• Title/Summary/Keyword: Preference

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In vitro mass propagation and acclimatization of Haworthia truncata (하월시아 옥선(Haworthia truncata)의 기내 대량 증식 및 순화 조건 구명)

  • Kim, Youn Hee;Lee, Gee Young;Kim, Hye Hyeong;Lee, Jae Hong;Jung, Jae Hong;Lee, Sang Deok
    • Journal of Plant Biotechnology
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    • v.46 no.2
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    • pp.127-135
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    • 2019
  • The purpose of this study was to investigate suitable parts for callus induction and optimal concentrations of growth regulators, contained in the medium affecting shoot and rooting for in vitro mass production of Haworthia truncata. Leaves and flower bud showed 100% callus formation rate at NAA $1{\sim}2mgL^{-1}$ treatment, and NAA $1mgL^{-1}$ + TDZ $2mgL^{-1}$ treatment. The flower stalk showed 75% callus formation rate, at NAA $2mgL^{-1}$ + TDZ $2mgL^{-1}$ treatment in H. truncata. While the rate of callus formation was high in leaves and flower bud, leaves were the most efficient in obtaining most culture parts. Shoot induction rate from callus was highest, at NAA $0.1mgL^{-1}$ treatment in H. truncata. Additionally, the number of shoots formation was 66.3 shoots high, in NAA $1mgL^{-1}$ + BA $0.1mgL^{-1}$ treatment in H. truncata. In the case of acclimatization of regenerated plant, growth characteristics did not show significant difference (95%) shading with respect to the different ratio of substrate mixture, and it was determined that would be appropriate, considering plant height and appearance preference of H. truncata. It was established that optimization of culture condition, was responsible for mass propagation in vitro cultures of H. truncata.

Illness Experiences and Palliative Care Needs in Community Dwelling Persons with Cardiometabolic Diseases (심혈관대사질환이 있는 지역사회 거주 환자의 질환경험 및 완화의료 요구)

  • Cha, EunSeok;Lee, JaeHwan;Lee, KangWook;Hwang, Yujin
    • Journal of Hospice and Palliative Care
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.8-18
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study was conducted to better understand the illness experiences and palliative care needs in community-dwelling persons with cardiometabolic diseases. Methods: This qualitative descriptive study was conducted with 11 patients (and three family members) among 28 patients contacted. Interviews were led by the principal investigator in her office or at participants' home depending on their preference. All interviews were digitally recorded and transcribed by a research assistant. The interviews were analyzed by two independent researchers using a conventional method. Results: Participants' ages ranged from 42 to 82 years (nine men and two women). Three themes were identified: (1) same disease, but different illness experiences; (2) I am in charge of my disease(s); (3) preparation for disease progression. Participants were informed of the name of their disease when they were diagnosed, but not provided with explanation of the diagnosis or meant or how to do self-care to delay the disease progression, which increased the feelings of uncertainty, hopelessness and anxiety. Taking medication was considered to be the primary treatment option and self-care a supplemental one. Advanced care plans were considered when they felt the progression of their disease(s) while refraining from sharing it with their family or health care professionals to save their concerns. All participants were willing to withhold life-sustaining treatment without making any preparation in writing. Conclusion: Education on self-care and advanced care planning should be provided to community-dwelling persons with cardiometabolic diseases. A patient-centered education program needs to be developed for this population.

Development of Samgyetang Broth from Air-dried and Oven-roasted Chicken Feet (열풍건조 및 오븐구이 닭발로부터 추출한 삼계탕 육수 제조)

  • Kim, Juntae;Utama, Dicky Tri;Jeong, Hae Seong;Heidar, Barido Farouq;Jang, Aera;Pak, Jae In;Kim, Yeong Jong;Lee, Sung Ki
    • Korean Journal of Poultry Science
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    • v.46 no.3
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    • pp.137-154
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    • 2019
  • This study was conducted to develop and compare Samgyetang broth from extract of pre-treated chicken feet. Chicken feet were subjected to non-heating (control), heating at $70^{\circ}C$ for 12 h in a hot air dryer, and heating at $180^{\circ}C$ for 1 h in an oven. The heat-treated chicken feet were extracted at $121^{\circ}C$ for 1 h and 2 h, respectively. The extract was placed in a pouch with whole chicken carcass ($470{\pm}10g$). The sealed Samgyetang retort was made according to the industrial method. The pH of the extract from preheated chicken feet was lower than that extracted from fresh chicken feet. The Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS) value of the preheated chicken feet extract was significantly lower (P<0.05) than that of fresh chicken feet extract, but there were no significant differences among the broths. As the extraction time increased, the pH and TBARS value decreased in the extract (P<0.05) but increased in the broth (P<0.05). According to the sensory evaluation test, the extract from 1 h hot air heating and drying was significantly better in appearance, aroma, and overall preference than the other treatments (P<0.05). The GC-MS results showed that benzaldehyde and benzothiazole, which are widely known to give meat and nuts flavor, were detected in those treatments (P<0.05). The Samgyetang broths prepared from 1 h hot air heating and drying extract were significantly higher in the overall acceptability according to the sensory test (P<0.05). In summary, the quality of retort Samgyetang broth can be improved by adding chicken feet extract which is subjected to heating and drying for 1 h.

