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Therapeutic Effect of Nocturnal Water Restriction in Children with Primary Nocturnal Enuresis (일차성 야뇨증 아동에서 야간 수분 제한의 치료 효과)

  • Lee Soo Jin;Yang Jae Young;Kim Hae Soon;Lee Seung Joo
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.51-58
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : Treatment of primary nocturnal enuresis (PNE) includs folk remedies and various treatments based on pathogenesis. We assessed the therapeutic effect of nocturnal water restrict ion as the primary treatment of PNE. Materials and methods : From October 1998 to June 1999, 41 children with PNE (>3 wet nights per week) who visited Ewha Womans University Mokdong hospital and who had good compliances to nocturnal water restriction for 2 months were included. Before and during nocturnal water restriction, daily fluid intake and urine volume were recorded for 2 days every 2 weeks. Responses to nocturnal water restriction were classified according to the decrease of wet nights as complete (>90$\%$), partial (50-90$\%$) and no (<50$\%$) response. Predictors such as age, sex, daytime voiding dysfunction, fluid intake, urine volume, maximum urine volume per void and fasting urine osmolality were evaluated. Results . The response rate to nocturnal water restriction fir 2 month was 82.9$\%$(34/41) [complete response 39.0$\%$(16/41), partial response : 43.9$\%$(18/41)]. The response rate to nocturnal water restriction was significantly higher in monosymptomatic PNE than polysymptomatic PNE and more effective in PNE with or nocturnal fluid intake, nocturnal urine volume, and maximum urine volume than lower nocturnal fluid intake, nocturnal urine volume and maximum urine volume per void (P<0.05). Nocturnal urine volume, maximum urine volume per void and luting urine osmolality after nocturnal water restriction has significantly increased higher in complete response and partial response group than in no response group (P<0.05). Conclusion : The nocturnal water restriction was effective in monosymptomatic PNE with nocturnal polydypsia, nocturnal polyuria and high bladder capacity. (J, Korean Soc Pediatr Nephrol 5 : 51- 8, 2001)

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A Clinical Study of Hospitalized Infants 28 to 90 Days of Age with Fever without Source (원인 없는 열로 입원한 생후 28일에서 90일 사이 영아들에 대한 임상적 고찰)

  • Rye, Min Hyuk;Noh, Yn Il;Lee, Seong Hun;Lee, Sun Young;Hur, Nam Jin;Lee, Dong Jin
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.191-198
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    • 2001
  • Purpose : The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical features of hospitalized infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source and to analyze those of young febrile infants using risk criteria for serious bacterial infection. Methods : The clinical features of 131 infants 28~90 days of age admitted to the Ulsan Dong-Kang General Hospital Pediatric Department because of fever(temperature ${\geq}38^{\circ}C$ rectally) without source, from January 2000 to December 2000, were investigated by retrospective chart review. The clinical features of 131 febrile infants were analyzed using Rochester criteria. Results : Among 131 cases, there were 60 cases(45.8%) of urinary tract infection, 33 cases (25.2%) of aseptic meningitis, 2 cases(1.5%) of bacteremia and 36 cases(27.5%) of no specific diagnosis. Among 131 cases, there were 57 cases(43.5%) in low risk group and 74 cases(56.5%) in not low risk one by Rochester criteria. A significant difference in the incidence of urinary tract infection, aseptic meningitis and no specific diagnosis was not found between both groups. Male to female ratio was 1.8 : 1. Sex ratio between both groups was not significantly different. Most febrile infant were noted in spring(35.1%) and the summer(36.7%). The peak incidence of aseptic meningitis was noted in May and June. The fever subsided mostly within 48~72 hours after administering antimicrobial agents(61.8~83.2%). A significant difference in duration of fever after administering antimicrobial agents was not found between both groups. Conclusion : A selected group of low risk infants 28~90 days of age with fever without source can be managed as outpatients provided that a thorough initial evaluation is performed, that parents can reliably monitor their infant closely at home and that careful follow up can be assured. Because bag collected specimens were more likely to yield indeterminate urine culture result, a suprapubic or catheter obtained urine specimen for culture is a necessary part of the evaluation of all febrile infants 28~90 days of age. The further prospective study on evaluation and management of young febrile infant should be performed in our hospital.

