• Title, Summary, Keyword: Sanskrit

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A Study on the Character and Historical Significance of Sanskrit Roof Tiles in the Hoeamsa Temple of Yangju City (양주 회암사지 출토 범자 진언명(眞言銘) 기와의 특징과 의의)

  • Eom, Gi-Pyo
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.2
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    • pp.4-25
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    • 2017
  • The Hoeamsa Temple of Yangju City was established at least during the late Korea Dynasty. This temple was rebuilt several times with the support of the royal family from the late Korea Dynasty to the early Joseon Dynasty. It was continually rebuilt in association with JiGong monk, HyeKeun monk, and MuHak monk. Hoeamsa temple was leading the Buddhist culture as a Buddhist center of the Joseon Dynasty . It was destroyed in the late Joseon Period. This site has been excavated several times since 1997. Various roofing tiles were unearthed. Of these tiles the edge of eaves are the artifacts showing the best features of this era. In this temple site has been excavated a variety of Sanskrit roof tiles. These tiles were made using superior technique. On the roof tiles are engraved Sanskrit mantras with a variety of 1 to 9 words. The jeongbeopkkye mantra(oṃ raṃ) and six-word mantra(oṃ ma ṇi pa dme hūṃ) were discovered the most. These mantras were believe to expel several evils from the Buddhist temple. It must have been that the six-word mantra culture became prevalent and provided a turning point in the history of Korean Buddhism. We can clearly know when some of the Sanskrit roof tiles were first manufactured. These roof tiles are the absolute standard of the other Sanskrit roof tiles excavated from different Buddhist temples. The master craftsmen must have been very skilled, understood the mantra very well, and had deep faith in the Sanskrit mantra. Hoeamsa Temple is a milestone in studying the Sanskrit roof tiles. More studies on various aspects are expected to be followed.

Upavasa (fasting) for health & longevity: an overview

  • Gangele, Pragya;Paliwal, Murlidhar
    • CELLMED
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    • v.10 no.2
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    • pp.10.1-10.5
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    • 2020
  • Ayurveda is the science of life. It guides about the protection of health of the healthy and alleviation of ailments of diseased person. In Ayurveda Upavasa (fasting) is one among all Daivavyapashraya (spiritual) therapies and one among ten Langhana (that which produces lightness of the body) therapies. It is also stated in Ayurveda that fasting increases digestive fire and causes digestion of Ama-dosha (metabolic toxins). On religious grounds, Upavasa is a way to get closer to the almighty. Scientists have found fasting activates autophagy. Yoshinori Ohsumi, a Japanese cell biologist won the Nobel Prize in Medicine in 2016 for his research on how cell recycle and renew their content, a process called autophagy. Many published studies indicate positive effects of fasting on neuroprotection and longevity.

The Characteristics of Mathematics in Ancient India (고대 인도수학의 특징)

  • Kim, Jong-Myung
    • Journal for History of Mathematics
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.41-52
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    • 2010
  • Ancient Indian mathematical works, all composed in Sanskrit, usually consisted of a section of sturas in which a set of rules or problems were stated with great economy in verse in order to aid memorization by a student. And rules or problems of the mathematics were transmitted both orally and in manuscript form.Indian mathematicians made early contributions to the study of the decimal number system, arithmetic, equations, algebra, geometry and trigonometry. And many Indian mathematicians were appearing one after another in Ancient. This paper is a comparative study of mathematics developments in ancient India and the other ancient civilizations. We have found that the Indian mathematics is quantitative, computational and algorithmic by the principles, but the ancient Greece is axiomatic and deductive mathematics in character. Ancient India and the other ancient civilizations mathematics should be unified to give impetus to further development of mathematics education in future times.

Syllable Contact and Correspondence in Correspondence Theory

  • Shin, Seung-Hoon
    • Proceedings of the KSPS conference
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    • pp.176-181
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    • 1996
  • This paper investigates patterns of manner assimilation in Toba Batak, Sanskrit, Ponapean and Korean. Based on cross-linguistic patterns of manner assimilation, I develop the constraint, Syllable Contact (SyllCon), as a type of a markedness constraint in Correspondence Theory. With the establishment of high-ranking SyllCon, I argue that several patterns of manner assimilation result from the interaction of high-ranking SyllCon and correspondence constraints such as Ident[sonorant].

