• Title/Summary/Keyword: Preference

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Dietary Behavior Related to Salty Food Intake of Adults Living in a Rural Area according to Saline Sensitivity (농촌 지역의 중년이후 성인의 염분 민감도에 따른 짠 음식 섭취 관련 식행동)

  • Kim, Mi-Kyoung;Han, Jang-Il;Chung, Young-Jin
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.44 no.6
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    • pp.537-550
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    • 2011
  • This study was conducted to identify behavioral characteristics of salty food intake according to saline sensitivity of adults living in a rural area. Anthropometry and blood pressure were measured and salt intake-related dietary behavior was surveyed by questionnaires through interviews with 402 subjects aged ${\geq}$ 40 years in Chungcheongbuk-Do, Korea. The percentages of overweight and obese among the subjects were 37.8% and 3.8% respectively. Mean blood pressure of the subjects was in the normal range, but the distribution of subjects who were normotensive, high normal, and hypertensive was 48.7%, 17.7%, and 33.6% respectively. Approximately 27% of all subjects habitually consumed salty food, which was the smallest group, followed by 38.1% normal and 35.1% not-salty food. However, 34.6% of the eldest group of ${\geq}$ 65 years consumed salty food. The saline insensitive group showed a higher percentage of irregular meals, overeating, speed-eating, an unbalanced diet, a preference for fried food, and habitual intake of salty foods. These subjects recognized the risk for eating salty food, but they lacked the will to reduce their salty food intake. Compared to spouses and family members, experts such as doctors, nurses, and dieticians were the most influential for reducing the salty food intake of subjects. Saline sensitive group had relatively better control over salty food intake at every meal, eating out, and even when eating salty food that the spouse preferred. The saline sensitive group ate more frequently vegetables and fruits, whereas the saline insensitive group ate more frequently hot spicy foods. In conclusion, the results suggest that it is necessary to establish a social atmosphere toward reducing salt intake at the level of the government and food industry and to set action plans to be available for nutrition education programs to reduce salt intake nationwide.

Pain Complaint according to Usage of Standard-Sized Desks and Chairs for Middle and High School Students (중(中)·고등(高等) 학생(學生)들의 책상 및 의자(椅子)의 표준호식(標準號數) 사용여부(使用與否)와 통증(痛症) 호소율(呼訴率))

  • Kang, Kyung Yull;Cha, Byong Jun;Park, Jae Yong
    • Journal of the Korean Society of School Health
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    • v.8 no.2
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    • pp.219-232
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    • 1995
  • This study was conducted to examine both usage rate of standard sized desks and chairs for the middle and high school students and pain complant of students who use standard-size desk & chair in Taegu, Korea, by means of questionnaires with 1,201 students of both male and female middle and high schools in Taegu area from March 20 to April 19, 1995. The result of this study is summarized as follows. It was mostly shown that the desks and chairs used by those middle and high school students were 1-3 higher than their standard sizes, and that they also preferred a little higher size with respect to their desired sizes. The rate of students who use the standard size showed that the desk accounted for 30.5%, and chair for 21.0%, that the size bigger than the standard accounted for 61.3%, respectively, and 65.2, and that the size smaller than the standard accounted for 8.2%, respectively, and 13.8%. The using rate of the standard sized for the middle school students indicated that their desk accounted for 44.1%, and their chair for 26.0% which were higher than 16.1% and 14.7% for the high school students. Then, the rate of the male students indicated that their desk accounted for 31.5% and their chair for 24.5% which were higher than 29.6% and 17.6% of the female students. In addition, the using rate of the standard size for the public schools showed that the desk accounted for 34.2% and chair for 24.5% which were also higher than 27.1% and 17.5% of the private schools. It was shown, however, that the using rate of the standard size for both groups was lower. The most inconvenient factor in the usage of their desks appeared in such orders as their wear, narrow drawers, too low height and uneven face, while the factor in their chairs did in such orders as too hard chair body the surface and back part, wear, lower and higher height and narrow width. Their physical pains resulting from usage of those desks and chairs showed that the male and female middle school students' complaint rate of pains in their neck and shoulder accounted for 32.1%, respectively, and 36.0% which were highest, while those high school students' complaint rate in their waist accounted for 37.9%, respectively, and 44.1% which were hight. It was also shown that the bigger their height, the higher their complaint rate of pain in the waist, and that their complaint rate in the shoulder and neck was totally higher. When using the standard-sized desks and chairs, their complaint rate of pain in the shoulder and neck accounted for 25.4%, respectively, and 23.8%. As compared with them, when using the desks or chairs bigger than the standard size, their complaint rate accounted for 31.5%, respectively, and 31.8% which were high while it did 26.5% and 28.9% when using them smaller than the standard size which were also high, the usage of those standard-sized desks and chairs indicated lower complaint rate of pain in their waist than used the desks and chairs bigger or smaller than the standard size. The rate of the middle and high school students who use their standard size is very low and the size of their desks and chairs are quite different from those they hope to use and many students appeal their discomfort with their desks and chairs. Therefore, the school should try to provide the desks and chairs of the various students' standard sizes in consideration of their physical condition and it also should try to get extra desks and chairs of various sizes according to the students' standard size and their preference.

