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Study about Vaccination of Patients Diagnosed by Antimeasles Antibody in Measles Out break between 2000 and 2001 (2000~2001년 홍역 유행시 홍역 항체 유무로 진단된 환아의 홍역백신 접종 여부에 관한 연구)

  • Kang, Kye Wool;Yoon, Hwa Jun;Park, Seok Won;Kim, Hwang Min;Kim, Jong Soo
    • Pediatric Infection and Vaccine
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    • v.9 no.1
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    • pp.67-73
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    • 2002
  • Purpose : Despite of the appropriate measles vaccination programs, epidemics occur every 2~3 years and especially occurred in large group in late of 2000 and early of 2001. To evaluate the effect of the vaccination, needs for revaccination and to determine the optimal age for revaccination, we examined measles specific IgG and IgM in mealses patients and investigated different antibody appearance according to vaccination history. Methods : Anti-measles antibodies were checked in sera of 201 patients(male : 117, female : 84) that are responsible for Criteria for Disease Control among 298 patients that are suspicious of measles including inpatients and outpatients in Wonju Christian Hospital from June in 2000 to June in 2001. They were checked by immunofluorescent assay. Then we classified them according to sex, month, distribution of age due to vaccination and appearance of measles antibody. Results : The ratio of male and female was 1.4 : 1. The maximum incidence was 38 cases(18.9%) in May in 2001. Incidence was increased from November in 2000 to January in 2001 and decreased in February and March in 2001. Thereafter it was increased from April in 2001 again and decreased from June. There were 93 cases(46.3%) in vaccinated group and 108 cases(53.7%) in unvaccinated group. In the distribution according to age in vaccinated group, there were 54 cases(58.1%) in more than 10 years old, 15 cases(16.0%) between 7 and 10 years old, 12 cases(12.9%) between 15 months and 3 years old, 6 cases (6.5%) between 4 and 6 years old and 6 cases(6.5%) between 6 months and 14 months old. In the distribution according to age in unvaccinated group, there were 88 cases(81.5%) between 6 months and 14 months old, 9 cases(8.3%) between 15 months and 3 years old, 7 cases(6.5%) less than 6 months old, 3 cases(2.8%) more than 10 years old and 1 case(0.9%) between 7 and 10 years old. In the distribution of measles specific IgG and IgM, 78 cas (87.6%) were IgG(+), IgM(+) and 11 cases(12.4%) are IgG(+), IgM(-) in vaccinated group. In unvaccinated group, there were 69 cases(63.9%) of IgG(+), IgM(+) and 39 cases (36.1%) of IgG(-), IgM(+). Con c lu s i on s : We thought that measles incidence was peaked between 6 months and 14 months old in unvaccinated group because of maximum decrement of transplacental matenal antibody and was peaked in more than 10 years old in vaccinated group because of maximum decrement of measles specific IgG. We think that measles revaccination as well as vaccination and especially optimal age for revaccination is very important to prevent measles successfully.

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Comparison of Subjective Symptoms of Fatigue and Salivary pH among Teachers between Special School and Elementary (피로자각증상(疲勞自覺症狀)과 타액(唾液) pH에 관(關)한 조사연구(調査硏究) - 특수학교(特殊學校) 및 국민학교(國民學校) 교사군간(敎師群間)의 비교(比較) -)