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A Clinical Study of Tsutsugamushi Fever in Children during 1997~2000 in the Western Kyungnam Province (최근 4년간 서부 경남지역의 소아에서 발생한 쯔쯔가무시열의 임상적 고찰)

  • Ju, Hye Young;Lee, Jun Su;Kim, Jeong Hee;Yoo, Hwang Jae;Kim, Chun Soo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.213-221
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    • 2001
  • Propose : Tsutsugamushi fever is a acute febrile disease, which is caused by O. tsutsugamushi. Recently, this disease is increasingly reported in children. This study was undertaken to investigate clinical features of tsutsugamushi fever in children. Methods : This study involved 17 children with tsutsugamushi fever who were admitted to Masan Samsung hospital between September 1997 and December 2000. We investigated the age, sex ratio, clinical manifestations, laboratory findings, response of therapy and prognosis. Results : The age of patients was $6.9{\pm}3.6$ years, ranging from 6 months to 12 years and male predilection(58.8%) was noted and all cases of patients occured in October or November. The most common symptoms were fever in all cases and headache in 8(47.1%). The most common signs were skin rash in all cases, eschar in 14(82.4%) and lymphadenopathy 8(47.1%). Locations of the eschars were back and inguinal area in each 3 cases, neck and chest in each 2, popliteal area in 2, scalp and thigh in each 1. Laboratory findings included anemia in 1 case, leukopenia and thrombocytopenia in each 5, hematuria and proteinuria in each 1, ESR elevation in 2 and positive CRP in 12, AST elevation in 9 and ALT elevation in 7. Serologic diagnosis was made by passive hemagglutination assay(PHA) in 8 cases(47%) on admission, 4 cases in initial negative group were performed follow-up test at 2nd or 3rd weeks of illness and then all cases of 4 were converted to positive reaction. Clinical improvement was noticed in all cases after treatment to chloramhenicol or doxycycline. Mean duration for defervescence after treatment was $1.4{\pm}0.8$ days. Complications were interstitial pneumonia in 1 case and aseptic meningitis in 3, but all cases of patients were recovered without sequelae or recurrence. Conclusions : Tsutsugamushi fever in children was similiar to adult in the clinical features except male predilection. Early diagnosis and empirical treatment based on clinical manifestations such as fever, skin rash, eschar, lymphadenopathy is important and serologic diagnosis need to perform follow-up test at 2nd or 3rd weeks of illness.

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Study of nosocomial rotavirus infection in neonates admitted to a postpartum-care center (서울시내 1개 산후 조리원에서 시행한 로타바이러스 선별검사에 대한 분석)

  • Park, Ji Young;Kim, Dong Hwan;Bae, Seung Young;Choi, Chang Hee;Cho, Eun Young;Choi, Jeong Hoon;Kim, Sun Mi
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.145-154
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    • 2007
  • Purpose : Rotavirus is one of the most important etiologic agents of nosocomial infections among the neonates. This study was designed to investigate nosocomial rotavirus infection in neonates who were admitted to a postpartum-care center after birth. Methods : From March 2005 to September 2006, 957 healthy neonates were examined for rotavirus antigen in stool by immunochromatographic method and 216 neonates were rotavirus antigen positive within 24 hours after admitted to a postpartum-care center. We reviewed the nursing charts retrospectively such as characteristics, monthly distribution, birth hospitals, delivery methods, feeding types and clinical manifestations. Results : Among 957 neonates, 216 neonates (22.6%) were rotavirus antigen positive and there were no differences in sex, birth weight, gestational age. Monthly positive rate of rotavirus antigen showed diversity from 10% to 36%. According to birth hospitals, positive rate showed diversity from 3.5% to 53.6%. Out of 957 neonates, 655 cases (68.4%) were born of vaginal delivery and mean hospitalized duration was 2.4 days, 302 cases (31.6%) were born of cesarean section and mean hospitalized duration was 5.7 days. 17.6% of vaginal delivery and 33.4% of cesarean section were rotavirus antigen positive. The positive rate was higher in neonates by cesarean section than vaginal delivery (P<0.001). According to feeding types, positive rate of rotavirus antigen was lower in breast-fed group than formula-fed group (P<0.001). Proportion of symptomatic case among rotavirus antigen positive was 34.7%. Most common clinical manifestation was diarrhea (61.3%), following poor feeding (45.3%), fever (40.0%), vomiting (25.3%), delayed weight gain (12.0%), and decreased urine amount (5.3%). Conclusion : Some neonates were already infected before admission to a postpartum-care center. Without meticulous management, nosocomial rotavirus infection would transmit rapidly in a postpartum-care center spreading to the community. Recommendation of breast-feeding, routine rotavirus screeing test with or without symptom, and isolation of all rotavirus antigen positive neonates in a postpartum-care center seem to be necessary. Also attentive hygiene education and further investigations of rotavirus infection in a postpartum-care center would be needed.