Mobile application-based dietary sugar intake reduction intervention study according to the stages of behavior change in female college students (모바일 어플리케이션 기반 당류 저감화 중재 프로그램의 행동변화단계에 따른 효과 분석 : 일부 여대생 대상 연구)

  • Choi, Yunjung;Kim, Hyun-Sook
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.52 no.5
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    • pp.488-500
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: This study examined the effects of a mobile app-based program to reduce the dietary sugar intake according to the stages of the behavioral change in dietary sugar reduction in female college students. Methods: The program used in this study can monitor the dietary sugar intake after recording the dietary intake and provide education message for the reduction of dietary sugar intake. In an eight-week pre-post intervention study, 68 female college students were instructed to record all the food they consumed daily and received weekly education information. At pre-post intervention, the subjects were asked to answer the questionnaire about sugar-related nutrition knowledge, sugar-intake behavior, and sugar-intake frequency. For statistical analysis, ANOVA and a paired t-test were used for comparative analysis according Precontemplation (PC), Contemplation Preparation (C P), and A M (Action Maintenance) stage. Results: Significant differences were observed in the frequency of snacking, experience of nutrition education, and preference for sweetness according to the stages of behavior change in dietary sugar reduction. After finishing an intervention, the sugar-related nutrition knowledge score was increased significantly in the stages of Precontemplation (PC) and Contemplation Preparation (C P). The score of the sugar intake behavior increased significantly in all stages. The intake frequency of chocolate, muffins or cakes, and drinking yogurt decreased significantly in the PC stage and the intake frequency of biscuits, carbonated beverages, and fruit juice decreased significantly in the C P stage. Subjects in the PC and C P stages had an undesirable propensity in nutrition knowledge, sugar-intake behavior, and sugar-intake frequency compared to the A M stage, but this intervention improved significantly their nutrition knowledge, sugar-intake behavior, and sugar-intake frequency. Conclusion: This program can be an effective educational tool in the stages of PC and C P, and is expected to further increase the usability and sustainability of mobile application if supplemented appropriately to a health platform program.

Spatio-temporal Distribution Patterns of Lotic Benthic Macroinvertebrate Communities in Namhan-River Weir Section (남한강 보 구간 유수성 저서성 대형무척추동물의 시·공간적 분포 특성)

  • Kim, Jin-Young;Lee, Seung-Hyun;Lee, Kyung-Lak;Noh, Seongyu;Shin, Yuna;Lee, Su-Woong;Lee, Jaekwan;Won, Doo-hee;Lim, Sung-ho;Kown, Yongju;Kong, Dongsoo
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.51 no.4
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    • pp.331-344
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    • 2018
  • Lotic organisms in streams are affected by natural and anthropogenic disturbances such as increase of heavy rainfall event caused by climate change and flow regime change caused by weir constructions. Based on domestic and foreign literature, 157 Korean benthic macroinvertebrate taxa were selected species as potential lotic candidates. Three shoreline sites (total 54 samples) were surveyed consecutively before ('08~'09), during ('10~'12) and after ('13~'16) the construction of the weirs (Gangcheon, Yeoju and Ipo weir) in the Namhan-River for tracing changes of lotic communities. As a result, water flow of the Ipo-wier and water quality variables such as T-N, T-P, BOD5, etc. of the weir section revealed no significant changes. Physical habitat conditions such as the flow velocity and streambed substrate evidently changed. Particulary, flow velocity measured at sampling points along with each microhabitat drastically decreased and particle size of streambed substrate steadily decreased after weir constructions. Lotic organisms also decreased after construction, especially Hydropsychidae (insecta: Trichoptera) acutely decreased from $3,526ind.\;m^{-2}$ to $2ind.\;m^{-2}$ As a result of CCA, lotic species such as Hydropsyche valvata, Hydropsyche kozhantschikovi, Cheumatopsyche brevilineata, Cheumatopsyche KUa, Macrostemum radiatum, etc. correlated with the flow velocity, streambed substrate. Therefore, the decrease of the flow velocity and substrate size after weir construction seemed to be closely related to the decrease of the individual abundances of the lotic organisms independently of water quality. In order to evaluate the influence of the ecosystem on the flow regime change more accurately, it is necessary to study the indicator species based on the resistance or preference of the flow.

