• Title/Summary/Keyword: Sex

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A Theoretical Study on Sex Role Concepts and the Problems of Education (성역할 개념형성과 교육에 관한 이론적 연구)

  • 이정덕;홍연애
    • Journal of Families and Better Life
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    • v.2 no.1
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    • pp.93-109
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    • 1984
  • The purpose of this study is to investigate the direction and strategy of education for sex role concepts of children on the basis of factor analysis of the present situation in sex role concepts and their formation. Although some maintain that sex role concept of our society has been changing slowly, the traditional sex role concept still dominates and is potentially immanent. the analysis of present condition of our society indicates that the formal as well as informal education are facing with various crucial problems in providing the direction of behavior demanded for carrying out the role. The close analysis of the three theories, psychoanalytic theory , social learning theory, cognitive development theory, lends a support to the laim of the study that cognitive development theory provide an integrated frame of reference for us to see the sex role education analytically Furthermore, the factors which are found to have influences on the formation of sex role have been analyzed in three areas: Family, School and society. 1)The factors in family such as parental behavior of upbringing and their concepts of sex role have a direct relationship with the nature of sex tole concept of children. Therefore, the first step to make children to habe a new type of sex-role conception appropriate for modern societies is to change that of parental conception and attitudes. 2)the quantitative as well as the qualitative aspects of school education showed no exceptional trend from the dominant conception of the society, although school are expected to lead the society as formal education institution rather than just reflect the society. The educational activities and contents such as the conceived goal of education for eoch sex, textbook constitation, teaching behavior and sex-role concepts of teacher are found to be still dominated by the traditional sex-role assumption. 3) The social factors that have direct relationship with children's sex-role formation are social and cultural, which include social milieu, condition of employment, family structure and mass-media. Since family and school do not educate the young in a social vacuum. their educational function of sex-role formation are doomed to be limited and determined by these social factors. Unfortunately, the analysis of present conditions showed the dominance of traditional types of sex-role concepts in all these social factors. The education of sex-role concept for children should be treated as one of the most crucial value problems related with many other important problems, such as direction and patterns of behaviors of each sex, the degree of self-development and capabilities, and consequently human right, equality, humanization and the quality of happiness. Neverthless, the analysis of researches on sex-role education which have been surveyed in this study lead to a conclusion that concerted effort to change the education, formal as well as informal should be provided in every aspect of social life. If the sex role education of the past has aimed at the "feminization"of girls which indoctrinate girls into a limited and fixed role of house wives, the new education in the future should be directed foward "humanization" of both sexes which opens the diversity of roles for both boys and girl on equal levels and provide future possibilities in accordance to their individual capabilities and interests.

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The Effects of Sex Education on the Primary Schooler's Knowledge and Attitude about Sex (성교육이 국민학생의 성지식과 성태도에 미치는 효과)

