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A Study on Red Cell Protoporphyrin Concentration and Iron Metabolism (적혈구(赤血球) Protoporphyrin과 철분대사(鐵分代謝)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Cho, Kyung-Hwan;Tchai, Bum-Suk
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.7 no.3
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    • pp.1-13
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    • 1974
  • The relative state of human iron storage may be ascertained more reliably through determination of the serum iron, iron binding capacity, transferrin saturation and absorption of radioactive iron in conjunction with studies of red cell morphology than from the study of red cell morphology alone. Recent investigations have shown that there is an increase in red cell protoporphyrin concentration in iron deficiency anemia. The significance of the red cell protoporphyrin has been discussed greatly during the years since its discovery. Two of the main factors which appear to influence the amaunt of protoporphyrin are increased erythropoiesis and factors interfering with the utilization of iron in the synthesis of hemoglobin, and iron deficiency. Recently Heller et al. have described a simplified method for blood protoporphyrin assay and this technique could be used assess nutritional iron status, wherein even minor insufficiencies are detectable as increased protoporphyrin concentrations. Based on the evaluation of the relationship between nutritional iron status and red cell protoporphyrin as an index suitable for the detection of the iron deficiency is described in this paper. RESULTS 1. Hemoglobin Concentrations and Anthropometric Measurements. The mean and standard deviations of the various anthropometric measurements of different age and sex groups are shown in table 1. There measurements have been compared with the Korean Standard. In the absence of local standards for arm circumference and skin-fold thickness over triceps, they have been compared with the standard from Jelliffe. Table 2,3, and 4 give anthropometric measurements and frequency (%) of anemia in children surveyed. The mean height of the children studid was 10 to 20 percent; below the Korean Standard. The distribution of height below 80 percent of the Standard was 21.2 percent, however, among anemic group this percentage was 27.7 percent. In general, the mean weight of the children was 10 to 15 percent below the Korean Standard. The percentage of children with weight less than 80 percent of the Standard was about 35 percent. But in the anemic group of the children, this percentage was 44 percent. The mean arm circumference was about 15 percent lower than the Jelliffe's standard. 61.2 percent of the children had values of arm circumference below 80 percent of the standard. Children with low hemoglobin levels, this percentage was 80 percent. The mean skinfold thickness over the triceps of the children studied was about 25 Percent lower than the Jelliffe's standard and 61.2 percent of the children had the value less than 80 percent of the standard. Among anemic children, this percentage was 70.8%. As may be seen from table 5, the mean hemoglobin concentration of the total group was 11.3g/100ml. Hemoglobin concentration was less than 11.0g/100ml. in 65(36.5%) of the 178 children. The degree of anemia in most of these children was mild with a hemoglobin level of less than 8.0g/100ml. found in only one child. In general, the prevalence of anemia was high in female children than male and decreased its frequency with increasing age. Relatively close relationship was observed between hemoglobin level and anthrophometric measurements especially high between arm circumference and skinfold thickness and hemoglobin but very low in height and low in weight and hemoglobin level, estimated by chi-square value. II. Serum iron, Transferrin saturation (1) Serum iron, and transferrin saturation Serum iron, transferrin saturation and red cell protoporphyrin concentrations were estimated in sub-sample of 84 children from 1 to 6 years and 24 older children between 7 and 13 years of age. The findings are presented in table 6. The mean serum iron concentration of the total group was 59ug/100ml. However, the level incrased with age from 36.6ug/100ml. (1-3years) to 80.8ug/100ml. (7-13 years). 60 percent of these children had a serum iron level less than 50ug/10ml. in the 1-3 years age group and 31.4 percent for 4-6 years group. These contrast with the finding of 12.5 percent anemic children in the 7-13 years age group. The mean transferrin saturation for the total group was 18.1 percent and frequency of anemia by transferrin saturation was observed same pattern as serum iron concentration. (2) Red cell protoporphyrin concentrations. (a) Red cell protoporphrin levels of children: Red cell protoporphyrin and other biochemical data are shown in table 4. The mean concentration in red cell of all children was fround 46.3ug/100ml. RBC. and differences with age groups were observed; in the age group 1-3 years, the mean concentration was $59.5{\pm}32.14$ ug/100ml. RBC; 4-6 years $44.1{\pm}22.57$ ug/100ml. RBC. and 7-13 years, $39.0{\pm}13.56$ ug/100ml. RBC. (b) Normal protoporphyrin values in adults: It was observed that in 10 normal adult males studied here the level of protoporphyrin in red cell ranged from 18 to 54 ug/100ml. RBC. and the mean concentration was $47.5{\sim}14.47$ ug/100ml. RBC. Other biochemical determination made on the same subjects are presented in table 8. (c) Red tell protoporphyrin concentration of occupational blood donors: The results of analyses for red cell protoporphyrin as well as serum iron, transferrin saturation and hemoglobin in the 76 blood donors are presented in table 7 and 8. In this experiment, donors were selected at random, however, most of them bled repeatedly because of poor economic situation, I doubt. Table 9 shows the distribution of red cell protoporphyrin concentration and hemoglobin concentration of occupational donors. The mean hemoglobin value for the total was 11.9 g/100 ml. When iron deficiency anemia is defined as a transferrin saturation below 15%, prevalence of anemia was 47.4 percent and the mean serum iron was 27.1ug/100ml. and red cell protoporphyrin, 168.3ug/100ml. RBC. However, mean serum iron and protoporphyrin concentration of above 15% transferrin saturation were 11.6 ug/100 ml. and 58.8 ug/100 ml. RBC. respectively. The mean Protoporphyrin concentration of non-anemic (above 15% transferrin saturation) donors was slightly higher than the results of normal adult males.