  • Lee, Soon-Ja;Kim, Doo-Hie
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.22 no.4 s.28
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    • pp.506-517
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    • 1989
  • Two hundred and fifty teachers of special school (for the disabled) and 414 elementary school teachers were selected for the targets in order to compare their degrees of fatigue symptoms and to find what kind of ralationship is between subjective symptoms of fatigue and pH is the saliva. It was 30 minutes before their closing hours on April 21th, 1989 that their physical, mental and neuro-sensory symptoms and salivary pH were examined. The test results are summarized as fallows : It is observed that an interrelation between subjective fatigue and pH in their saliva shows a significant relationship between physical and neuro-sensory symptoms in a sense of statistics. The rate of subjective fatigue complained by the special teachers is higher than that by the elementary teachers. In the case of salivary pH, the special teachers' is as a whole lower than the elementary teachers'. The complain rates in each item, checked, of special teachers are generally higher than those of the elementary teachers. It is in the mental symptom related item that there are many sub-items which show significant difference. According to the average of salivary pH based on the degrees of complained symptoms shown in the pH related items, the salivary pH of the group with complained symptoms is lower than that of the group without complained symptoms. In the rate of complaints, by sex, both sexes of the special teachers show high ones, but salivary pH is low. The complain rate of mental symptoms shown by female group from the special teacher Is significantly higher(p<0.05). By age, the group in their thirties from the special teachers show the higher complain rate of mental symptoms (29.3%) and the lower salivary pH (p<0.05) than that (15.1%) of the elementary teachers belonging to the same age catagory. However, the special teachers in their forties show the lower complain rate of physical symptoms that of the elementary teachers (p<0.05). From the viewpoint of their working years, the special teachers below 14 years and elementary teachers above 15 years in their career show high complain rates. Among those who belong to the catagory of 10-14 working years, the special teachers show the higher complain rate of mental symptoms than that of their counterparts. In the case of the salivary pH, the special teachers of all working-year catagories show the higher pH than that of the elementary teachers. But there is not significantly difference. From the viewpoint of sleeping hours in the previous night of the questionaire surveyed, among those who slept for over 7 hours, the special teachers show the higher complain rate of mental symptoms with a significant difference, but the lower salivary pH than that of their counterparts. From the viewpoint of their marital status, existence of disease history, the special teachers show the higher complain rate of subjective fatigue, but the lower salivary pH than that of the elementary teachers respectively. According to the above results, the special teachers generally show the higher complain rate of subjective fatigue, the lower salivary pH, and the higher complain rate of mental symptoms. To prevent the possible accumulation of mental fatigue of the special teachers, ways and means to make use of leisure time, recreational facilities are necessarily provided. Since the degree of fatigue and salivary pH have a correlation to some extent, it is necessary that further continuous studies on the correlation between the degrees of fatigue and salivary pH should be pursued.

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The Relationship between the Cognitive Impairment and Mortality in the Rural Elderly (농촌지역 노인들의 인지기능 장애와 사망과의 관련성)

  • Sun, Byeong-Hwan;Park, Kyeong-Soo;Na, Baeg-Ju;Park, Yo-Seop;Nam, Hae-Sung;Shin, Jun-Ho;Sohn, Seok-Joon;Rhee, Jung-Ae
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.30 no.3 s.58
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    • pp.630-642
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to examine the mortality risk associated with cognitive impairment among the rural elderly. The subjective of study was 558 of 'A Study on the Depression and Cognitive Impairment in the Rural Elderly' of Jung Ae Rhee and Hyang Gyun Jung's study(1993). Cognitive impairment and other social and health factors were assessed in 558 elderly rural community residents. For this study, a Korean version of the Mini-Mental State Examination(MMSEK) was used as a global indicator of cognitive functioning. And mortality risk factors for each cognitive impairment subgroup were identified by univariate and multivariate Cox regression analysis. At baseline 22.6% of the sample were mildly impaired and 14.2% were severely impaired. As the age increased, the cognitive function was more impaired. Sexual difference was existed in the cognitive function level. Also the variables such as smoking habits, physical disorders had the significant relationship with cognitive function impairment. Across a 3-year observation period the mortality rate was 8.5% for the cognitively unimpaired, 11.1% for the mildly impaired, and 16.5% for the severly impaired respendents. And the survival probability was .92 for the cognitively unimpaired, .90 for the mildly impaired, and .86 for the severly impaired respondents. Compared to survival curve for the cognitively unimpaired group, each survival curve for the mildly and the severely impaired group was not significantly different. When adjustments models were not made for the effects of other health and social covariates, each hazard ratio of death of mildly and severely impaired persons was not significantly different as compared with the cognitively unimpaired. But, as MMSEK score increased, significantly hazard ratio of death decreased. Employing Cox univariate proportional hazards model, statistically other significant variables were age, monthly income, smoking habits, physical disorders. Also when adjustments were made for the effects of other health and social covariates, there was no difference in hazard ratio of death between those with severe or mild impairment and unimpaired persons. And as MMSEK score increased, significantly hazard ratio of death did not decrease. Employing Cox multivariate proportional hazards model, statistically other significant variables were age, monthly income, physical disorders. Employing Cox multivariate proportional hazards model by sex, at men and women statistically significant variable was only age. For both men and women, also cognitive impairment was not a significant risk factor. Other investigators have found that cognitive impairment is a significant predictor of mortality. But we didn't find that it is a significant predictor of mortality. Even though the conclusions of our study were not related to cognitive impairment and mortality, early detection of impaired cognition and attention to associated health problems could improve the quality of life of these older adults and perhaps extend their survival.