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A Comparative Study on the Manchu Costume Terminologies (만주복식어휘의 비교 연구)

  • 김진구
    • The Research Journal of the Costume Culture
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    • v.2 no.2
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    • pp.307-316
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    • 1994
  • This study is concerned with a comparative linguistic analysis of the Manchu costume terminologies. The Manchu costume terminologies revealed the elements Hebrew, Norweygian, English, Assyrian, Chinese, American Indian, Sanskrit, Tatar, Turkestan, Greek, Arabic, Indian, Kashmiri. The most influential elements of the Manchu costume terminologies were the Chinese costume terminologies. specifically, the elements of the Chinese costume terms were found in the terminologies of the fabrics, the gems and the precious stones. Also the influence of the Mongolic costume on the Manchu costume terminologies appeared in this study.

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A Study on the Da-bo Stupa as a Residential Space of Buddha and Change in Paintings of Duhaung Mogao Caves (돈황 막고굴 벽화내 다보탑의 주처(住處)공간적 의미와 그 변화 연구)

  • Cho, Jeong-Sik;Kim, Bue-Dyel;Cho, Jae-Hyeon;Kim, Bo-Ram
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.22 no.6
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    • pp.35-46
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    • 2013
  • This study aims to examine the early use of Da-bo tap and their transformation by analyzing the various meanings of the term pagoda in Chinese translations, the Sanskrit version of the Lotus Sutra, as well as Dabotap in the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang. In addition, we aim to highlight changes in Dabotap usage, which started out as residential spaces, but transformed into burial spaces over time. The details can be summarized as follows. First, early Buddhist monuments were usually either pagodas serving as burial places for the dead or shrines that were not. A Dabotap is a type of pagoda enshrining the body of Prabhutaratna, and was initially used as a residential space, rather than a burial place for the dead. Second, the terms stupa and caitya are clearly distinguished from each other in the Sanskrit scriptures, and stupa is also further classified into dhatu, sarisa, and atmabhava based on the object being enshrined. In Gyeon-bo-tab-pum, the preconditions for caitya to transform into stupa is presented by explaining that worshipping the space enshrining the body of Prabhutaratna is worthy of the same status as the space enshrining sarira. Third, the Mogao Caves of Dunhuang had been depicted from the Western Wei of the Northern Dynasties until the time of the Yuan Dynasty. It was used as a residential space until the early Sui Dynasty, but was used as both residence and burial places until the Tang Dynasty when pagodas were first being constructed with wheel or circles forms on top, which then gradually changed into stupa (grave towers).

Statistical optimization for lithium silicate catalyzed production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil

  • Cherikkallinmel, Sudha Kochiyil;Sugunan, Sankaran;Narayanan, Binitha Njarakkattuvalappil;Faisal, Panichikkal Abdul;Benjamin, Sailas
    • Korean Journal of Chemical Engineering
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    • v.34 no.11
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    • pp.2840-2851
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    • 2017
  • Lithium silicate is one of the suitable heterogeneous catalysts for biodiesel production. The possibilities of large number of combinations of different reaction parameters make the optimization of biodiesel production process over various heterogeneous catalysts highly tedious, necessitating the development of alternate strategies for parameter optimization. Here, Box-Behnken design (BBD) coupled with response surface methodology (RSM) is employed to optimize the process parameters required for the production of biodiesel from waste cooking oil using lithium silicate as catalyst. Simple method of impregnation was performed for the material preparation and the catalyst was analyzed using different techniques. It was found that the activity is directly proportional to the basicity data obtained from temperature programmed desorption (TPD) of $CO_2$ over various catalyst systems. The material exhibits macroporous morphology and the major crystalline phase of the most active catalyst was found to be $Li_2SiO_3$. The effects of different reaction parameters were studied and a biodiesel yield of 100% was obtained under the predicted optimum reaction conditions of methanol : oil molar ratio 15 : 1, catalyst amount 7 wt%, reaction temperature $55^{\circ}C$ and reaction time 2.5 h. The validation experiments showed a correlation coefficient of 0.95 between the predicted and experimental yield of biodiesel, which indicates the high significance of the model. The fuel properties of biodiesel obtained under the optimum conditions met the specifications as mentioned in ASTM D6751 and EN 14214 standards. Catalyst heterogeneity and low reaction temperature are the major attractions of the present biodiesel preparation strategy.