A Study on UX-centered Smart Office Phone Design Development Process Using Service Design Process (서비스디자인 프로세스를 활용한 UX중심 오피스 전화기 디자인개발 프로세스 연구)

  • Seo, Hong-Seok
    • Science of Emotion and Sensibility
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    • v.25 no.1
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    • pp.41-54
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    • 2022
  • The purpose of this study was to propose a "user experience (UX)-centered product development process" so that the product design development process using the service design process can be systematized and used in practice. In a situation in which usability research on office phones is lacking compared to general home phones, this study expands to a product-based service design point of view rather than simple product development, intending to research ways to provide user experience value through office phone design in smart office. This study focused on extracting UX-centered user needs using the service design process and developing product design that realizes user experience value. In particular, the service design process was applied to systematically extract user needs and experience value elements in the product development process and to discover ideas that were converged with product-based services. For this purpose, the "Double Diamond Design Process Model," which is widely used in the service design field, was adopted. In addition, a product design development process was established so that usability improvement plans, user experience value elements, and product-service connected ideas could be extracted through a work-flow in which real users and people from various fields participate. Based on the double diamond design process, in the "Discover" information collection stage, design trends were identified mainly in the office phone markets. In the "Define" analysis and extraction stage, user needs were analyzed through user observation, interview, and usability survey, and design requirements and user experience issues were extracted. Persona was set through user type analysis, and user scenarios were presented. In the "Develop" development stage, ideation workshops and concept renderings were conducted to embody the design, and people from various fields within the company participated to set the design direction reflecting design preference and usability improvement plans. In the "Deliver" improvement/prototype development/evaluation stage, a working mock-up of a design prototype was produced and design and usability evaluation were conducted through consultation with external design experts. It is meaningful that it established a "UX-centered product development process" model that converged with the existing product design development process and service design process. Ultimately, service design-based product design development process was presented so that I Corp.'s products could realize user experience value through service convergence.

An Analysis of School Life Sensibility of Students at Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries Using Unstructured Data Mining(1) (비정형 데이터 마이닝을 활용한 한국농수산대학 재학생의 학교생활 감성 분석(1))

  • Joo, J.S.;Lee, S.Y.;Kim, J.S.;Song, C.Y.;Shin, Y.K.;Park, N.B.
    • Journal of Practical Agriculture & Fisheries Research
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    • v.21 no.1
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    • pp.99-114
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    • 2019
  • In this study we examined the preferences of eight college living factors for students at Korea National College of Agriculture and Fisheries(KNCAF). Analytical techniques of unstructured data used opinion mining and text mining techniques, and the analysis results of text mining were visualized as word cloud. The college life factors included eight topics that were closely related to students: 'my present', 'my 10 years later', 'friendship', 'college festival', 'student restaurant', 'college dormitory', 'KNCAF', and 'long-term field practice'. In the text submitted by the students, we have established a dictionary of positive words and negative words to evaluate the preference by classifying the emotions of positive and negative. As a result, KNCAF students showed more than 85% positive emotions about the theme of 'student restaurant' and 'friendship'. But students' positive feelings about 'long-term field practice' and 'college dormitory' showed the lowest satisfaction rate of not exceeding 60%. The rest of the topics showed satisfaction of 69.3~74.2%. The gender differences showed that the positive emotions of male students were high in the topics of 'my present', 'my 10 years later', 'friendship', 'college dormitory' and 'long-term field practice'. And those of female were high in 'college festival', 'student restaurant' and 'KNCAF'. In addition, using text mining technique, the main words of positive and negative words were extracted, and word cloud was created to visualize the results.