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Different Uptake of Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO in the Normal Brains: Analysis by Statistical Parametric Mapping (정상 뇌 혈류 영상에서 방사성의약품에 따라 혈류 분포에 차이가 있는가: 통계적 파라미터 지도를 사용한 분석)

  • Kim, Euy-Neyng;Jung, Yong-An;Sohn, Hyung-Sun;Kim, Sung-Hoon;Yoo, Ie-Ryung;Chung, Soo-Kyo
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine
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    • v.36 no.4
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    • pp.244-254
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    • 2002
  • Purpose: This study investigated the differences between technetium-99m ethyl cysteinate dimer (Tc-99m ECD) and technetium-99m hexamethylpropylene amine oxime (Tc-99m HMPAO) uptake in the normal brain by means of statistical parametric mapping (SPM) analysis. Materials and Methods: We retrospectively analyzed age and sex matched 53 cases of normal brain SPECT. Thirty-two cases were obtained with Tc-99m ECD and 21 cases with Tc-99m HMPAO. There were no abnormal findings on brain MRIs. All of the SPECT images were spatially transformed to standard space, smoothed and globally normalized. The differences between the Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT images were statistically analyzed using statistical parametric mapping (SPM'99) software. The differences bgetween the two groups were considered significant ant a threshold of corrected P values less than 0.05. Results: SPM analysis revealed significantly different uptakes of Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPAO in the normal brains. On the Tc-99m ECD SPECT images, relatively higher uptake was observed in the frontal, parietal and occipital lobes, in the basal ganglia and thalamus, and in the superior region of the cerebellum. On the Tc-99m HMPAO SPECT images, relatively higher uptakes was observed in subcortical areas of the frontal region, temporal lobe, and posterior portion of inferior cerebellum. Conclusion: Uptake of Tc-99m ECD and Tc-99m HMPO in the normallooking brain was significantly different on SPM analysis. The selective use of Tc-99m ECD of Tc-99m HMPAO in brain SPECT imaging appears especially valuable for the interpretation of cerebral perfusion. Further investigation is necessary to determine which tracer is more accurate for diagnosing different clinical conditions.

A Basic Study on the Health Status in Villages of Kum San Goon, Chung Cheong Nam Do Area (충남(忠南) 금산군내(錦山郡內) 보건시범부락(保健示範部落)에 대(對)한 기초조사(基礎調査))