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The Characteristics and Fates of Pulmonary Tuberculosis Patients Seen at Medical Department of A Medium Sized General Hospital (부산에 한 중형 종합 병원 내과에서의 폐결핵 환자의 양상과 귀결)

  • Kim, Young-Hyo;Park, Ki-Chan;Bae, Seong;Lee, Sang-Hun;Chun, Myung-Ho;Lee, Sang-Ki;Jun, Kwang-Su;Lee, Chan-Se
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.39 no.5
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    • pp.417-424
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    • 1992
  • Background: There were many reports about the clinical aspect and outcomes of pulmonary tuberculosis in health center but few in a medium sized general hospital. The purposes of this study were to find any characteristic differencies in the patients and the general outcomes of the treatments and also to give some suggestive points for the insurance policy making. Methods: We made a retrograde analysis of the medical records of 1981 patients (male 992 female 1,059) who attended our clinics of the 4th internal department, Daedong general hospital during two years from January 1989 to December 1990. Result: 1) Of 1981 patients, 96 were diagnosed as pulmonary tuberculosis taking relatively large proportion in the prevalence. The ratio of prevalence between male and female was 7.81% to 2.27%. The 61.46% were the first diagnosis & initial treatment cases and the remaining 38.54% were the retreatment cases with no statistical significance between sex. 2) The most prevalent age group was between 21~40 years old and the prevalence rate was 45.45% of male and 76.76% of female. The lowest age group in male patient was above 61 showed 3.03%, and there was no female patients above age 60 years old. This phenomena could be thought as the negligence for the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis in the old age groups rather than true tuberculosis prevalence and it could be proved by the higher rates towards old age groups in the national tuberculosis prevalence survey. 3) There were 57.07% of the minimal case, 48.96% of the moderate, 18.75% of the far advanced. The sputum examination showed 37.07% were culture positive, 46.88% were the negative, and 15.63% of the patients had no stutum examination. Moreover, uncoperatives among the far advanced cases were notable showing 22.22% of the stutum examination, where 16.13% in the minimal cases. The stutum positive rate among the initial treatment cases were 41.07% and 55.00% for the retreatment cases. The sputum no examination rates were 17.86% and 12.50% respectively. 4) The classfication of the mode of disease onset showed 68.75% with gradual onset, 9.38% hemoptic, 3.13% acute pneumonic and 18.75% was found through the radiologic examination in various occasions. 5) The percentages of patients who continued their treatment for more than 8 month were 35.71% (for initial treatment), 25.00% (for retrement), 16.13% (for the minimal), 27.78% (for the far advanced). 6) The group of patients who were treated more than 8 months showed the negative conversion rate of 80% on sputum and marked improvement on chest x-ray in 56.67%. However, in far advanced or retreatment cases, the rate of negative conversion on sputum and the rate of improvement on chest x-ray were low being 60% and 20% for the former and 60% and 10% for the latter, each respectively. Conclusion: It would be strongly emphasized that the improvement of National medical insurance system and social welfare system in Korea must be definite to improve overall treatment and control of tuberculosis diseases as well as physician's devotious National tuberculosis control policy.