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Metabolic risk and nutritional state according to breakfast energy level of Korean adults: Using the 2007~2009 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (한국 성인의 아침식사 에너지 수준에 따른 대사적 위험과 영양상태: 2007~2009년 국민건강영양조사 자료 이용)

  • Jang, So-Hyoun;Suh, Yoon Suk;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.48 no.1
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    • pp.46-57
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to determine an appropriate energy level of breakfast with less risk of chronic disease for Korean adults. Methods: Using data from the 2007~2009 Korean National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey, from a total of 12,238 adults aged 19~64, the final 7,769 subjects were analyzed except subjects who were undergoing treatment for cancer or metabolic disorder. According to the percent of breakfast energy intake versus their estimated energy requirement (EER), the subjects were divided into four groups: < 10% (very low, VL), 10~20% (low, L), 20~30% (moderate, M), ${\geq}30%$ (sufficient, S). All data were analyzed on the metabolic risk and nutritional state after application of weighted value and adjustment of sex, age, residential area, income, education, job or jobless, and energy intake using a general linear model or logistic regression. Results: The subjects of group S were 16.9% of total subjects, group M 39.2%, group L 37.6%, and group VL 6.3%. The VL group included more male subjects, younger-aged (19 to 40 years), urban residents, higher income, higher education, and fewer breakfasts eaters together with family members. Among the 4 groups, the VL group showed the highest waist circumference, while the S group showed the lowest waist circumference, body mass index, and serum total cholesterol. The groups of VL and L with lower intake of breakfast energy showed high percent of energy from protein and fat, and low percent of energy from carbohydrate. With the increase of breakfast energy level, intake of energy, most nutrients and food groups increased, and the percentage of subjects consuming nutrients below EAR decreased. The VL group showed relatively higher intake of snacks, sugar, meat and eggs, oil, and seasonings, and the lowest intake of vegetable. Risk of obesity by waist circumference was highest in the VL group by 1.90 times of the S group and the same trend was shown in obesity by BMI. Risk of dyslipidemia by serum total cholesterol was 1.84 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Risk of diabetes by Glu-FBS (fasting blood sugar) was 1.57 times higher in the VL group compared to the S group. Conclusion: The results indicate that higher breakfast energy level is positively related to lower metabolic risk and more desirable nutritional state in Korean adults. Therefore, breakfast energy intake more than 30% of their own EER would be highly recommended for Korean adults.