  • Kho, Byung-Hoon
    • Journal of Preventive Medicine and Public Health
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    • v.7 no.2
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    • pp.349-354
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    • 1974
  • Survey results concerning the general information on health status of 7,050 inhabitants (1,141 households) which have been selected within Keumsan Gun, Chung Choung Nam Do area are as follws: 1. The average family size is $6.18{\pm}2.17$ persons per household. Tertiary sex ratio is 105.5 population composition of Kumsan Gun shown a pyramidal form consisting of 51.6% of the inhabitants under 20 years of age. 2. Rate of illiteracy amounts to 12.1% and only 4.1% of villagers were graduated from high schools, 80% of the inhabitants have some kind of jobs: 46.1% of them are engaged in agriculture, 95.2% of villagers have their own houses, and remaining 4.8% do not have their own. 3. 72% of households made use of health services provided provided by health centre or subcentres during a period of 1 year from April 1, 1973 to March 31, 1974. 26.8% of them visited health centre of sub-centres 2-4 times annually for the following purposes: 1) Vaccination: 35.7% 2) Diagnosis or treatment: 26.7% 3) Family planning: 24.1% 4) Maternal and child health: 10.5% 4. Utilization rate of health facilities is on an average 4.4 times per household and 0.75 times per capita. 5. Birth rate in the area is 1.91% and death rate is 0.75%, indicating the natural increase rate is only 1.16% that is lower than the nationwide rate of 1.8-2.2% in 1970 and 1.5-1.9% in 1973. 6. 37.7% of fertile women (20-40 years old) in the area are still unmarried, Fertility rate is the highest in the age group of 63-40 years old showing a value of 17.1%. 7. The unmarried population in this area amounts to 61.4% : 61.4% in male and 57.6% in female. 8. Number of inhaibtants who practice family planning is 612 persons(22.6%) among the married (2.771). This value consists of 8.3% of married males and 34.8% of married females. Only 16.0% of the people who put family planning in practice undergo permanent contraceptive methods and remaining 84.0% of them do temporary measures. 9. Only 57.7% of the subjects took vaccinations as follows: 1) B.C.G. vaccination: 82.7% 2) D.P.T. vaccination: 76.2% 3) Poliomyelitis vaccination: 67.9% 4) Smallpox vaccination: 62.6% 10. In the utilization of medical facilities in case of sickness drug stores (32.15%) comes first and hospitals or clinics (28.65%), health centre of health sub-centres (17.96%), herb drug stores (7.36%) and herb gerneral practioners (6.31%), etc., in decreasing order. Sickness that people living in this area suffer from are neuralgia, disease digestive troubles, respiratory diseases and skin lesions, etc.

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Studies on the Total Creatine Phosphokinase (CPK) Activities and CPK Isoenzymes Fractions of the Sera and Organ Tissues in Ruminant (반추수의 혈청과 장기조직의 Creatine Phosphokinase(CPK) 총활성 및 CPK Isoenzyme 분획에 관한 연구)