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A Studs on Farmers Syndrome and Its Risk Factors of Vinylhouse Workers and Evaluation of Risk Factors of Vinylhouse Works (일부 농촌지역 비닐하우스 농사자들의 작업환경 및 농부증 실태와 관련요인평가)

  • Lee, Jung-Jeung
    • Journal of agricultural medicine and community health
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    • v.29 no.1
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    • pp.101-119
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    • 2004
  • Objectives: In order to estimate risk factors affecting the health of vinylhouse workers and harmful environments in vinylhouse working. Methods: The investigator performed questionnaires and laboratory examinations on 102 vinylhouse workers and 69 farmers in 7 myoens (Korean subcounties). one eup (a Korean town), Goryeong-gun, Gyeongsangbuk-do between April 8 and 18, 2004 (for 11 days), and measured the heavy metal in the air and the soil, temperature, humidity, air current, harmful gases in vinylhouses. Results: Even in cloudy days, the temperature in vinylhouses in daylight was $33.4^{\circ}$ and the temperature difference between inside and outside vinylhouses was around $16^{\circ}$. Oxygen concentration was similar inside and outside vinylhouses, while carbon dioxide concentration was lower inside than outside vinylhouses. Carbon monoxide was not detected. In the air inside vinylhouses, cadmium was not detected. Lean concentration in the soil was lower inside vinylhouses than outside vinylhouses at surface, while cadmium concentration was similar inside and outside vinylhouses in the soil except some areas. Out of male vinylhouse workers. 16.4---- were positive farmer's syndrome and 49.2---- were suspicious, while out of females, 41.5---- were positive and 46.3---- were suspicious. Out of male farmers, 30.4---- were positive farmer's syndrome, while out of female farmers, 60.0---- were positive and 28.3---- were suspicious. There was no difference between vinylhouse workers and farmers in the distribution of hypertension and abnormal liver function, while diabetes mellitus was more common in farmers than in vinylhouse workers. Vinylhouse working, sex, and hours of farming per day were selected as significant variables affecting farmer's syndrome in this study, and the rate of positive farmer's syndrome was rather lower in vinylhouse workers than in farmers. Females were higher than males in the rate, and those who farmed at least 10 hours per day were higher in the rate than those who farmed less than 10 hours per day. Out of the vinylhouse workers, no differences were found between the distribution of farmer's syndrome and farming-related variables such as the total period of farming, the size of farm land, the mean farming hours per day, the number of family members who farm together, the frequency of scattering agricultural chemicals. In addition, there were no differences between the distribution and the wearing masks and protectors and personal sanitation among those who scattered agricultural chemicals by themselves. There were no differences found in blood lean concentration, urinary cadmium concentration, serum cholinesterase, and hemoglobin according to the distribution of farmer's syndrome. In the vinylhouse workers, females were higher than males in the rate of farmer's syndrome, and those who farmed at least 10 hours per day were higher in the rate than those who farmed less than 10 hours per day. Meanwhile, the rate was lower in those who slept at least 8 hours a day than in those who slept less than 8 hours. Conclusions: In conclusion, the physical environments inside vinylhouses were harmful, but no significant difference was found in harmfulness of the chemical environments. The chronic diseases such as farmer's syndrome. hypertension, diabetes, and dyshepatia were not common in the vinylhouse workers than in the farmers. Meanwhile, farmer's syndrome was more common in the vinylhouse workers who worked longer and slept less.

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Clinical Analysis of Repeated Heart Valve Replacement (심장판막치환술 후 재치환술에 관한 임상연구)