A Study on the Location of Retail Trade in Kwangju-si and Its Inhabitants와 Effcient Utilization (광주시 소매업의 입지와 주민의 효율적 이용에 관한 연구)

  • ;Jeon, Kyung-sook
    • Journal of the Korean Geographical Society
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.68-92
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    • 1995
  • Recentry the structure of the retail trade have been chanaed with its environmantal changes. Some studies may be necessary on the changing process of environment and fundamental structure analyses of the retail trade. This study analyzes the location of retail trades, inhabitants' behavior in retail tredes and their desirable utilization scheme of them in Kwangju-si. Some study methods, contents and coming-out results are as follows: 1. Retail trades can be classified into independent stores, chain-stores (supermarket, voluntary chain and frenchiise system and convenience store), department stores, cooperative associations, traditional, markets mail-order marketing, automatic vending and others by service levels, selling-items, prices, managements, methods of retailing and store or nonstore type. 2. In Kwangju, the environment of retail trades is related to the consumers of population structure: chanes in consumers pattern, trends toward agings and nuclear family, increase of leisur: time and female advances to society. Rapid structural shift in retail trade has also been occurred due to these social changes. Traditionl and premodern markets until 1970s altere to supermarkets or department stores in 1980s, and various types, large enterprises and foreign capitals came into being in 1990s. 3. The locational characteristics of retail trades are resulted from the spatial analysis of the total population distribution, and from the calculation of segregation index in the light of potential demand. The densely-populated areas occurs in newly-built apartment housing complex which is distributed with a ring-shaped pattern around the old urban core. The numbers and rates of the aged over sixty in Kwangsan-gu and the circumference area of Mt.Moodeung, are larger and higher where rural elements are remarkable. A relation between population distribution and retail trade are analysed by the index of population per shop. The index of the population number per shop is lower in urban center, as a whole, being more convenient for consumers. In newly-formed apartment complex areas, on the other, the index more than 1,000 per shop, meeting not the demands for consumers. Because both the younger and the aged are numerous in these areas, the retail trade pattern pertinent to both are needed. Urban fringes including Kwangsan-gu and the vicinity of Mt.Moodeung have some problems owing to the most of population number per shop (more than 1, 500) and the most extensive as well. 4. The regional characteristic of retail trade is analyzed through the location quotient of shops by locational patterns and centerality index. Chungkum-dong is the highest-order central place in CBD. It is the core of retail trades, which has higher-ordered specialty store including three big department stores, supermarkets and large stores. Taegum-dong, Chungsu-dong, Taeui-dong, and Numun-dong that are neiahbored to Chungkum-dong fall on the second group. They have a central commercial section where large chain stores, specialty shopping streets, narrow-line retailing shops (furniture, amusement service, and gallary), supermarkets and daily markets are located. The third group is formed on the axis of state roads linking to Naju-kun, Changseong-kun, Tamyang-kun, Hwasun-kun and forme-Songjeong-eup. It is related to newly, rising apartment housing complex along a trunk road, and characterized by markets and specialty stores. The fourth group has neibourhood-shopping centers including older residential area and Songjeong-eup area with independent stores and supermarkets as main retailing functions. The last group contains inner residential area and outer part of a city including Songjeong-eup. Outer part of miscellaneous shops being occasionally found is rural rather than urban (Fig. 7). 5. The residents' behaviors using retail trade are analyzed by factors of goods and facilities. Department stores are very high level in preference for higher-order shopping-goods such as clothes for full dress in view of both diversity and quality of goods(28.9%). But they have severe traffic congestions, and high competitions for market ranges caused by their sma . 64.0% of respondents make combined purpose trips together with banking and shopping. 6. For more efficiency of retail-trading, it is necessary to induce spatial distribution policy with regard to opportunity frequency of goods selection by central place, frontier regions and age groups. Also we must consider to analyze competition among different types of retail trade and analyze the consumption behaviors of working females and younger-aged groups, in aspects of time and space. Service improvement and the rationalization of management should be accomplished in such as cooperative location (situation) must be under consideration in relations to other functions such as finance, leisure & sports, and culture centers. Various service systems such as installment, credit card and peremium ticket, new used by enterprises, must also be carried service improvement. The rationalization and professionalization in for the commercial goods are bsically requested.