  • Yoon Sang-Bo;Kim Duck-Hwan
    • Journal of Veterinary Clinics
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.433-449
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    • 1992
  • Total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions of the sera and tissues were examined to obtain the physiological basic data of ruminant available in veterinary clinical practice. For the sera total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions, total 39 clinically healthy Korean native goats (3 to 10 months old, IS of female and 18 of male) and 6 of Korean native goats (1 to 2 years old, 3 of female and 3 of male) were used. Seventeen Korean native cattle (3 to 6 years old, 10 of female and 7 of male) and 27 Holstein-Friesian cattle (2 to 8 months old, 7 of female and 3 to 12 years old, 20 of female) were also examined for the sera total CPK activities and CPK isoenzymes fractions. For the total CPK activities and CPK isoenzyme fractions, 3 of female Korean native goats (7 months old), 3 of female Korean native cattle (2 years old) and 3 of dairy cattle (2 years old, 2 of female and 1 of male) were used. The tissues examined were the cerebrum (2 of Korean native cattle), spinal cord (1 of Korean native cattle), heart, lung, diaphragm, reticulum, liver, spleen, kidney, jejunum. colon and femoral muscle. The results obtained were as follows : 1. In Korean native goats less than 1-year-old. serum total CPK activities were 67.8${\pm}$17.7(39.0~96.5) IU/$\ell$ in female and 63.4${\pm}$19.0(28.7~94.4) IU/$\ell$ in male. Further they were 67.0${\pm}$5.3(59.5~70.7) IU/$\ell$ and 54.5${\pm}$11.1(39.1~69.4) IU/$\ell$ in female and male Korean native goats over 1-year-old, respectively. Serum total CPK activities of female were slightly higher than those of male. Significance between age and sex was not found. 2. Serum total CPK activities were 56.8${\pm}$19.7(27.6~90.5) IU/$\ell$ and 65.6${\pm}$10.8(52.8~78.0) IU/$\ell$ in female and male Korean native adult cattle, respectively, Serum total CPK activities of male were slightly higher than those of female, but they were not significant 3. Serum total CPK activities we,e 72.5${\pm}$8.2(57.2~83.2) IU/$\ell$ and 60.8${\pm}$12.5(42.7~80.6) IU/$\ell$ in calves and adult of dairy acttle, respectively. Serum total CPK activities of calves were significantly higher than those of adult(p<0.05). 4. In Korean native goats less than 1-year-old, serum CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and MM>BB>MB in female and male, respectively. Further they were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and MM>B8>MB in female and male Korean native goats over 1-year-old, respectively. The main fractions of CPK isoenzymes were MM in sera of Korean native goats. 5. Serum CPK Isoenzyme fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB In both female and male of Korean native cattle. The main fraction among them was MM. 6. Serum CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of MM>BB>MB in both calves and adult of dairy cattle. The main fraction among them was MM. 7. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order of the femoral muscle>kidney>reticulum>diaphragm>liver>spleen>heart>colon>lung>jejunum in Korean native goats. 8. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order of the spinal cord >cerebrum>femoral muscle>reticulum>kidney>liver>spleen>diaphragm>lung>colon>heart>jejunum in Korean native cattle. 9. Total CPK activities were high with decreasing order. of the femoral muscle >liver>retoculum>kidney>heart>colon>lung>spleen>jejunum>diaphrasm in dairy cattle. 10. The pattern of the cardiac CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high in the order of MM>MB without BB fractions and the main fraction was MM. 11. The pattern of the pulmonary CPK isoenzymes fractions was the same Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB and the main fraction among them was MM. 12. The pattern of CPK isoenzymes fractions of the diaphragm was Identical in Korean native goats and Korean native cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM >BB >MB except dairy cattle (MM>MB>BB) but the main fraction among them was MM. 13. The pattern of the reticular CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of BB >MM >MB except Korean native goats(BB>MB>MM) but the main, fraction among them was BB 14. The pattern of the hepatic CPK isoenzymrs fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MB >BB >MM except Korean native goats(MB>MM>BB)but the main fraction was MB. 15. The splenic CPK isoenzymes fractions showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order of MB>BB>MM, MM>BB>MB and BB>MB>MM in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fraction among them was different from each other. 16. The pattern of the renal CPK isoenzymes fractions was identical in Korean native cattle and dairy cattle. They were high with decreasing order of MM >MB>BB except Korean native goats(BB>MB>MM). 17. The CPK isoenzymes fractions of the Jejunums showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order MM>MB>BB, MM>BB>MB and BB>MM>MB in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fractions were MM In Korean native goats and Korean native cattle, and BB in dairy cattle. 18. The colonic CPK isoenzymes fractions showed different pattern. They were high with decreasing order of MM>MB>BB, MM>BB>MB and BB>rrfB>MM in Korean native goats, Korean native cattle and dairy cattle, respectively. The main fractions were MM in Korean native goats and Korean . native cattle, and BB in dairy cattle. 19. The cerebral CPK isoenzymes fractions were high with decreasing order of BB >MM without MB detected in Korean native cattle and those of spinal cord were high with decreasing order of BB >MM >MB. The main fractions in both cerebrum and spinal cord were BB.

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Health Management and Services of School-Nurse in Special Schools (특수학교의 보건관리)