A Survey on Physical Complaints Related with Farmers' Syndrome of Vinylhouse and Non-vinylhouse Farmers (비닐하우스 재배농민과 일반농민의 농부증 관련 신체증상 호소율 조사)

  • Lee, Ju-Young;Park, Jung-Han;Kim, Doo-Hie
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.27 no.2 s.46
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    • pp.258-273
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    • 1994
  • To compare the physical complaints of vinylhouse farmers with those of non-vinylhouse farmers, a personal interviews on 250 vinylhouse and 142 non-vinylhouse farmers were conducted in Sungjoo county in Kyungpook province selected by a random sampling from July 5 to July 10, 1993. Blood pressure of the subjects was also measured. Vinylhouse farmers had a higher average age, larger family size, shorter experience of farming, more working hours per day and working days per year and higher annual income than the non-vinylhouse farmers. The frequency of pesticide spray of the vinylhouse farmers was 3.4 times on the average in June 1993 as compared with 2.0 times of non-vinylhouse farmers, and 16.7 times for the vinylhouse farmers during the last one year while it was 8.3 times for the non-vinylhouse farmers in the same period. While 39.6% of vinylhouse farmers experienced pesticide intoxication symptoms such as headache, nausea, vomiting, dizziness, itching, and skin irritation, etc. during the month of June, 25.4% of non-vinylhouse farmers experienced such symptoms. The most frequent symptoms among eight symptoms that constitute the farmers' syndrome were lumbago, numbness of hand or foot, shoulder pain and dizziness regardless of sex and type of farming. Prevalence of the farmers' syndrome in male and female among vinylhouse farmers were 22.1%, 43.4%, respectively, and the prevalence in non-vinylhouse farmers was 23.2% for male and 50.7% for female. There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of farmers' syndrome between vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers. However, the prevalence in female was about 2 times higher than that of male. When the effects of other factors were adjusted by multiple logistic regression for farmers' syndrome, the prevalence in female was 3.0 times higher than that of male. The prevalence of farmers' syndrome was increased as the age of farmers increased in both vinylhouse and non-vinylhouse farmers, and adjusted odds ratio of farmers' syndrome increased by 3% as the age increased by 1 year. Adjusted odds ratio for Farmers' syndrome in farmers who experienced pesticide intoxication during the month of June was 3.1 times higher than that of farmers who did not have such experience. While the prevalence of hypertension in male and female non-vinylhouse farmers were 22.4%, 13.7%, respectively, the prevalence in vinylhouse farmers were 13.5% for male and 12.0% for female. However, there was no association between farmers' syndrome and hypertension. It was found in this study that the vinylhouse farmers are at a high risk of pesticide intoxication, which is associated with tile common physical complaints. To reduce such risk it is necessary to develop farming methods which do not require the pesticide or may use less pesticide, a safer method of pesticide spraying, and the protective equipments which can be worn at a high temperature and have a better protective effect. Also education of farmers for the correct methods of ventilation after pesticide spraying in the vinylhouse and wearing the protective equipments may be considered as a supportive method. Since inappropriate posture at work and intensive labor may cause farmers' syndrome, it is recommended to develop farming tools which reduce physical burden and take a rest and exercise periodically during work. It is necessary to strengthen the hypertension management program of the Kyungpook province, because the prevalence of hypertension was as high as about 15%.