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Interpreting Bounded Rationality in Business and Industrial Marketing Contexts: Executive Training Case Studies (집행관배훈안례연구(阐述工商业背景下的有限合理性):집행관배훈안례연구(执行官培训案例研究))

  • Woodside, Arch G.;Lai, Wen-Hsiang;Kim, Kyung-Hoon;Jung, Deuk-Keyo
    • Journal of Global Scholars of Marketing Science
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.49-61
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    • 2009
  • This article provides training exercises for executives into interpreting subroutine maps of executives' thinking in processing business and industrial marketing problems and opportunities. This study builds on premises that Schank proposes about learning and teaching including (1) learning occurs by experiencing and the best instruction offers learners opportunities to distill their knowledge and skills from interactive stories in the form of goal.based scenarios, team projects, and understanding stories from experts. Also, (2) telling does not lead to learning because learning requires action-training environments should emphasize active engagement with stories, cases, and projects. Each training case study includes executive exposure to decision system analysis (DSA). The training case requires the executive to write a "Briefing Report" of a DSA map. Instructions to the executive trainee in writing the briefing report include coverage in the briefing report of (1) details of the essence of the DSA map and (2) a statement of warnings and opportunities that the executive map reader interprets within the DSA map. The length maximum for a briefing report is 500 words-an arbitrary rule that works well in executive training programs. Following this introduction, section two of the article briefly summarizes relevant literature on how humans think within contexts in response to problems and opportunities. Section three illustrates the creation and interpreting of DSA maps using a training exercise in pricing a chemical product to different OEM (original equipment manufacturer) customers. Section four presents a training exercise in pricing decisions by a petroleum manufacturing firm. Section five presents a training exercise in marketing strategies by an office furniture distributer along with buying strategies by business customers. Each of the three training exercises is based on research into information processing and decision making of executives operating in marketing contexts. Section six concludes the article with suggestions for use of this training case and for developing additional training cases for honing executives' decision-making skills. Todd and Gigerenzer propose that humans use simple heuristics because they enable adaptive behavior by exploiting the structure of information in natural decision environments. "Simplicity is a virtue, rather than a curse". Bounded rationality theorists emphasize the centrality of Simon's proposition, "Human rational behavior is shaped by a scissors whose blades are the structure of the task environments and the computational capabilities of the actor". Gigerenzer's view is relevant to Simon's environmental blade and to the environmental structures in the three cases in this article, "The term environment, here, does not refer to a description of the total physical and biological environment, but only to that part important to an organism, given its needs and goals." The present article directs attention to research that combines reports on the structure of task environments with the use of adaptive toolbox heuristics of actors. The DSA mapping approach here concerns the match between strategy and an environment-the development and understanding of ecological rationality theory. Aspiration adaptation theory is central to this approach. Aspiration adaptation theory models decision making as a multi-goal problem without aggregation of the goals into a complete preference order over all decision alternatives. The three case studies in this article permit the learner to apply propositions in aspiration level rules in reaching a decision. Aspiration adaptation takes the form of a sequence of adjustment steps. An adjustment step shifts the current aspiration level to a neighboring point on an aspiration grid by a change in only one goal variable. An upward adjustment step is an increase and a downward adjustment step is a decrease of a goal variable. Creating and using aspiration adaptation levels is integral to bounded rationality theory. The present article increases understanding and expertise of both aspiration adaptation and bounded rationality theories by providing learner experiences and practice in using propositions in both theories. Practice in ranking CTSs and writing TOP gists from DSA maps serves to clarify and deepen Selten's view, "Clearly, aspiration adaptation must enter the picture as an integrated part of the search for a solution." The body of "direct research" by Mintzberg, Gladwin's ethnographic decision tree modeling, and Huff's work on mapping strategic thought are suggestions on where to look for research that considers both the structure of the environment and the computational capabilities of the actors making decisions in these environments. Such research on bounded rationality permits both further development of theory in how and why decisions are made in real life and the development of learning exercises in the use of heuristics occurring in natural environments. The exercises in the present article encourage learning skills and principles of using fast and frugal heuristics in contexts of their intended use. The exercises respond to Schank's wisdom, "In a deep sense, education isn't about knowledge or getting students to know what has happened. It is about getting them to feel what has happened. This is not easy to do. Education, as it is in schools today, is emotionless. This is a huge problem." The three cases and accompanying set of exercise questions adhere to Schank's view, "Processes are best taught by actually engaging in them, which can often mean, for mental processing, active discussion."