  • Lee, Kyung Hee;Park, Jae Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.176-192
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    • 1991
  • School nurses, in service of 102 special schools in Korea, were urveyed by mail questionnaires from February to March, 1991 and 77 of hem responded. Collected data were analyzed to establish the direction of health management in special school and to provide basic reference data for improving the quality of the management of school-nurses' services. The major findings are as follows: Out of special schools surveyed, 67.5% is private school and 83.2% is located in city. The average number of classes, students, and educational personnels per special school is 17.2, 194, and 28 respectively. The average age of school-nurses surveyed is 32.7. The proportion of graduates from the junior college and upward was 97.4%, the proportion of the married was 71.4%. Out of respondents, 71.4% has religion : 79.2% has past career in the fields of clinics or public health: 62.3% accompanishes independent services: 77.9% belongs to primary school. About 69% of nursing room in special schools surveyed is located at the first floor. Out of special school surveyed, 90.9% has no organization for school health programms: Only 18.2% entrusted everyone of school doctor, school dentist, and school pharmacists with school health. 46.8% of respondents didn't know about the annual budget for school health programmes. The average annual expenditure for school health programme per special school was 317,000F26. won and the purchase cost for medical supplies accounted for the larger part of them. The monthly average number of students utilizing school nursing room was 71 per school, annual utilization times of school nursing room was 4.4 per student and utilization due to injury was prevalent by 26.6% and there is some differences in using the school nursing room according to disabled area. Rate of referral to medical facilities was 1.4%. The leading reason of referral to medical facilities was high fever among those who have visual handicaps, fracture among those who have emotional disturbance, injury by trauma among others. Nine hundred fifty six students of students in special school surveyed have sufferd from epilepsy and prevalence rate of epilepsy was 6.4%. Only 22.6% of respondents replied that they had physical examination more than 2 times per year. Out of respnodents, 98.7% answered that they had health education and 67.1% of them ansered that they educated in a classroom, 98.7% of respondents emphasized need of sex education. Respondents put the most emphasis on the personal hygiene when they performed health education and they used broadcasting education in the area of visual handicaps, OHP or VTR in hearing handicaps, home correspondence or OHP VTR in other area importantly. About 47% of repondents answered that health education was the most difficult and they emphasized that definite guide on health management was requested. Respondents had self-confidence and high perfomance rate in most of school-nurses' services completely, but so they was not in area of evaluation of school health programmes, an examination of physical strength, evaluation of health education, management of school purification area, suture of wounds. In consideration of above findings, we may conclude that special education for school-nurse in special schools as well as improvement of definite guiding principles are requested to establish direction for health management in special schools and to improve the degree of quality for school-nurses' sevices in special schools.

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Malacological Studies on Parafossarulus manchouricus(Gastropoda: Prosobranchia) in Korea (한국산(韓國産) 왜우렁(Parafossarulus manchouricus)의 패류학적(貝類學的) 연구(硏究))

  • Chung, Pyung-Rim
    • The Korean Journal of Malacology
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.24-50
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    • 1985
  • Five different populations of Parafossarulus manchouricus (Chongpyung, Chinju and Kunsan, Korea; and Japan and Taiwan), a population of Bitbynia (Gabbia) misella (Gongju, Korea) and two different populations of Bithynta tentaculata (Michigan, U.S.A. and Bodensee, Germany) were compared in regard to eff-laying characteristics, morphology, chromosome cytology, natural infections of parasites and ecology of habitats. A satisfactory culture method was devised for laboratory rearing of the snails. Tropical fish food (Terra SML) and powdered green leaves (Ceralife) were used as the main food sources for the snails. Benthic diatoms such as Navicula and Gomphonema from the periphyton were also essential for satisfactory growth, especially for the baby snails. The aquaria were stabilized with small stones from a local stream. Young P. manchouricus snails grew to adult size in about 54 days after hatching. They laid eggs 150-156 days after hatching. The whole cycle (birth to egg-laying) took approximately 5 months. The three species of bithyniid snails are iteroparous and lay eggs once a year. There were no major morphological differences in the shells of genera or subgenera studied here. They did exhibit the following rather minor differences. The shell of Parafossarulus has spirally raised ridges, and its apex is usually eroded; the other two genera lack these characteristics. The shell of B. (Gabbia) misella is small, nor exceeding 7.5 mm in length, while the shells of the other two species are larger, being more than 10 mm in length. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the protoconch of P. manchouricus reveals nearly smooth sculpture with small, low, spiral wrinkles. This sculpture is quite different from that of the Hydrobiidae, a family to which the bithyniids are frequently assigned. Scanning electron microscopy of the radulae of the three bithyniid species showed that their radular morphologies are very similar, but there are some small differences, which may be species-specific. There were some statistical differences in shell heights between the Korean and the other populations of P. manchouricus, and between this species and the other two bithyniids as well. The shell differences between the several populations of Korean P. manchouricus may be related to environment. Edtails of the chromosome cycle of these bithyniid snails are similar to those reported for other snails. No specific differences were observed in the chromosome cycle between the various species and populations of snails employed in this study. Reporred for the first time in molluscs are two darkly stained "nucleolar organizers" during pachyterne stages of meiosis. Two different chromosome numbers were observed in the three bithyniid species: n=17 in B. tentaculata and P. manchouricus, and n=18 in B. (G.) misella. no sex chromosomes or supernumerary chromosomes were seen. There were no morphological differences in karyotypes of three Korean strains of P. manchouricus. The infection rates of cercariae of Clonorchis sinensis in Chinju and Kunsan strains of P. manchouricus were 0.14% and 1.25%, respectively. However, Clonorchis cercariae were found in Chongpyung strain of P. manchouriceu and Gongju strain of B. (G.) misella. The habitats of P. manchouricus around Jinyang Lake were relatively clean without any heavy pollution of aquatic microorganisms and organic materials during the period of this study. The levels of dissolved oxygen (D.O.) and biochemical oxygen demand (B.O.D.) of the water specimens sampled from the study areas ranged from 6.0 to 9.6 ppm and from 0.4 to 1.6 ppm, respectively. Eight metalic constituents from the water samples were also assayed, and all metalic ions detercted were remarkably low below the legal criteria. However, calcium ion in the water samples from the habitats of P. manchouricus was considerably higher than others.