  • Kim, Jin-Son
    • Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing
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    • v.1 no.2
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    • pp.200-221
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    • 1995
  • The confusion of the sense of value on sex is increasing because of the rapid change in social-cultural environment. Also due to a rise in the standard of living, the age of adolescence is getting lower, and so the second sexual marks appear to primary schoolers. At this time in the aspect of the education for the whole man, it's very important for primary schoolers to acquire right knowledge and desirable attitude on sex so that can overcome psychological instability caused by physical growth, be responsible for their behaviors and lead happy lives. This study was made to find out the effects of sex education for the primary schoolers' knowledge and attitude about sex. The study was designed as simulated control group pretest-posttest design, which only pretest was practiced to control group and after sex education only posttest was practiced to experimental group. The data was collected for 18 days from March 13, 1995 to March 31, 1995. The subjects of this study were 130 six-graders in a private primary school in seoul. The control group and experimental group were composed of 65 pupils, each. Sex education consisted of lecture and discussion and the materials were this researcher's own made, 'How do I grow? and related OHP film and video. This education was practiced 40 minutes at a time, at intervals of 2-4 days' six times during 3weeks. For sex knowledge tools, 20 item questionaries on the base of related reference books and contents of this study were used. For sex attitude tools, this researcher's own made 13 item questionaries were used which were revised and complemented and laying stress on the reference books. The data was analyzed through pc-SAS program. The homogeneity test in terms of the general characteristics of experimental and control group was analyzed through $x^2$-test and t-test. And the difference in the primary schoolers' score on knowledge and attitude about sex before and after the sex education was analyzed through t-test and ANCOVA. The results of this study are as follows : 1. The result of the homogeneity test in terms of the general characteristics of the experimental and control group showed that there were significant differences in economic standard($x^2$=2.92, P=0.052) and brotherly ties($x^2$=3.78, P=0.052). 2. Hypothesis 'After sex education, the score of primary schoolers' sex knowledge will be higher than before. 'showed statistically significant difference.(t=11.99, P=.0001) Sex education was practiced under control over subjective view of economic standard and brotherly ties which showed significant difference at the homogeneity test in terms of the general characteristics between the two groups. After this education, the results of comparing the score of primary schoolers' sex knowledge also showed significant difference between the two groups. So hypothesis I was supported since primary schoolers to have education showed noticeable results in the sex knowledge score. (F=16.52, P=.0001) 3. Hypothesis 'After sex education, primary schooler's sex attitude score will be higher than before' showed statistically significant(t=5.08, P=.0001) Sex education was practiced, too, under control over subjective view of economic standard and brotherly ties which showed significant difference at the homogeneity test in terms of the general characteristics between the two groups. Bat this time the results of comparing the primary schoolers' sex attitude showed no significant difference between the two groups. So hypothesis II was rejected since for primary schoolers to have sex education showed no noticeable results in sex attitude score. (F=3.52, P=.0628) These results of the study show that sex education gives affirmative change to the primary schooler's sex knowledge, bat short periods' sex education doesn't give any change to the sex attitude. For the establishment of the pupils' desirable sex attitude, systematic and concrete sex education fit for the pupils' developing stage should be practiced over a long period of time.

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The Effect of Sex Education Using Multimedia Program - Focusing on Elementary School Sixth-Grade - (멀티미디어 프로그램을 활용한 성교육의 효과 - 초등학교 6학년을 중심으로 -)

  • Back, Un-Seck;Park, Young-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Society for School & Community Health Education
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    • v.1 no.1
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    • pp.83-93
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    • 2000
  • The purpose of this study were to suggest the method of sex education by designing and implementing multimedia program about sex education, to search the efficiency between a teaching using multimedia program and a teaching of traditional method. To put above aims into practice, these were required : 1. are there any differences in the alteration of sex attitude according to teaching methods. 2. are there any differences in the completion of sex knowledge according to teaching methods. 3. are there any differences in the alteration of sex attitude according to learning level and teaching methods. 4. are there any differences in the completion of sex knowledge according to learning level and teaching methods. 5. are there any differences in the alteration of sex attitude according to sex and teaching methods. 6. are there any differences in the completion of sex knowledge according to sex and teaching methods. To carry out a reseach for this purpose, the subjects for this study were 160 sixth grade students from 2 elementary schools in Pu-Chun, Kyung Ki. The tools for study were two kind of questionnaires: sex knowledge test, sex attitude test. Each test consists of 20 items. Collected data was analysed with t-test by means of SPSS program. The main results of this study are as follow: 1. The Alteration of sex attitude according to teaching methods. There was a significant difference among teaching methods(P<.001). a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the alteration of sex attitude. 2. The Completion of sex knowledge according to teaching methods. There was a significant difference among teaching methods(P<.001). a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the completion of sex knowledge. 3. The Alteration of sex attitude according to learning level and teaching methods. There was a significant difference among teaching methods in the superior class. a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the alteration of sex attitude(P<.001). However, there was not a significant difference among teaching methods in the inferior class(P>.05). 4. The Completion of sex knowledge according to learning level and teaching methods. There was a significant difference among teaching methods in the superior class. a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the completion of sex knowledge(P<.001). Also, there was a significant difference among teaching methods in the inferior class. a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the completion of sex knowledge(P<.001). 5. The Alteration of sex attitude according to sex and teaching methods. There was a significant difference among teaching methods in the man class. a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the alteration of sex attitude(P<.01). However, There was not a significant difference among teaching methods in the woman class(P>.05). 6. The Completion of sex knowledge according to sex and teaching methods. There was a significant difference among teaching methods in the man class. a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the completion of sex knowledge(P<.001). Also, there was a significant difference among teaching methods in the woman class. a teaching using multimedia program was more efficient than a teaching of traditional method in the completion of sex knowledge(P<.05).