  • Kim, Hyuck;Nam, Seung-Hyuk;Kang, Jeong-Ho;Kim, Young-Hak;Lee, Chul-Burm;Chon, Soon-Ho;Shinn, Sung-Ho;Chung, Won-Sang
    • Journal of Chest Surgery
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    • v.40 no.12
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    • pp.817-824
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    • 2007
  • Background: There are two choices for heart valve replacement-the use of a tissue valve and the use of a mechanical valve. Using a tissue valve, additional surgery will be problematic due to valve degeneration. If the risk of additional surgery could be reduced, the tissue valve could be more widely used. Therefore, we analyzed the risk factors and mortality of patients undergoing repeated heart valve replacement and primary replacement. Material and Method: We analyzed 25 consecutive patients who underwent repeated heart valve replacement and 158 patients who underwent primary heart valve replacement among 239 patients that underwent heart vale replacement in out hospital from January 1995 to December 2004. Result: There were no differences in age, sex, and preoperative ejection fraction between the repeated valve replacement group of patients and the primary valve replacement group of patients. In the repeated valve replacement group, the previously used artificial valves were 3 mechanical valves and 23 tissue valves. One of these cases had simultaneous replacement of the tricuspid and aortic valve with tissue valves. The mean duration after a previous operation was 92 months for the use of a mechanical valve and 160 months for the use of a tissue valve. The mean cardiopulmonary bypass time and aortic cross clamp time were 152 minutes and 108 minutes, respectively, for the repeated valve replacement group of patients and 130 minutes and 89 minutes, respectively, for the primary valve replacement group of patients. These results were statistically significant. The use of an intra aortic balloon pump (IABP) was required for 2 cases (8%) in the repeated valve replacement group of patients and 6 cases (3.8%) in the primary valve replacement group of patients. An operative death occurred in one case (4%) in the repeated valve replacement group of patients and occurred in nine cases (5.1%) in the primary valve replacement group of patients. Among postoperative complications, the need for mechanical ventilation over 48 hours was different between the two groups. The mean follow up period after surgery was $6.5{\pm}3.2$ years. The 5-year survival of patients in the repeated valve replacement group was 74% and the 5-year survival of patients in the primary valve replacement group was 95%. Conclusion: The risk was slightly increased, but there was little difference in mortality between the repeated and primary heart valve replacement group of patients. Therefore, it is necessary to reconsider the issue of avoiding the use of a tissue valve due to the risk of additional surgery, and it is encouraged to use the tissue valve selectively, which has several advantages over the use of a mechanical valve. In the case of a repeated replacement, however, the mortality rate was high for a patient whose preoperative status was not poor. A proper as sessment of cardiac function and patient status is required after the primary valve replacement. Subsequently, a secondary replacement could then be considered.