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A Survey on Attitude Related to Physical Therapy Students's Clinical Practice (물리치료과 학생들의 임상실습에 대한 태도조사)

  • Yi Seung-Ju;Park Youn-Ki
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.5 no.1
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    • pp.25-37
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    • 1993
  • This study was conducted to investigate an attitude related to physical therapy students's clinical practice, a questionnaire survey was carried out for 101 third grader(Taegu Junior Health College 66, Andong Junior College 35) from 11th of January to 22th of March. The results are as follow : A. Frequency classified by item 1. Among preconception and anxiety on the clinical practice, a shortage of knowledge$(83.2\%)$ was the highest. 2. Among expectation on the clime practice, the chance to meet patients directly$(94.1\%)$ was the highest. 3. Among anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, a shortage of knowledge$(82.2\%)$ was the highest. 4. Among satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, after students graduated college, they will maintain physical therapist's life continuously$(71.3\%)$ was the highest. B. The variables that showed statistical difference between general characteristics and variables classified by item are as follow : 1. Between sex and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, girl-students$(86.7\%)$ showed higher rate than man-students$(61.1\%)$ in, a shortage of knowledge(P<0.01). 2. Between religion and expectation on clinical practice, religionists$(65.1\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionists $(44.8\%)$ in the chance to practice love for humanity(P<0.05). 3. Between religion and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, religionist$(65.1\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionist$(56.9\%)$ in not unskillful counsel patients(P<0.01). 4. Between religion and satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, religionist$(81.4\%)$ showed higher rate than nonreligionists$(63.3\%)$ in pride of major choice(P<0.01). 5. Between hospitalization experience of family and exportation on clinical practice, students who had hospitalization experience of family$(79.7\%)$ were higher rate than unexperienced students's$(62.2\%)$ in the chance to apply knowledge(P<0.05). 6. Between hospitalization experience and satisfaction after students experienced dime practice, students who had hospitalization experience$(68.4\%)$ were higher rate than unexperienced students's$(45.1\%)$ in settlement of anxiety(P<0.05). 1. Between choice motive of physiotherapy(PT) department and expectation on clinical practice, self-will students $(80.5\%)$ showed higher rate than other-will students's $(66.7\%)$ in rejoining participate in treatment(P<0.01). 8. Between choice motive of physiotherapy department and anxiety after students experienced clinical practice, self-will students$(74.0\%)$ showed higher rate than lither-will students's $(58.3\%)$ in the wish PT-job in the future(P<0.05). 9. Between choice motive of physiotherapy department and satisfaction after students experienced clinical practice, self-will students$(75.3\%)$ showed higher rate than other-will students's$(58.3\%)$ in pride on major in physical therapy(P<0.05). It was revealed by this survey that girl-students had higher anxiety than man-students in anxiety after students experiences clinical practice, self-will student had higher satisfaction higher than other-will student in the choice of physiotherapy department.