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Wearable Art-Chameleon Dress (웨어러블 아트-카멜레온 드레스)

  • Cho, Kyoung-Hee
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Clothing and Textiles
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    • v.32 no.12
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    • pp.1837-1847
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    • 2008
  • The goal of this study is to express the image of chameleons-that change their colors by light, temperature and its mood-into the sexy styles of corresponding coquettish temperamental people in Wearable Art. The method used in this study was experimenting various production mediums, including creating the textured stretch fabric, in the process of expressing the conceptual characteristics of the chameleon in Wearable Art. The concept of the work was a concoction of 'tempting', 'splendid', 'brilliant', 'fascinating', etc. that highlighted the real disposition of the chameleon. The futuristic preference of the researcher was also implicated. "Comfortable" and "enjoyable" concepts via motions were improved with the its completeness. The point of the design and production is to express symbolically the chameleon in real life, analyzing its sleek body lines, conditional colors changing, outer skins and the cubic textures. The coquettish temperamental image, the conceptual image of the chameleon, was also expressed by implication into the whole work. The entire line of this work is body-conscious silhouette. It was symbolically selected to image the outline of the chameleon that has the slim and sleek body. The exposed back is intended to express symbolically the projected back bones of the chameleon. The hood of gentle triangle line expresses the smooth-lined head part. The irregular hemlines represent the elongated chameleon's tale. The chameleon with its colors of vivid tones is characterized the colors changing by its conditions. This point was importantly treated in the working process by trying the effects that the colors are seen slightly different according to the light and angles. The material was given the effect that its surface colors are seen different in lights and angles because of the wrinkles protruded lumpy-bumpy. The various stones of red and blue tones are very similar to the skin tones of the real chameleon, and their gradation makes the effect that the colors are visibly changed with each move. The textures of the chameleon were produced via the wrinkle effect of smoke-shape, which is the result of using the elastic threads on the basic mediums stitched with 50/50 chiffon and polyester along with velvet dot patterns. The stretching fabric by the impact of the elastic threads is as much suitable for making the body-conscious line. The stones are composed of acrylic cabochon and gemstone. They are symbolically expressed the lumpy and bumpy back skin of the chameleon and produced the effect of the colors visibly different. The primary technique used in this dress is the draping utilizing the biased grains. The front body piece is connected to the hood and joined to the back piece without any seam. For the irregular hemline flares, leaving the several rectangular pieces with bias grains, they were connected by interlocking. What defines the clothes is the person in action. Therefore, what decides the completeness of clothes might be its comfortable and enjoyable feeling by living and acting people. The chameleon dress could also reach its goal of comforting and pleasing Wearable Art in the process of studying the techniques and effects that visibly differentiate the colors. It is considered as a main point of the Wearable Art, which is a comfortable enjoyable clothing tempered with the artistic beauty.