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Indirect Evidence on Sex Reversal of Sinonovacula constricta (Bivalvia: Euheterodonta) and Gomphina veneriformis (Bivalvia: Veneridae)

  • Shin, Yun Kyung;Park, Jung Jun;Choi, Ji Sung;Lee, Jung Sick
    • Development and Reproduction
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    • v.18 no.2
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    • pp.73-78
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    • 2014
  • This study attempts to propose the possibility of the sex reversal in Sinonovacula constricta and Gomphina veneriformis by confirming the changes in the sex ratio with the shell length in the same population level. For analysis of sex ratio, 100 individuals of S. constricta (SL 26.5-95.0 mm) and 2385 individuals of G. veneriformis (SL 15.1-60.1 mm) were used. Sex was analyzed histologically. Both species displayed the tendency of increase in the female proportion with increase in shell length. In this study, changes in the sex ratio in accordance with the growth of S. constricta and G. veneriformis are determined to be indirect evidence that signifies their sex reversal.

Basic Study for Effective Sex Education of Home Economics in Middle School Curriculum (중학교 가정교과 과정 중 효과적인 성교육을 위한 기초 연구)

  • 조숙자
    • The Korean Journal of Community Living Science
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.63-75
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    • 2002
  • The purpose of this study was to examine middle school students' needs for sex education as a basic study for effective sexuality education of Home Economics in middle school curriculum. 305 middle school students from two schools in Chung-ju were participated in this study. The results of this study are; (1) sexual intercourse was the highest checked item that the students want to know; however, prevention of sexual violence and contraception were the lowest responses; (2) showing video tape and sex education professional lecture methods were the most effective ways to teach sex education that the students believed; (3) the curiosity regarding sex that the students did not satisfied with current school sex education have met by watching sexual video tape or TV; and (4) the students believed that sex education should be started in the elementary school curriculum and they wanted to learn with sex education professional.

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The Effects of Sex, Age, and Social Support on Self-Esteem of the Aged. (성, 연령, 사회적 지원에 따른 노인의 자아존중감에 관한 연구)

  • 조옥희
    • Journal of Families and Better Life
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    • v.15 no.1
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    • pp.161-172
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    • 1997
  • The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of the sex, age, degree of social support on self-esteem of the old aged and to provide information for finding out ways of developing their self-esteem. The subject of this study were 504 old aged in Kwang-ju and Jun-nam. The statistics used for data analysis were frequency percentage mean standard deviation reliability ANOVA stepwise and multiple regression analysis through the SAS package program, . The major findings of this study can be summarized as follows; 1) The self-esteem of old aged was 27, 2 which was above the median 22.5 2) According to the results related to the old aged the effect were by sex, age, social support, . There were also significant interaction effects by $age^{\star}$social support $sex^{\star}\;age^{\star}$aocial support $sex^{\star}$social support $sex^{\star}$age it was shown that influencing variable on their self-esteem was sex social support $sex^{\star}$social support $sex^{\star}$age age.

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The Effects of Sex Education Using Multimedia Program on Knowledge and Attitude about Sex of Middle School Boys (멀티미디어 성교육 프로그램이 남자 중학생의 성 태도와 성 지식에 미치는 효과)

  • Park Hyo-Mim;Im Mee-Young
    • Child Health Nursing Research
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    • v.9 no.2
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    • pp.173-179
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    • 2003
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to identify the effects of sex education using multimedia program on knowledge and attitude about sex. Method: The subjects of this study were 282 middle school boys in seoul. The data were collected from the 4th of Jun. to 30th of Jun. 2001. This program consisted of 6 subtopics and provided 3 sessions for each class. The per-test was given before the therapy to measure variables and the post-test was performed after intervention. The data were analyzed by the SAS program using t-test. Result: The results of this study are as follows. After intervention, the level of knowledge and attitude were increased significantly. Conclusion: The sex education using multimedia program is effective in helping middle school boys improve their healthy attitudes and thoughts toward sex.