About a Wind-chime excavated from WolnamSaji(月南寺址) in GangJin (강진 월남사지(月南寺址) 출토 금동풍탁(金銅風鐸)에 대하여)

  • Sung, Yun-Gil
    • MUNHWAJAE Korean Journal of Cultural Heritage Studies
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    • v.50 no.1
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    • pp.18-41
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    • 2017
  • The Gangjin WolnamSaji(月南寺址) is a small site where three-story pagodas and a destroyed tombstone remained. In 1973, it was discovered that the destroyed tombstone was that of the second master of Susunsa, Hye shim(慧諶), who had a special relationship with the military regime in Goryeo, and it once again attracted attention as a result of the recent excavation of the Rooftile of Yeonhwamun(蓮花文). In particular, the Windchime excavated in 2012 is a large-sized one group with a length of 23cm, and a relatively large Sanskrit character was decorated on four sides of the body. In addition, it was also confirmed in preservation process that the word 'gaecheon(盖天)' was engraved. The Sanskrit characters(梵字) om( , oṃ), a( , a), hum( , hūṃ), brum( , bhrūṃ) were decorated on the body of the Wind-chime excavated in WolnamSaji. Om( , oṃ), a( , a), hum( , hūṃ) are known as the Sammiljineon(三密眞言) and brum( , bhrūṃ) has the meaning of having the highest honor. In addition, the Sammiljineon(三密眞言) allows us to understand the truth by responding to the principle of universe, which is the Vairocana Buddha(毘盧遮那佛), and brum( , bhrūṃ) has the meaning of unity. In the end, the meaning of the Sanskrit decorating the four sides of the Wind-chime, of WolnamSaji(月南寺址), can be interpreted as the expression of the Buddha's doctrine, or the willingness to be combined with Buddha, the highest existence in itself. It is possible that the word 'gaecheon(盖天)' carved on the body can be regarded as the name of the master craftsman related to the making of the Wind-chime, but it is unlikely that it is the name of the master craftsman, considering that it is a place where the location is not easily seen. If so, you can think of the original function that the Wind-chime has. In other words, it can be interpreted symbolically and implicitly that the wish of the sound of the airwaves symbolized by the words of the Buddha covers the sky and spreads all over the place. It is thought that the Wind-chime excavated in WolnamSaji(月南寺址) was made in the mid to late 13th century considering the comparisons with another wind-chime excavated from the temple site, the historical situation in the late Goryeo, the publication date of the scriptures(經典) of Esoteric Buddhism(密敎).

Fundamental Examination and Renaming of the Terminology of the Buddhist Pagoda -Based upon Conversion from Indian Stupa into Korean Pagoda- (탑 용어에 대한 근본 고찰 및 제안 -인도 스투파에서부터 한국 석탑으로의 변환을 바탕으로-)

  • Lee, Hee-Bong
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.19 no.4
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    • pp.55-70
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    • 2010
  • Although scholarly terminology should have clear meanings as signs, Korean pagoda terminology has become jargon and is creating difficulties in communicating meanings which are far from the originally intended meanings; this terminology is sometimes notated in dead language, meaning old Chinese characters, or Japanese styled Chinese characters. Nobody has asked questions on the terminology itself which has long been commonly used for a century, since the Japanese-ruling period. One of the main reasons for this error is that the Indian Buddhist scriptures in Sanskrit has been translated into Chinese with vague understanding of form and meaning of stupa since 3rd Century A.D. On the other hand, the English-language terminology, already built by Indology scholars since the beginning of the 20th century, consists of easier language and clearer meanings. This paper examines misunderstanding and mistranslation of the original Indian stupa terms and suggests new terminology in current, easier language.

A Study on the Severe-Ornament of Wooden Pagodas in Silla Period - Focused on the study of the literature - (신라시대 목탑의 장엄조식(莊嚴彫飾)에 관한 연구 - 문헌을 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Cheong-Soo
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.14 no.1
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    • pp.21-39
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    • 2005
  • This study is to examine the Severe-Ornament (Vyuha :Sanskrit) of wooden pagodas in Shilla period in order to assume a detailed shape of wooden pagodas called the palace style, the multi-story style, the towered namsion style, that were built at the temples in Gyeongju during Shilla period. The Severe-Ornament had been used traditionally by installing a Buddhist image, Guardians, Sarira and by printing a color. The other hand, The roof tiles and tiles were annexed to the Severe-Ornament so as to enhance the value of the wooden pagodas. The Vyuha had been used not only to install a highly valued Buddhist image in the wooden pagodas but also to represent an important part of ritual art of Silla period. Therefore, it was possible to find out a variety of details of the wooden pagodas in Shilla period.

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