The comparison of lesion localization methods in breast lymphoscintigraphy (Breast lymphoscintigraphy 검사 시 체표윤곽을 나타내는 방법의 비교)

  • Yeon, Joon ho;Hong, Gun chul;Kim, Soo yung;Choi, Sung wook
    • The Korean Journal of Nuclear Medicine Technology
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    • v.19 no.2
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    • pp.74-80
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    • 2015
  • Purpose Breast lymphoscintigraphy is an important technique to present for body surface precisely, which shows a lymph node metastasis of malignant tumors at an early stage and is performed before and after surgery in patients with breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated several methods of body outline imaging to present exact location of lesions, as well as compared respective exposure doses. Materials and Methods RANDO phantom and SYMBIA T-16 were used for obtaining imaging. A lesion and an injection site were created by inserting a point source of 0.11 MBq on the axillary sentinel lymph node and 37 MBq on the right breast, respectively. The first method for acquiring the image was used by drawing the body surface of phantom for 30 sec using $Na^{99m}TcO_4$ as a point source. The second, the image was acquired with $^{57}Co$ flood source for 30 seconds on the rear side and the left side of the phantom, the image as the third method was obtained using a syringe filled with 37 MBq of $Na^{99m}TcO_4$ in 10 ml of saline, and as the fourth, we used a photon energy and scatter energy of $^{99m}Tc$ emitting from phantom without any addition radiation exposure. Finally, the image was fused the scout image and the basal image of SPECT/CT using MATLAB$^{(R)}$ program. Anterior and lateral images were acquired for 3 min, and radiation exposure was measured by the personal exposure dosimeter. We conducted preference of 10 images from nuclear medicine doctors by the survey. Results TBR values of anterior and right image in the first to fifth method were 334.9 and 117.2 ($1^{st}$), 266.1 and 124.4 ($2^{nd}$), 117.4 and 99.6 ($3^{rd}$), 3.2 and 7.6 ($4^{th}$), and 565.6 and 141.8 ($5^{th}$). And also exposure doses of these method were 2, 2, 2, 0, and $30{\mu}Sv$, respectively. Among five methods, the fifth method showed the highest TBR value as well as exposure dose, where as the fourth method showed the lowest TBR value and exposure dose. As a result, the last method ($5^{th}$) is the best method and the fourth method is the worst method in this study. Conclusion Scout method of SPECT/CT can be useful that provides the best values of TBR and the best score of survey result. Even though personal exposure dose when patients take scout of SPECT/CT was higher than another scan, it was slight level comparison to 1 mSv as the dose limit to non-radiation workers. If the scout is possible to less than 80 kV, exposure dose can be reduced, and also useful lesion localization provided.

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Studies on absorption of ammonium, nitrate-and urea-N by Jinheung and Tongil rice using labelled nitrogen (중질소(重窒素)를 이용(利用)한 진흥(振興)과 통일(統一)벼의 암모니움, 질산(窒酸) 및 요소태(尿素態) 질소(窒素)의 흡수특성(吸收特性) 연구(硏究))