A Study on Red Cell Protoporphyrin Concentration and Iron Metabolism (적혈구(赤血球) Protoporphyrin과 철분대사(鐵分代謝)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Kyung-Hwan;Tchai, Bum-Suk
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 1974
  • The relative state of human iron storage may be ascertained more reliably through determination of the serum iron, iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and absorption of radioactive iron in conjunction with studies of red cell morphology than from the study of red cell morphology alone. Recent investigations have shown that there is an increase in red cell protoporphyrin concentration in iron deficiency anemia. The significance of the red cell protoporphyrin has been discussed greatly during the years since its discovery. Two of the main factors which appear to influence the amaunt of protoporphyrin are increased erythropoiesis and factors interfering with the utilization of iron in the synthesis of hemoglobin, and iron deficiency. Recently Heller et al. have described a simplified method for blood protoporphyrin assay and this technique could be used assess nutritional iron status, wherein even minor insufficiencies are detectable as increased protoporphyrin concentrations. Based on the evaluation of the relationship between nutritional iron status and red cell protoporphyrin as an index suitable for the detection of the iron deficiency is described in this paper. RESULTS 1. Hemoglobin Concentrations and Anthropometric Measurements. The mean and standard deviations of the various anthropometric measurements of different age and sex groups are shown in table 1. There measurements have been compared with the Korean Standard. In the absence of local standards for arm circumference and skin-fold thickness over triceps, they have been compared with the standard from Jelliffe. Table 2,3, and 4 give anthropometric measurements and frequency (%) of anemia in children surveyed. The mean height of the children studid was 10 to 20 percent; below the Korean Standard. The distribution of height below 80 percent of the Standard was 21.2 percent, however, among anemic group this percentage was 27.7 percent. In general, the mean weight of the children was 10 to 15 percent below the Korean Standard. The percentage of children with weight less than 80 percent of the Standard was about 35 percent. But in the anemic group of the children, this percentage was 44 percent. The mean arm circumference was about 15 percent lower than the Jelliffe's standard. 61.2 percent of the children had values of arm circumference below 80 percent of the standard. Children with low hemoglobin levels, this percentage was 80 percent. The mean skinfold thickness over the triceps of the children studied was about 25 Percent lower than the Jelliffe's standard and 61.2 percent of the children had the value less than 80 percent of the standard. Among anemic children, this percentage was 70.8%. As may be seen from table 5, the mean hemoglobin concentration of the total group was 11.3g/100ml. Hemoglobin concentration was less than 11.0g/100ml. in 65(36.5%) of the 178 children. The degree of anemia in most of these children was mild with a hemoglobin level of less than 8.0g/100ml. found in only one child. In general, the prevalence of anemia was high in female children than male and decreased its frequency with increasing age. Relatively close relationship was observed between hemoglobin level and anthrophometric measurements especially high between arm circumference and skinfold thickness and hemoglobin but very low in height and low in weight and hemoglobin level, estimated by chi-square value. II. Serum iron, Transferrin saturation (1) Serum iron, and transferrin saturation Serum iron, transferrin saturation and red cell protoporphyrin concentrations were estimated in sub-sample of 84 children from 1 to 6 years and 24 older children between 7 and 13 years of age. The findings are presented in table 6. The mean serum iron concentration of the total group was 59ug/100ml. However, the level incrased with age from 36.6ug/100ml. (1-3years) to 80.8ug/100ml. (7-13 years). 60 percent of these children had a serum iron level less than 50ug/10ml. in the 1-3 years age group and 31.4 percent for 4-6 years group. These contrast with the finding of 12.5 percent anemic children in the 7-13 years age group. The mean transferrin saturation for the total group was 18.1 percent and frequency of anemia by transferrin saturation was observed same pattern as serum iron concentration. (2) Red cell protoporphyrin concentrations. (a) Red cell protoporphrin levels of children: Red cell protoporphyrin and other biochemical data are shown in table 4. The mean concentration in red cell of all children was fround 46.3ug/100ml. RBC. and differences with age groups were observed; in the age group 1-3 years, the mean concentration was $59.5{\pm}32.14$ ug/100ml. RBC; 4-6 years $44.1{\pm}22.57$ ug/100ml. RBC. and 7-13 years, $39.0{\pm}13.56$ ug/100ml. RBC. (b) Normal protoporphyrin values in adults: It was observed that in 10 normal adult males studied here the level of protoporphyrin in red cell ranged from 18 to 54 ug/100ml. RBC. and the mean concentration was $47.5{\sim}14.47$ ug/100ml. RBC. Other biochemical determination made on the same subjects are presented in table 8. (c) Red tell protoporphyrin concentration of occupational blood donors: The results of analyses for red cell protoporphyrin as well as serum iron, transferrin saturation and hemoglobin in the 76 blood donors are presented in table 7 and 8. In this experiment, donors were selected at random, however, most of them bled repeatedly because of poor economic situation, I doubt. Table 9 shows the distribution of red cell protoporphyrin concentration and hemoglobin concentration of occupational donors. The mean hemoglobin value for the total was 11.9 g/100 ml. When iron deficiency anemia is defined as a transferrin saturation below 15%, prevalence of anemia was 47.4 percent and the mean serum iron was 27.1ug/100ml. and red cell protoporphyrin, 168.3ug/100ml. RBC. However, mean serum iron and protoporphyrin concentration of above 15% transferrin saturation were 11.6 ug/100 ml. and 58.8 ug/100 ml. RBC. respectively. The mean Protoporphyrin concentration of non-anemic (above 15% transferrin saturation) donors was slightly higher than the results of normal adult males.

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Metabolic risk and nutritional state according to breakfast energy level of Korean adults: Using the 2007~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 성인의 아침식사 에너지 수준에 따른 대사적 위험과 영양상태: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Jang, So-Hyoun;Suh, Yoon Suk;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate energy level of breakfast with less risk of chronic disease for Korean adults. Methods: Using data from the 2007~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey, from a total of 12,238 adults aged 19~64, the final 7,769 subjects were analyzed except subjects who were undergoing treatment for cancer or metabolic disorder. According to the percent of breakfast energy intake versus their estimated energy requirement (EER), the subjects were divided into four groups: < 10% (very low, VL), 10~20% (low, L), 20~30% (moderate, M), ${\geq}30%$ (sufficient, S). All data were analyzed on the metabolic risk and nutritional state after application of weighted value and adjustment of sex, age, residential area, income, education, job or jobless, and energy intake using a general linear model or logistic regression. Results: The subjects of group S were 16.9% of total subjects, group M 39.2%, group L 37.6%, and group VL 6.3%. The VL group included more male subjects, younger-aged (19 to 40 years), urban residents, higher income, higher education, and fewer breakfasts eaters together with family members. Among the 4 groups, the VL group showed the highest waist circumference, while the S group showed the lowest waist circumference, body mass index, and serum total cholesterol. The groups of VL and L with lower intake of breakfast energy showed high percent of energy from protein and fat, and low percent of energy from carbohydrate. With the increase of breakfast energy level, intake of energy, most nutrients and food groups increased, and the percentage of subjects consuming nutrients below EAR decreased. The VL group showed relatively higher intake of snacks, sugar, meat and eggs, oil, and seasonings, and the lowest intake of vegetable. Risk of obesity by waist circumference was highest in the VL group by 1.90 times of the S group and the same trend was shown in obesity by BMI. Risk of dyslipidemia by serum total cholesterol was 1.84 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Risk of diabetes by Glu-FBS (fasting blood sugar) was 1.57 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Conclusion: The results indicate that higher breakfast energy level is positively related to lower metabolic risk and more desirable nutritional state in Korean adults. Therefore, breakfast energy intake more than 30% of their own EER would be highly recommended for Korean adults.