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Dietary Behavior Related to Salty Food Intake of Adults Living in a Rural Area according to Saline Sensitivity (농촌 지역의 중년이후 성인의 염분 민감도에 따른 짠 음식 섭취 관련 식행동)

  • Kim, Mi-Kyoung;Han, Jang-Il;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.537-550
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to identify behavioral characteristics of salty food intake according to saline sensitivity of adults living in a rural area. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured and salt intake-related dietary behavior was surveyed by questionnaires through interviews with 402 subjects aged ${\geq}$ 40 years in Chungcheongbuk-Do, Korea. The percentages of overweight and obese among the subjects were 37.8% and 3.8% respectively. Mean blood pressure of the subjects was in the normal range, but the distribution of subjects who were normotensive, high normal, and hypertensive was 48.7%, 17.7%, and 33.6% respectively. Approximately 27% of all subjects habitually consumed salty food, which was the smallest group, followed by 38.1% normal and 35.1% not-salty food. However, 34.6% of the eldest group of ${\geq}$ 65 years consumed salty food. The saline insensitive group showed a higher percentage of irregular meals, overeating, speed-eating, an unbalanced diet, a preference for fried food, and habitual intake of salty foods. These subjects recognized the risk for eating salty food, but they lacked the will to reduce their salty food intake. Compared to spouses and family members, experts such as doctors, nurses, and dieticians were the most influential for reducing the salty food intake of subjects. Saline sensitive group had relatively better control over salty food intake at every meal, eating out, and even when eating salty food that the spouse preferred. The saline sensitive group ate more frequently vegetables and fruits, whereas the saline insensitive group ate more frequently hot spicy foods. In conclusion, the results suggest that it is necessary to establish a social atmosphere toward reducing salt intake at the level of the government and food industry and to set action plans to be available for nutrition education programs to reduce salt intake nationwide.

Pain Complaint according to Usage of Standard-Sized Desks and Chairs for Middle and High School Students (중(中)·고등(高等) 학생(學生)들의 책상 및 의자(椅子)의 표준호식(標準號數) 사용여부(使用與否)와 통증(痛症) 호소율(呼訴率))

  • Kang, Kyung Yull;Cha, Byong Jun;Park, Jae Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.219-232
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to examine both usage rate of standard sized desks and chairs for the middle and high school students and pain complant of students who use standard-size desk & chair in Taegu, Korea, by means of questionnaires with 1,201 students of both male and female middle and high schools in Taegu area from March 20 to April 19, 1995. The result of this study is summarized as follows. It was mostly shown that the desks and chairs used by those middle and high school students were 1-3 higher than their standard sizes, and that they also preferred a little higher size with respect to their desired sizes. The rate of students who use the standard size showed that the desk accounted for 30.5%, and chair for 21.0%, that the size bigger than the standard accounted for 61.3%, respectively, and 65.2, and that the size smaller than the standard accounted for 8.2%, respectively, and 13.8%. The using rate of the standard sized for the middle school students indicated that their desk accounted for 44.1%, and their chair for 26.0% which were higher than 16.1% and 14.7% for the high school students. Then, the rate of the male students indicated that their desk accounted for 31.5% and their chair for 24.5% which were higher than 29.6% and 17.6% of the female students. In addition, the using rate of the standard size for the public schools showed that the desk accounted for 34.2% and chair for 24.5% which were also higher than 27.1% and 17.5% of the private schools. It was shown, however, that the using rate of the standard size for both groups was lower. The most inconvenient factor in the usage of their desks appeared in such orders as their wear, narrow drawers, too low height and uneven face, while the factor in their chairs did in such orders as too hard chair body the surface and back part, wear, lower and higher height and narrow width. Their physical pains resulting from usage of those desks and chairs showed that the male and female middle school students' complaint rate of pains in their neck and shoulder accounted for 32.1%, respectively, and 36.0% which were highest, while those high school students' complaint rate in their waist accounted for 37.9%, respectively, and 44.1% which were hight. It was also shown that the bigger their height, the higher their complaint rate of pain in the waist, and that their complaint rate in the shoulder and neck was totally higher. When using the standard-sized desks and chairs, their complaint rate of pain in the shoulder and neck accounted for 25.4%, respectively, and 23.8%. As compared with them, when using the desks or chairs bigger than the standard size, their complaint rate accounted for 31.5%, respectively, and 31.8% which were high while it did 26.5% and 28.9% when using them smaller than the standard size which were also high, the usage of those standard-sized desks and chairs indicated lower complaint rate of pain in their waist than used the desks and chairs bigger or smaller than the standard size. The rate of the middle and high school students who use their standard size is very low and the size of their desks and chairs are quite different from those they hope to use and many students appeal their discomfort with their desks and chairs. Therefore, the school should try to provide the desks and chairs of the various students' standard sizes in consideration of their physical condition and it also should try to get extra desks and chairs of various sizes according to the students' standard size and their preference.

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