  • Park, Hoon;Seok, Sun Jong
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.10 no.4
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    • pp.225-233
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    • 1978
  • Uptake and distribution of labelled urea, $NH{_4}^+$, and $NO{_3}^-$ by Tongil and Jinheung rice grown with each nitrogen source until ear formation stage under water culture system were as follows. 1. When the previous nitrogen source was same as one tested the uptake rate ($mg^{15}N/g$ d.w. root 2hrs, at $28^{\circ}C$ light) was great in the order of $NH_4$ >urea> $NO_3$ and higher (especially $NH_4$) in Tongil than in Jinheung. Rate limiting step (slowest) seems to be exist at R (root)${\rightarrow}$LS(leaf sheath) for urea, LS${\rightarrow}$LB(leaf blade) for $NH_4$ and M(medium)${\rightarrow}$R for $NO_3$. The fast step of translocation appeare to be at M${\rightarrow}$R for urea R${\rightarrow}$LS for $NH_4$ and LS${\rightarrow}$LB for $NO_3$. 2. The uptake rate of $NH_4$ by the urea-fed plant increased almost linearly from $18^{\circ}C$ via $28^{\circ}C$ to $38^{\circ}C$ in Tongil ($Q_{10}$=1.21 and 1.32 respectively) while no change in Jinheung ($Q_{10}$=0.99 and 1.00 respectively). It decreased by 12% in Jinheung under dark but uo change in Tongil. 3. The uptake rate of nitrogen source by different source-fed plant was great in the order of $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ $NO_3{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4$, $urea{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ and higher (especially $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$) in Tongil. In the case of $urea{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4$ it was same in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ for Tongil and slightly lower than that in $NO_3{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4$ for Jinheung. It was lower (especially Tongil) in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$ than in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NH_4 $ 4. The uptake rate (in $NH_4{\rightarrow}^{15}NO_3$) was higher during 15 minutes than during 2 hours and always higher in Tongil. 5. $^{15}N$ excess % and content in each part, and uptake rate of root seems to have their own significance relatling with metabolism and translocation respectively. The change of nitrogen nutritional environment and source preference of varieties were discussed in relation to field condition and efficient use of nitrogen fertilizer.

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A Study on the Economical Nutrition Supplement of Cereal Food for Improvement in our National Eating Habits (국민식생활(國民食生活) 향상(向上)을 위(爲)한 곡류제품(穀類製品)의 경제적( 經濟的) 영향강화(營養强化)에 관(關)한 연구(硏究))