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Angiotensin Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism in Alport Syndrome (알포트증후군 환자에서 안지오텐신전환효소 유전자 다형성의 의의)

  • Kim Ji-Hong;Lee Jae-Seung;Kim Pyung-Kil
    • Childhood Kidney Diseases
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.18-25
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    • 2004
  • Purpose : Alport syndrome is clinically characterized by hereditary progressive nephritis causing ESRD with irregular thickening of the GBM and sensory neural hearing loss. The mutations of type IV collagen gene(COL4A5) located on the long arm of X chromosome is considered responsible for most of the structural abnormalities in the GBM of Alport patients. Since no definite clinical prognostic predictor has been reported in the disease yet, we designed this study to evaluate the significance of genetic polymorphism of the angiotensin converting enzyme in children with Alport syndrome as a prognostic factor for disease progression. Methods : ACE I/D genotype were examined by PCR amplification of the genomic DNA in 12 patients with Alport syndrome and 12 of their family members. Alport patients were divided into two groups; the conservative group, those who had preserved renal function for more than 10 years of age, the early CRF group, those who had progressed to CRF within 10 years of age. Results : The mean age of onset was $3.45{\pm}2.4$ years in the conservative group, $4.4{\pm}1.2$ years in the early CRF group. Sex ratios were 5:3 and 2:1 in each group. Among 12 cases of patients, 4 cases were in early CRF group and their mean duration of onset to CRF was 4.5 yews(8.9 years of age). Eight patients(67%) were in the conservative group and they had normal renal function for more than 10 years of age(mean duration of renal preservation was 10.6 years). The incidence of II type ACE gene were in 25.0%(3 cases), ID type in 41.7%(5 cases), DD type in 33.3%(4 cases). There was no significant difference between Alport patient and normal control(II type 44.3%, ID type 40.9%, DD type 14.8%). The incidence of DD type of early CRF group were higher than that of the conservative group(75% vs 12.5%)(p<0.05). There was no difference in ACE gene polymorphism between normal Alport family members and control group. Conclusion : Even though there was no significant difference of ACE polymorphism between Alport patients and the normal control group, the incidence of DD type is significantly increased in early CRF group which means DD type of ACE polymorphism has a possibility of being a predictor for early progression to CRF in Alport patients.

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Effect of Dietary Streptococcus faecium on the Performances and the Changes of Intestinal Microflora of Broiler Chicks (Streptococcus faecium의 급여가 육계의 성장과 장내 세균총 변화에 미치는 영향)

  • Kim, K.S.;Chee, K.M.;Lee, S.J.;Cho, S.K.;Kim, S.S.;Lee, W.
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.97-119
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    • 1991
  • Effect of Streptococcus faecium(SF) and an antibiotic, Colistin(Col), supplemented to diets singly or in combination, on the performances and changes of intestinal population of microflora of broiler chicks studied. A total of 252, day-old chicks(Arbor Acre) of mixed sex(M:F=1:1) were alloted into six groups. A diet with no Col and SF was referred as a control diet. The basal diets were added with two levels of SF, 0.04 and 0.08%, singly or in combination with Col 10ppm Another diet was prepared by adding only Col 10 ppm. Numbers of the microorganism in diets added with SF 0.04% and 0.08% were 7$\times$10$^{4}$ and 1.4$\times$10$^{5}$ /g diet respectively The diets consisting of corn and soybean meal as major ingredients were fed for a period of seven weeks . During the feeding trial, fresh excreta were sampled at the end of every week in a sterilized condition to count microbial changes from each dietary group. Microbial changes of large intestine were also measured from nine birds sacrificed at the end of the 4th and 7th weeks each time per dietary group. Excreta from all the groups were also collected quantitatively at the end of 3rd and 6th weeks to measure digestibility of the diets, At the end of 7th week, nine birds from each group were also sacrificed to measure weight changes of gastrointestinal tracts . Average body weight gains of broilers fed the diets added with SF 0.08% (2.37kg) or SF 0. 08%+col 10ppm(2.34kg) were significantly larger than that of the control(2.18kg). The weight gains of the other groups were not statistically different from that of the control Feed/gain ratios of the supplemental groups were better than that of control (P<0.05) except that of birds fed the diet added only with SF 0.04%. Digestibilities of nutrients such as dry matter, crude protein, crude fat and total carbohydrates were not altered by the consumption of the diets added with SF and/or Col throughout the whole feeding period. As expected, the numbers of Streptococci in the excreta from birds fed diets added with SF increased significantly with a statistical difference between groups with SF 0.04% and SF 0.08% most of the time. However. addition of Colistin to the diets supplemented with SF did not give any effects on the number of the microorganism. Numbers of coliforms in the excreta were apparently reduced by feeding the diets added with SF and/or Col(P<0.05). There were, however, no additive effects observed between the two feed additives in this regard when supplementing Col to the SF diets. Distributions of intestinal microflora exhibited exactly the same pattern as those of the excreta. Length of small intestine of the birds fed diets added with SF 0.08% with or without Col 10 ppm became significantly longer with a range of about 10% than those of the birds fed diets without SF. However, the empty weight of the small inestine of the former group was lighter than that of control These changes resulted in a significant reduction in weight/unit length of the intestine of the birds fed diets supplemented with Col and SF singly or in combination. In overall conclusion, diet added with SF 0.08% appeared most effective in improving broiler performances. Colistin added at a level of 10ppm was not beneficial at all in itself or in combination with SF in terms of broiler performances or changes of intestinal microflora population. The efficacy of SF and Col could be attributed to the changes of wall thickness of the small intestine.

