences observed in food intake of sugar, fruits, beverage, seasoning by the smoking status. It had been also observed that significantly high intake of energy from carbohydrate in non smoker compare to current smoker especially in male subjects. Fiber and vitamin C intake was also higher among non-smoker (never smoker and ex-smoker) than current smoker. In general, food and nutrient intake pattern of ex-smoker resembled those of never smoker than those of current smoker. Not likely the observation from European and American studies, fat intake was not statistically different between smoker (current) and non-smoker (ex-smoker and never smoker) among Korean.

Serum Levels of Minerals, Ceruloplasmin, and Ferroxidase Activity in Female Adolescent Smokers

  • Kim, Jung-Hee;Moon, Jeong-Suk;Kim, Ju-Young
    • Journal of Community Nutrition
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.88-97
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    • 1999
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate the nutritional status of serum minerals, ceruloplasmin, and ferroxidase activity in female adolescent students according to their smoking status. The subjects were 87 non-smokers and 88 smokers, who were female high school students. The smokers were divided into tow groups by smoking status, 35 light smokers(pack-year<1) and 53 smokers(pack-year$\geq$1). The serum concentrations of 6 minerals were determined by ICP emission spectroanalyzer. The serum concentration of ceruloplasmin and ceruloplasmin ferroxidase activity were determined. All data were statistically analyzed by SAS PC package program. The serum minerals concentrations of all subjects were in a normal range. There were significantly differences in the concentrations of serum copper, zinc, magnesium, and phosphorus by smoking status while there were no significant differences in the concentrations of serum iron and manganese by smoking status. Furthermore there were no significant differences in the ceruloplasmin concentration and ferroxidase activity by smoking status. In conclusion, smoking status altered the serum levels of some minerals in healthy young women. The minerals levels in light smokers with relatively short pack-year(pack-year<1) were altered compared to those in non-smokers or smokers. This finding seemed to be consistent with the results of previously published data related to antioxidant vitamin and lipid peroxide levels. However further research is needed to clarify these findings in female adolescent smokers.

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Factors related with the adolescent cigarette smoking (청소년 흡연과 관련된 요인 -서울시 일부 남녀 고등학생을 대상으로-)

  • 강윤주;서성제
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.28-44
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    • 1996
  • The purpose of this study is to examine the associated risk factors for adolescent cigarette smoking. In February 1995, a total of 1793 students from 17 general high schools in Seoul were assessed with a self-completing questionnaire pertaining current smoking status and school.family.peer environmental factors. The results are as follows; 1. The overall proportion of current smoker among students in the study was 17.3%; 27.7% in males and 6.6% in females. 2. There was significant association between smoking status and all school environmental factors (ranks at school, satisfaction at school, study hours after school, extracurricular activity) examined. 3. Siblings smoking in males and family structure in females were significantly associated with the smoking status of students. 4. Functional aspect of family environmental factors, such as APGAR score, parental supervision, attachment to father or to mother were related to smoking status of students. 5. Association with friends who smoke was significantly associated with smoking status of students. 6. In males, association with friends who smoke, ranks at school, siblings smoking were significant positive predictors and APGAR score, parental supervision, attchment to mother were significant negative predictors. In females, association with friends whosmoke, ranks at school, satisfaction at school were significant positive predictors and parental supervision, attchment to father were significant negative predictors. These findings suggest that strategies that influence smoking behavior need to be directed not only to the individual student but also to their peer group, family and school environment.