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Some Effects of Sex-linked Clothing Cue and Gender Schema on the Perception of Others -Research about student of Women s University- (성 관련 의복단서와 성 역할 정체감이 대인지각에 미치는 영향 -여대생을 중심으로-)

  • 이미현;임숙자
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.4 no.3
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    • pp.325-336
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    • 1996
  • The main purpose of this study was to find the roles of sex related clothes. The result of the study showed that he effects of sex related clothes were vast and strong. 1. It appeared that sex related clothes affected the wearer's outside aspects and also inferred the wearer's inside characteristics. Subjects judged the wearer's sex by sex related clothes, and confidence in judgement about the wear's sex also appeared stronger when cue of sex related clothes is more clear than being ambiguous. Judging the model's impression when subjects evaluated other's appearance and personality ,clothes affected it and clothes also had a strong impact when subject inferred others's characteristics such as ability and activity. Among the three kinds of sex related cue like men's clothes, women's clothes and ambiguous clothes, when a model wore men's clothes, he mode's impression judged by the subjects was most favorable and positive. But respondents sex role identity appeared that it didn't affected the judgement of the wearer's sex, evaluation and inference of wearer's characteristics. But this result didn't match with the gender schema theory.

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The Sex Ratio of Anura in Natural Population (The Studied on the Sex Ratio of Amphibia in Korea 1) (무미류 수종의 자연집단에 있어서의 성비 조사(한국산 양서류의 성비에 관한 연구 1))

  • KANG, Yung-Sun;YANG, Suh-Yung
    • The Korean Journal of Zoology
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    • v.3 no.2
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    • pp.13-18
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    • 1960
  • For the study on the sex ratio in natural populations of the different localities, the amphibian species were collected as the materials at the seven localities in Korea, and were obtained the following results. The sex ratios of each amphibian species suggest that each has it's own specific sex rations the following list. Rana nigromaculata H. : 109-39, Rana rugosa SCH. : 67.44, Rana temporaria coreana O. : 158.45, Hyla arborea japonica G. : 137.70. In Rana nigromaculata H. the average sex ratio was 109.39 as the above list, and its was reached statistically significant level according to the different localiies. The sex ratio was generally higher in the eastern area than that in the western area in this country. The sex ratio of the adult frogs of Rana nigromaculata H. was 135.18 , and it has a statistically significant level by each locality but the sex ratio of the younger frogs of the same species was 100.97 which was a little lower than that in the adult, and it was not laid at a significant level according to the localities. There is no doubt that the difference of sex ratios according to the localities was mainly due to the different ratios of the adult frogs which were effected on the constitution of sex by environmental factors in each locality.

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An Integrative Literature Review on Sex Education Programs for Korean College Students (한국의 대학생을 대상으로 한 성교육 프로그램에 관한 통합적 고찰)

  • Shin, Hyewon;Lee, Jung Min;Min, Hye Young
    • The Journal of Korean Academic Society of Nursing Education
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.78-96
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: The purpose of this study was to synthesize the literature on the sex education programs for Korean college students and to provide a basis for developing effective sex education programs for this population. Methods: Whittemore and Knafl's integrative review method guided this review of studies conducted from 2000 to 2019. Articles were identified through three electronic databases and scholarly web sites. Fifteen articles met the inclusion criteria. Results: Three studies were descriptive, and 12 described interventions. In most of the reviewed studies, sexual knowledge, sexual attitudes, and sexual autonomy improved after sex education interventions. Before providing sex education, the researchers assessed student's needs for sex education and the various topics provided through sex education programs. Conclusion: When developing sex education programs, we need to a) focus on practical sexual knowledge including contraceptive methods, b) provide repeated and continuous education of a sufficient duration, c) provide comprehensive sex education beyond biological sex, and d) use various teaching methods to allow participants to gain a better understanding. Additionally, sex education should be conducted by experts such as nurses or trained educators to provide systematic and comprehensive education for young adults.