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Induction Chemotherapy and Radiotherapy in Locally Advanced Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer (NSCLC) (국소 진행된 비소세포성 폐암에서 유도 화학요법 및 방사선치료)

  • Yun, Sang-Mo;Kim, Jae-Cheol;Park, In-Kyu
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.195-202
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    • 1999
  • Purpose : We peformed this study to evaluate the prognostic factors and the effect of induction chemotherapy in locally advanced non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Materials and Methods : A retrospective analysis was done for 130 patients with locally advanced NSCLC treated with curative radiotherapy alone or induction chemo-radiotherapy from January 1986 to October 1996. Eighty-five patients were treated with radiotherapy alone, forty-five with induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy. Age, sex, performance status, histopathologic type, and stage were evenly distributed in both groups. The patients were treated with 6 MV or 10 MV X-ray. Conventional fractionation with daily fraction size 1$.8\~2.0$ Gy was done. Of the patients, 129 patients received total dose above 59.6 Gy ($56\~66$ Gy, median 60 Gy). Induction chemotherapy regimen were CAP (Cyclo-phosphamide, Adriamycin, Cisplatin) in 6 patients, MVP (Mitomycin, Vinblastine, Cisplatin) in 9 patients, MIC (Mitomycin, Ifosfamide Cisplatin) in 13 patients, and EP (Etoposide, Cisplatin) in 17 patients. Chemotherapy was done in $2\~5$ cycles (median 2). Results : Overall 1-, 2-, and 3-year survival rate (YSR) for all patients were $41.5\%,{\;}13.7\%,{\;}and{\;}7\%$, respectively (median survival time 11 months). According to treatment modality, median survival time, overall 1-, 2-, and 3-YSR were 9 months, $32.9\%,{\;}10.\5%,{\;}6\%$ for radiotherapy alone group, and 14 months, $57.8\%,{\;}20\%,{\;}7.6\%$ for induction chemotherapy group, respectively (f=0.0005). Complete response (CR) to overall treatments was $25\%$ (21/84) in radiotherapy alone and $40.5\%$ (17/42) in induction chemotherapy group (p=0.09). The Prognostic factors affecting overall survival were hemoglobin level (p=0.04), NSE (neuron-specific enolase) level (p=0.004), and respense to overall treatment(p=0.004). According to treatment modalities, NSE (neuron-specific enolase) (p=0.006) and response to overall treatment (p=0.003) were associated with overall survival in radiotherapy alone group, and response to overall treatment (p=0.007) in induction chemotherapy group. The failure Pattern analysis revealed no significant difference between treatment modalities. But, in patients with CR to overall treatment, distant metastasis were found in 11/19 patients with radiotherapy alone, and 3/13 patients with induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy (p=0.07). Locoregional failure patterns were not different between two groups (10/19 vs 6/13). Conclusion : Induction chemotherapy and radiotherapy achieved increased 2YSR compared to radiotherapy alone, At least in CR patients, there was decreased tendency in distant metastasis with induction chemotherapy. But, locoregional failures and long-term survival were not improved. Thus, there is need of more effort to increasing local control and further decreasing distant metastasis.