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The Blood Cadmium and Lead Levels in Students

  • Lee, Mi-Hwa
    • Biomedical Science Letters
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    • v.12 no.4
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    • pp.371-374
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    • 2006
  • This study was carried out to investigate the relationship of the cadmium and lead levels in blood by age, gender and smoking status among 181 students in Gyeongnam province from June 2005 to July 2006. The cadmium and lead levels in blood was analyzed by atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Subjects were classified for the investigation according to smoking status as smokers and nonsmokers, age and gender. Mean blood cadmium level in male and female was $1.65{\mu}g/dl,\;1.10{\mu}g/dl$ respectively. Male was significantly higher than that of female. Blood cadmium levels in heavy smokers ($11{\sim}20\;ea/day$) and light smokers ($1{\sim}10\;ea/day$) were $2.34{\mu}g/dl,\;1.10{\mu}g/dl$ respectively. Heavy smokers were significantly higher than those of light smokers. In the comparison of age, gender and smoking status in blood Lead levels were no significant differences. In conclusion, heavy smoking was the most significant risk factor to increase blood cadmium levels. The further study will need analysis of the other factors related to the elevation of the cadmium and lead levels.

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The Effect of Neighborhood Characteristics and Friends' Smoking Status on the Habitual Smoking Onset in Adolescents (지역 특성과 친구의 흡연이 청소년의 습관적 흡연 시작에 미치는 영향)

  • Choi, You-Jung;Kim, Gwang Suk
    • Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.54-67
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    • 2021
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was threefold, to longitudinally examine the risk of habitual smoking onset in adolescents, to delineate the effects of neighborhood characteristics and friends' smoking status on the habitual smoking onset, and to investigate whether the association between friends' smoking status and habitual smoking onset was moderated by neighborhood characteristics. Methods: This study conducted multilevel discrete-time survival analysis, using cohort data from the 3rd to 6th waves of the Korean Child and Youth Panel Survey, which excluded habitual smokers, matched with 2010 census data on respondents' residence. Results: Habitual smoking onset risk increased from the 8th to the 11th grade, and then slightly decreased from the 11th to the 12th grade. Friends' smoking status (B = 0.60, p < .001), smoking rate (B = 0.06, p = .038), and the number of tobacco outlets in the respondents' neighborhood (B = 0.51, p = .003) were positively associated with habitual smoking onset risk. Furthermore, the association between friends' smoking status and habitual smoking onset risk was moderated by the number of tobacco outlets in the neighborhood. Specifically, the association was stronger in neighborhoods with more tobacco outlets (B = 0.58, p = .048). Conclusion: Friends' smoking status and living in neighborhoods that are more susceptible to smoking increase the risk of habitual smoking. The number of tobacco outlets in the neighborhood enhances the peer effect of adolescent's smoking behavior. Therefore, policies or interventions designed to reduce youth's tobacco use should focus on not only on reducing peer smoking, but also restricting smoking by adults and the number of neighborhood tobacco outlets.

Relationships of smoking, Stress and Social Support of High School Students (고등학생 흡연과 스트레스 및 사회적 지지와의 관련성)

  • Lee, Eun-Hyun;Song, Mi-Sook;Lee, Soon-Young;Kim, Jee-Yoon;Chun, Ki-Hong
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.36 no.2
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    • pp.131-136
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    • 2003
  • Objectives : The purpose of the present study was to explore a possible interaction effect of stress and social support on the smoking status and identify smoking related factors of high school students, Methods : A cross-sectional design was used for this study. A total of 1,251 high school students from Gyeonggi-do were selected using stratified-proportional random cluster sampling methods, The participants completed a set of questionnaires to measure their smoking status, stress, social support and sociodemographic information, The obtained data were analyzed using descriptive statistics, $x^2$-tests and hierarchical logistic regressions. Results : The interaction effect of stress and social support on smoking status was not supported. However, stress, sex, types of school, parent's smoking and friends' smoking were significantly predicted the smoking status of the high school students. Conclusions : In relation to the prevention of adolescents' smoking, it is recommended to decrease the stress levels of students, to make adolescents' parents cease smoking, and to educate adolescents on how to refuse the temptation to smoke or pressure from their smoking friend.