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An Analysis on Factors Affecting Local Control and Survival in Nasopharvngeal Carcinoma (비인두암의 국소 종양 치유와 생존율에 관한 예후 인자 분석)

  • Chung Woong-Ki;Cho Jae-Shik;Park Seung Jin;Lee Jae-Hong;Ahn Sung Ja;Nam Taek Keun;Choi Chan;Noh Young Hee;Nah Byung Sik
    • Radiation Oncology Journal
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    • v.17 no.2
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    • pp.91-99
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    • 1999
  • Propose : This study was performed to find out the prognostic factors affecting local control, survival and disease free survival rate in nasopharyngeal carcinomas treated with chemotherapy and radiation therapy. Materials and Methods : We analysed 47 patients of nasopharyngeal carcinomas, histologically confirmed and treated at Chonnam University Hospital between July 1986 and June 1996, retrospectively. Range of patients' age were from 16 to 80 years (median; 52 years). Thirty three (70$\%$) patients was male. Histological types were composed of 3 (6$\%$) keratinizing, 30 (64$\%$) nonkeratinizing squamous cell carcinoma and 13 (28$\%$) undifferentiated carcinoma. Histoiogicai type was not known in 1 patient (2$\%$). We restaged according to the staging system of 1997 American Joint Committee on Cancer Forty seven patients were recorded as follows: 71: 11 (23$\%$), T2a; 6 (13$\%$), T2b; 9 (19$\%$), 73; 7 (15$\%$), 74: 14 (30$\%$), and NO; 7 (15$\%$), Nl: 14 (30$\%$), N2; 21 (45%), N3: 5 (10%). Clinical staging was grouped as follows: Stage 1; 2 (4$\%$), IIA: 2 (4$\%$), IIB; 10 (21$\%$), III; 14 (30$\%$), IVA; 14 (30$\%$) and IVB; 5 (11$\%$). Radiation therapy was done using 6 MV and 10 MV X- ray of linear accelerator. Electron beam was used for the Iymph nodes of posterior neck after 4500 cGy. The range of total radiation dose delivered to the primary tumor was from 6120 to 7920 cGy (median; 7020 cGy). Neoadjuvant chemotherapy was performed with cisplatin +5-fluorouracil (25 patients) or cisplatin+pepleomycin (17 patients) with one to three cycles. Five patients did not received chemotherapy. Local control rate, survival and disease free suwival rate were calculated by Kaplan-Meier method. Generalized Wilcoxon test was used to evaluate the difference of survival rates between groups. multivariate analysis using Cox proportional hazard model was done for finding prognostic factors. Results: Local control rate was 81$\%$ in 5 year. Five year survival rate was 60$\%$ (median survival; 100 months). We included age, sex, cranial nerve deflicit, histologic type, stage group, chemotherapy, elapsed days between chemotherapy and radiotherapy, total radiation dose, period of radiotherapy as potential prognostic factors in multivariate analysis. As a result, cranial none deficit (P=0.004) had statistical significance in local control rate. Stage group and total radiation dose were significant prognostic factors in survival (P=0.000, P=0.012), and in disease free survival rates (P=0.003, P=0.008), respectively. Common complications were xerostomia, tooth and ear problems. Hypothyroidism was developed in 2 patients. Conclusion : In our study, cranial none deficit was a significant prognostic factor in local control rate, and stage group and total radiation dose were significant factors in both survival and disease free survival of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. We have concluded that chemotherapy and radiotherapy used in our patients were effective without any serious complication.

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