A Survey on Physical Complaints Related with Farmers' Syndrome of Vinylhouse and Non-vinylhouse Farmers (비닐하우스 재배농민과 일반농민의 농부증 관련 신체증상 호소율 조사)

  • Lee, Ju-Young;Park, Jung-Han;Kim, Doo-Hie
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.27 no.2 s.46
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    • pp.258-273
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    • 1994
  • To compare the physical complaints of vinylhouse farmers with those of non-vinylhouse farmers, a personal interviews on 250 vinylhouse and 142 non-vinylhouse farmers were conducted in Sungjoo county in Kyungpook province selected by a random sampling from July 5 to July 10, 1993. Blood pressure of the subjects was also measured. Vinylhouse farmers had a higher average age, larger family size, shorter experience of farming, more working hours per day and working days per year and higher annual income than the non-vinylhouse farmers. The frequency of pesticide spray of the vinylhouse farmers was 3.4 times on the average in June 1993 as compared with 2.0 times of non-vinylhouse farmers, and 16.7 times for the vinylhouse farmers during the last one year while it was 8.3 times for the non-vinylhouse farmers in the same period. While 39.6% of vinylhouse farmers experienced pesticide intoxication symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, itching, and skin irritation, etc. during the month of June, 25.4% of non-vinylhouse farmers experienced such symptoms. The most frequent symptoms among eight symptoms that constitute the farmers' syndrome were lumbago, numbness of hand or foot, shoulder pain and dizziness regardless of sex and type of farming. Prevalence of the farmers' syndrome in male and female among vinylhouse farmers were 22.1%, 43.4%, respectively, and the prevalence in non-vinylhouse farmers was 23.2% for male and 50.7% for female. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of farmers' syndrome between vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers. However, the prevalence in female was about 2 times higher than that of male. When the effects of other factors were adjusted by multiple logistic regression for farmers' syndrome, the prevalence in female was 3.0 times higher than that of male. The prevalence of farmers' syndrome was increased as the age of farmers increased in both vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers, and adjusted odds ratio of farmers' syndrome increased by 3% as the age increased by 1 year. Adjusted odds ratio for Farmers' syndrome in farmers who experienced pesticide intoxication during the month of June was 3.1 times higher than that of farmers who did not have such experience. While the prevalence of hypertension in male and female non-vinylhouse farmers were 22.4%, 13.7%, respectively, the prevalence in vinylhouse farmers were 13.5% for male and 12.0% for female. However, there was no association between farmers' syndrome and hypertension. It was found in this study that the vinylhouse farmers are at a high risk of pesticide intoxication, which is associated with tile common physical complaints. To reduce such risk it is necessary to develop farming methods which do not require the pesticide or may use less pesticide, a safer method of pesticide spraying, and the protective equipments which can be worn at a high temperature and have a better protective effect. Also education of farmers for the correct methods of ventilation after pesticide spraying in the vinylhouse and wearing the protective equipments may be considered as a supportive method. Since inappropriate posture at work and intensive labor may cause farmers' syndrome, it is recommended to develop farming tools which reduce physical burden and take a rest and exercise periodically during work. It is necessary to strengthen the hypertension management program of the Kyungpook province, because the prevalence of hypertension was as high as about 15%.

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