  • Ju, Jin-Soon;Yu, Jong-Yull;Kim, Sook-He;Lee, Ki-Yull;Han, In-Kyu
    • Journal of Nutrition and Health
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    • v.6 no.1
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    • pp.1-9
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    • 1973
  • I. Subject of the Study: Studies on the economical nutrition supplement of cereal foods for the improvement in our notional eating habits. II. Purpose and Importance of the Study: 1. Our nation is confronted with the situation that the rice, a principal food, short of some essential amino acids, lysine and threonine, leads to imbalanced meals insufficient in the nutrient of protein, to bring many difficulties in the elevation of our national physique. 2. The shortage of even the rice imperfect in the nutrient of protein makes the import of lots of foreign rice inevitable. It is considered that the protein supplement and decrease in the consumption amount, of rice, is a serious key to the solution of our food difficulty, and then a way of the proetin supplement of rice through the addition of essential amino acid is to be rarely applied in the view of the our present finance and situation. 3. In the present experiment, therefore, it aims to the suggestion of an aspect of the improvement in our national eating habits guiding in the nutrition elevation which our nation can afford economically through the development of first, a way of the protein supplement by the mixture of cereals producted plentifully in our country, and second, a way of the decrease in the consumption amount and the improvement in the nutrition of rice through the substitution of the other cereals for rice. III. Contents of Scope of the Study: 1. Objects of the study: Objects of the study are the following three items; a) The nutrition supplement of rice through the mixture of cereals. Our nation makes mainly rice as a principal food, but practically many kinds of cereal are produced in our country. They contain different levels and qualities of each nutrient and they are different from one another in the kinds of essential amino acid consisting protein. For that reason, the mutual complement efficeincy of insufficient nutrients is observed through the mixture of cereals. b) The nutrition supplement of rice through the addition of superior protein sources to rice, a principal food. The development of rice as superior foods in the sense of nutrition is conducted through the risement in protein quality by the addition of protein sources in good quality, for example, fish flour (anchovy flour), egg powder, milk powder, and so on, and through the supplement of vitamins and minerals. c) The decrease in the consumption amount of rice through the substitution of the other cereals for rice, as a principal food. The compensation for the short amount of rice is made by the reduction in the consumption of rice through the discovery of a way of substitution of the other cereals for rice, as a principal food and of the settlement of problems in nutrition and finance subsequent to this. 2. Contents of the study: a) An ideal mixture-ratio of cereals is established for rats by feeding mixed foods(rice-barely or rice-wheat) containing 5%, 15%, 25%, 35% and 45% level of either barely or wheat. b) The nutritive value is determined in the whole subsititution of other foods for rice, and then, a way of the complement of over and under nutrients is devised. c) The ideal combination is investigated for rats through feeding mixed foods of main food, rice and supplement foods of protein sources, soy bean, fish flour, egg powder and milk Powder. d) According to results from the above three experiments, the concise functional test for men and the examination of economical property are made. 3. Scope of the study: a) The observation of the effect of each diet on the growth rate for rats. The growth rate of rats was observed for 15 groups of mixed foods of a main food, rice, and wheat flour, barley powder or soy bean powder, respectively, and 12 groups of wheat flour diets supplemented with $1{\sim}3%$ milk powder, and rice or wheat flour diets supplemented with 5% of milk powder, egg powder, fish flour or soy bean powder, respectively. b) The determination of food consumption. The food consumption was determined at weekly intervals for 27 kinds of diet described in a) item. c) The determination of food efficiency rate. The food efficiency rate for each diet was determined by calculation from the gained body weight and the food consumption amount at the same intervals described in b) item. d) The determination of protein efficiency rate. The protein efficiency rate for each diet was determined by calculation form gained body weight and the protein amount of the food consumption amount at the same intervals described c) item. e) The determination of the body component. The hematocrite and hemoglobin levels in the blood, total nitrogen in the serum, blood sugar, and lipids and glycogen in the liver were determined. f) The observation of nitrogen balance. As a means of the observation of nitrogen balance, the total nitrogen in the urine was determined. g) The analysis of economical property. The economical property was analyzed as the gained body weight to the amount equivalent to one won through the conversion of the food consumption amount into money. h) The functional test for men. The concise functional test for men was made in order to establish if the best diet for experimental animals can be applied to men. IV. Results of the Study: The national food product plan, nationwide nutritive enlightment and the improvement activities in our country eating habits, especially, mixed and powder food problems are to be significantly referred, and the following results must be applied. a) In the mixed foods of cereals, the mixed food of the rice-barley containing $5{\sim}15%$ level of barley is best in terms of nutrition. b) The addition of superior protein sources, egg, Bilk, soy bean, or fish, respectively to either rice or wheat flour makes a great risement in the nutritive value. c) The animal protein is more effective in the elevation of nutritive value of cereals. d) Rice takes the most nutritive operation and has the highest preference, among rice, wheat flour and barley. e) Wheat flour is more economical than rice in evaluation of the gained body weight to the regular money, and the addition of fish or soy bean is more economical than that of any other supplement food. But the above results are true of the range of nutrition and economical property. f) The study on the nutrition composition and barley will lead to the improvement in our national eating habits as mixed food of the rice-barley containing $5{\sim}15%$ level of barley is more nutritive. g) This study on the nutrition only for the growing animal can not be considered as a perfect and entire evaluation. Consequently, the perfect data for our national nutrition can be obtained from the experiment similar to this for the much longer period examining, in details, the growth rate, change of physical strength, mental and bodily change, average life span, and resistance ability to infectious diseases.