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The Central Venous Catheter-related Infection of Chlorhexidine-silver Sulfadiazine Coated Catheters in Medical ICU (내과계 중환자실 환자에서 Chlorhexidine-silver Sulfadiazine Coated Catheter의 중심정맥관 감염에 대한 연구)

  • Jung, Young Ju;Koh, Younsuck;Lim, Chae-Man;Lee, Jae Seung;Yu, Mi Hyun;Oh, Yeon Mok;Shim, Tae Sun;Lee, Sang Do;Kim, Woo Sung;Kim, Dong Soon;Kim, Won Dong;Hong, Sang-Bum
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.59 no.4
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    • pp.389-396
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    • 2005
  • Background : Central venous catheters(CVCs) area major source of nosocomial infection. Chlorhexidine-silver sulfadiazine coated catheters (CHSS) were developed to reduce the rate of CVC infection. However, the clinical effectiveness of CHSS in comparison wth non-coated catheter (NCC) remains to be evaluated. Methods : From January 2004 to December 2004 in medical intensive care unit (ICU) of Asan Medical Center, CVCs were inserted in 446 cases. We retrospectively analyzed characteristics of patients and catheterization,the catheter-related infection rate and colonization, microbiologic findings, and insertion sites (subclavian, jugular, femoral) according to the type of inserted CVCs (NCC: 187 cases, CHSS: 259 cases). Catheter related infection is defined as catheter related bacteremia and catheter related non-bacteremic sepsis. Results : 1) The mean age of the patients in each group was $62{\pm}16$ years, $63{\pm}15$ years (p=0.42), and sex ratio 94:50, 141:69 (p=0.9) in NCC and CHSS. Duration of ICU admission ($29{\pm}37$, $26{\pm}44$ p=0.42), duration of mechanical ventilation ($17{\pm}22$, $15{\pm}19$ p=0.17), and APACHE III score at the time of CVC insertion ($81{\pm}34$, $82{\pm}37$ p=0.61) were not different between both groups. 2) Mean duration of catheterization was 118 in NCC and 119 in CHSS (p=0.98). Number of catheter-days was 2176 days in NCC and 3035 days in CHSS. Catheter-related infection occurred in 9 (4.8%) cases receiving NCC and 4 cases (1.5%) receiving CHSS. Catheterrelated infection incidence per 1000 catheter-days was 4.1 and 1.3, respectively (p=0.04). CHSS was associated with a significant reduction of infection in jugular catheters regarding to insertion sites (p=0.01). 3) Microorganisms causing infection were Staphylococcus aureus (n=3), Candida (n=3), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (n=2), and Klebsiella (n=1) in NCC, and Candida species (n=2), coagulase-negative Staphylococci (n=2), Proteus (n=1) in CHSS. Conclusion : CHSS has significantly reduced the episodes of infection compared to NCC in jugular catheterization in medical ICU.