Adolescent Smoking Behaviors and the Related Risk Factors in Korea: A Descriptive Literature Review

  • Moon In-Ok
    • Korean Journal of Health Education and Promotion
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 2004
  • This study conducted descriptive literature review on adolescent smoking and the related factors to realize significance of adolescent smoking onset in Korea and to identify risk factors of smoking incidence. Korean adolescent smoking status was generated based on the cumulated data of the Korean Association of Smoking and Health. Risk factors of adolescent smoking were identified based on 18 studies written in English, with cross-sectional research design and published as a peer-reviewed journal article between 1994 and 2003. The results were as follows. 1. Korean adolescent smoking rate was the highest among OECD affiliated countries; in particular, male adolescent smoking incidence was very serious. 2. Risk factors related to smoking of adolescent population were personal factor, friend factor, family factor, and mass-media factor. Demographic characteristics, attitudes on smoking, and willingness of smoking, and health behaviors were selected as personal factor of smoking. 3. Best friends smoking was a strong factor of students' smoking set. Prevalent popularity of smoking in peer-group allowed students to feel free to smoking. 4. Concerning family factor related to smoking status, parents' smoking and sibling's smoking were significant indicators of adolescent smoking status. 5. Seeing smoking behaviors and scenes through films, TV shows, drama, and advertisement was a significant risk factor of adolescent smoking status.

Glycated Hemoglobins and Chronic Complications of Diabetes Mellitus, based on the Smoking Status of Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus (제 2형 당뇨병 환자의 흡연여부에 따른 당화혈색소와 당뇨병성 만성합병증)

  • Song, Min Sun;Lee, Mi Hyang
    • Journal of Korean Academic Society of Home Health Care Nursing
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    • v.23 no.2
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    • pp.139-146
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    • 2016
  • Purpose: This research seeks to identify differences between general characteristics, disease-related characteristics, glycated hemoglobin (HbAlc) levels, and aspects of chronic complications of diabetes mellitus in type 2 diabetes. Methods: This research was conducted from the 1st to the 15th of February in 2016, on 263 in patients. Patients' electronic medical records were used to identify their general characteristics, disease-related characteristics, HbAlc, and chronic diabetic complications. Chi-square test, ANOVA, ANCOVA, and the Cochran-Mantel-Haenszel test were used for data analysis. Results: Statistical significance was observed for general characteristics, based on smoking status, such as age, and education level; disease-related characteristics differed according to the duration of diabetes. Smoking status did not differ according to HbAlc level. In term of chronic diabetic complications, statistically significance was observed for diabetic nephropathy, based on smoking status. Conclusion: Patients who had a history of smoking, but were not currently smoking, were likely to display higher HbAlc levels and diabetic nephropathy. Therefore, there is need for regular checkups for diabetic complications among patients with a history of smoking and it is important to emphasize smoking cessation.

Effects of Cigarette Smoking across Three Generations and of Perceptions of the Smoking-Cancer Relationship on the Cigarette Smoking Status of Turkish University Students

  • Ozturk, Candan;Bektas, Murat;Mert, Ozlem
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.11
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    • pp.4527-4533
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    • 2014
  • Background: This descriptive and cross-sectional study aimed to investigate effects of cigarette smoking across three generations and perceptions of the smoking-cancer relationship on the cigarette smoking status of Turkish university students. Materials and Methods: The study sample comprised of 434 university students studying in different departments of a university. Data were collected using a socio-demographic data collection form and the Decisional Balance Scaleqand evaluated using the Mann-Whitney U test, CHAID and multiple regression analyses. Results: The average age of the students participating in the study is 19.6+.5.0, some 11.3% of the students reporting that they smoked cigarettes. No statistically significant relationship was ascertained between the cigarette smoking statuses of the students based on the cigarette smoking status of their grandparents (p=0.144). but there was alink to that of their parents (p=0.002). The difference between the cigarette smoking ratios of the students based on their perceptions of smoking-cancer relationship was statistically significant (p<0.001). Believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer decreased likelihood of cigarette smoking 3.7 fold. Cigarette smoking by grandparents, and believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer, and cigarette smoking by parents explained 8.3% of the cigarette smoking status of the students. Conclusions: While cigarette smoking by grandparents only indirectly influences cigarette smoking by the students, believing that there is a relationship between smoking and cancer, and cigarette smoking by parents are influential variables in determining cigarette smoking by Turkish students.