Clinical Characteristics of the Patients with Mycobacterium avium Complex Pulmonary Disease (Mycobacterium avium complex 폐질환 환자의 임상적 특징)

  • Koh, Won-Jung;Kwon, O Jung;Kang, Eun Hae;Jeon, Ik Soo;Pyun, Yu Jang;Ham, Hyoung Suk;Suh, Gee Young;Chung, Man Pyo;Kim, Hojoong;Han, Daehee;Kim, Tae Sung;Lee, Kyung Soo
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.54 no.1
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    • pp.33-44
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    • 2003
  • Background : Mycobacterium avium complex(MAC) is the most common respiratory pathogen in nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease. This study described the clinical characteristics of the patients with pulmonary disease caused by MAC. Materials and Methods : The clinical characteristics of 24 patients with pulmonary disease caused by the MAC, who fulfilled the 1997 American Thoracic Society diagnostic criteria for nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary disease, were retrospectively analyzed. Results : Fourteen patients(58%) were male and the median age at diagnosis was 61 years(range 46-75). Of the 24 patients, 16(67%) had a M. intracellulare infection, 7(29%) had a M. avium infection and one patient was not identified. Coughing (92%) and sputum (88%) were most frequently observed symptoms. The sputum smear for acid-fast bacilli was positive in 17(71%) patients. Fourteen(58%) patients had the upper lobe cavitary form and 10(42%) patients had the nodular bronchiectatic form. In a comparison between the patients with the upper lobe cavitary form and those with the nodular bronchiectatic form, significant differences were found according to sex(male 86% vs. 20%, p=0.003), smoking history(79% vs. 10%, p=0.008), the presence of an underlying disease(64% vs. 20%, p=0.036), the pulmonary function(% forced vital capacity, median 71% vs. 88%, p=0.022; % forced expiratory volume in one second, median 69% vs. 89%, p=0.051) and bilateral disease at chest radiography(29% vs. 90%, p=0.005). The time from the onset of symptoms to diagnosis was longer in those with the nodular bronchiectatic form(median 72 months, range 8-132) than those with the upper lobe cavitary form(median 22 months, range 6-60) Conclusions : MAC pulmonary disease occurs in two distinct populations with two distinct clinical presentations. For a correct diagnosis of MAC pulmonary disease, knowledge of the diverse clinical and radiological findings is essential.

Comparison of Heart Rate Variability Indices between Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome and Primary Insomnia (폐쇄성 수면무호흡 증후군과 일차성 불면증에서 심박동률 변이도 지수의 비교)

  • Nam, Ji-Won;Park, Doo-Heum;Yu, Jaehak;Ryu, Seung-Ho;Ha, Ji-Hyeon
    • Sleep Medicine and Psychophysiology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.68-76
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    • 2012
  • Objectives: Sleep disorders cause changes of autonomic nervous system (ANS) which affect cardiovascular system. Primary insomnia (PI) makes acceleration of sympathetic nervous system (SNS) tone by sleep deficiency and arousal. Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) sets off SNS by frequent arousals and hypoxemias during sleep. We aimed to compare the changes of heart rate variability (HRV) indices induced by insomnia or sleep apnea to analyze for ANS how much to be affected by PI or OSAS. Methods: Total 315 subjects carried out nocturnal polysomnography (NPSG) were categorized into 4 groups - PI, mild, moderate and severe OSAS. Severity of OSAS was determined by apnea-hypopnea index (AHI). Then we selected 110 subjects considering age, sex and valance of each group's size [Group 1 : PI (mean age=$41.50{\pm}13.16$ yrs, AHI <5, n=20), Group 2 : mild OSAS (mean age=$43.67{\pm}12.11$ yrs, AHI 5-15, n=30), Group 3 : moderate OSAS (mean age $44.93{\pm}12.38$ yrs, AHI 16-30, n=30), Group 4 : severe OSAS (mean age=$45.87{\pm}12.44$ yrs, AHI >30, n=30)]. Comparison of HRV indices among the four groups was performed with ANCOVA (adjusted for age and body mass index) and Sidak post-hoc test. Results: We found statistically significant differences in HRV indices between severe OSAS group and the other groups (PI, mild OSAS and moderate OSAS). And there were no significant differences in HRV indices among PI, mild and moderate OSAS group. In HRV indices of PI and severe OSAS group showing the most prominent difference in the group comparisons, average RR interval were $991.1{\pm}27.1$ and $875.8{\pm}22.0$ ms (p=0.016), standard deviation of NN interval (SDNN) was $85.4{\pm}6.6$ and $112.8{\pm}5.4$ ms (p=0.022), SDNN index was $57.5{\pm}5.2$ and $87.6{\pm}4.2$ (p<0.001), total power was $11,893.5{\pm}1,359.9$ and $18,097.0{\pm}1,107.2ms^2$(p=0.008), very low frequency (VLF) was $7,534.8{\pm}1,120.1$ and $11,883.8{\pm}912.0ms^2$ (p=0.035), low frequency (LF) was $2,724.2{\pm}327.8$ and $4,351.6{\pm}266.9ms^2$(p=0.003). Conclusions: VLF and LF which were correlated with SNS tone showed more increased differences between severe OSAS group and PI group than other group comparisons. We could suggest that severe OSAS group was more influential to increased SNS activity than PI group.

Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome in Respiratory Intensive Care Unit (호흡기계 중환자실에서 치료 관리된 급성호흡곤란증후군의 임상특성)

  • Moon, Seung-Hyug;Song, Sang-Hoon;Jung, Ho-Seuk;Yeun, Dong-Jin;Uh, Su-Tack;Kim, Yong-Hoon;Park, Choon-Sik
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.45 no.6
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    • pp.1252-1264
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    • 1998
  • Background : Patients with established ARDS have a mortality rate that exceeds 50 percent despite of intensive care including artificial ventilation modality, Mortality has been associated with sepsis and organ failure preceding or following ARDS ; APACHE II score ; old age and predisposing factors. Revised ventilator strategy over last 10 years especially at ARDS appeared to improve the mortality of it. We retrospectively investigated 40 ARDS patients of respiratory-care unit to examine how these factors influence outcome. Methods : A retrospective investigation of 40 ARDS patients in respiratory-care unit with ventilator management over 46 months was performed. We investigated the clinical characteristics such as a risk factor, cause of death and mortality, and also parameters such as APACHE II score, number of organ dysfunction, and hypoxia score (HS, $PaO_2/FIO_2$) at day 1, 3, 7 of severe acute lung injury, and simultaneously the PEEP level and tidal volume. Results : Clinical conditions associated with ARDS were sepsis 50%, pneumonia 30%, aspiration pneumonia 20%, and mortality rate based on the etiology of ARDS was sepsis 50%, pneumonia 67%(p<0.01 vs sepsis), aspiration pneumonia 38%. Overall mortality rate was 60%. In 28 day-nonsurvivors, leading cause of death was severe sepsis(42.9%) followed by MOF(28.6%), respiratory failure(19.1 %), and others(9.5%). There were no differences in variables of age, sex, APACHE II score, HS, and numbers of organ dysfunction at day 1 of ARDS between 28-days survivor and nonsurvivors. In view of categorized variables of age(>70), APACHE II score(>26), HS(<150) at day 1 of ARDS, there were significant differences between 28-days survivor and nonsurvivors(p<0.05). After day 1 of ARDS, the survivors have improved their APACHE II score, HS, numbers of organ dysfunction over the first 3d to 7d, but nonsurvivors did not improve over a seven-day course. There were significant differences in APACHE II score and numbers of organ dysfunction of day 3, 7 of ARDS, and HS of day 7 of ARDS between survivors and nonsurvivors(p<0.05). Fatality rate of ARDS has been declined from 68% to less than 40% between 1995 and 1998. There were no differences in APACHE II score, HS, numbers of organ dysfunction, old age at presentation of ARDS. In last years, mean PEEP level was significantly higher and mean tidal volume was significantly lower than previous years during seven days of ARDS(p<0.01). Conclusions : Improvement of HS, APACHE II score, organ dysfunction over the first 3d to 7d is associated with increased survival Decline in ARDS fatality rates between 1995 and 1998 seems that this trend must be attributed to improved supportive therapy including at least high PEEP instead of conventional-least PEEP approach in ventilator management of acute respiratory distress syndrome.

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