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A Survey on Consumption Behaviors of the Fast-Foods in University Students (대학생의 패스트푸드 소비행태에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Kyu-Seok;Im, Byoung-Soon;Kim, Seok-Eun;Kim, Gye-Woong
    • Korean Journal of Human Ecology
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    • v.14 no.2
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    • pp.313-319
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    • 2005
  • This survey was conducted in order to obtain the basic data for desirable consumption habits through investigation and analysis of university students' fast food consumption behaviors. Questionnaires were collected from a total of 374 male and female students living in big or small and medium-sized cities in August, 2004. The contents surveyed were utilization and expenses of fast foods, choice of fast foods, relationship between fast foods and a diet, and characteristics of fast food restaurants. The results obtained are summarized as follows: 1. The ratio of the surveyees varied according to gender, residence, and the size of a city they're living in. For example, males took up 48.66% of the surveyees, while females did 51.34%. The ratio of residents in apartments and stand-alone houses was 54.81% and 45.19% each. 47.33% of the respondents were living in big cities, while 52.67% of them in small and medium-sized cities. 2. 70.1% of the surveyees responded that they are with friends when having fast foods. There was a highly significant difference between male and female in the type of eating companions (p<0.001). The average number of days that they eat fast foods was 1 to 2 times a week, which accounted for 63.7% of the respondents. However, in the case of eating foods, there was no significant differences between two sexes. 3. 64.2% of the surveyees paid more than 20,000 won to buy fast foods for a week, which showed no significant differences between genders. They tend to split a bill, rather than one person pays all. There was a highly significant difference between genders in paying method (p<0.001). 4. 52.1 % of the respondents chose a menu themselves. Their most favored food was chickens (26.5%), which showed a statistically significant difference between genders (p<0.001). 46.8% of them preferred coke as a drink, which had no significant difference between genders. 42.2% of the surveyees had fast foods between lunch and dinner, which also had no significant difference between genders. The most important factor in choosing a menu was its taste (62.8%), which indicated a significant difference between males and females (p<0.05). 5. The preference to fast foods was due to the influence of western culture (36.4%) and eating-out habits (29.1%), which was significantly different between genders (p<0.05). Those who eat fast foods answered they have normal weight and normal body type (49.5%). 24.3% of them were relatively fat with significant difference between genders (p<0.05). 63.4% of the surveyees thought themselves not picky with foods, and there was a significant difference between genders (p<0.05). 78.3% of them mostly preferred franchise restaurants because they are convenient and cheap.

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The Abuse and Invention of Tradition from Maintenance Process of Historic Site No.135 Buyeo Gungnamji Pond (사적 제135호 부여 궁남지의 정비과정으로 살펴본 전통의 남용과 발명)

  • Jung, Woo-Jin
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Traditional Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.2
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    • pp.26-44
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    • 2017
  • Regarded as Korea's traditional pond, Gungnamj Pond was surmised to be "Gungnamji" due to its geological positioning in the south of Hwajisan (花枝山) and relics of the Gwanbuk-ri (官北里) suspected of being components to the historical records of Muwang (武王)'s pond of The Chronicles of the Three States [三國史記] and Sabi Palace, respectively, yet was subjected to a restoration following a designation to national historic site. This study is focused on the distortion of authenticity identified in the course of the "Gungnamji Pond" restoration and the invention of tradition, whose summarized conclusions are as follows. 1. Once called Maraebangjuk (마래방죽), or Macheonji (馬川池) Pond, Gungnamji Pond was existent in the form of a low-level swamp of vast area encompassing 30,000 pyeong during the Japanese colonial period. Hong, Sa-jun, who played a leading role in the restoration of "Gungnamji Pond," said that even during the 1940s, the remains of the island and stone facilities suspected of being the relics of Gungnamji Pond of the Baekje period were found, and that the traces of forming a royal palace and garden were discovered on top of them. Hong, Sa-jun also expressed an opinion of establishing a parallel between "Gungnamji Pond" and "Maraebangjuk" in connection with a 'tale of Seodong [薯童說話]' in the aftermath of the detached palace of Hwajisan, which ultimately operated as a theoretical ground for the restoration of Gungnamj Pond. Assessing through Hong, Sa-jun's sketch, the form and scale of Maraebangjuk were visible, of which the form was in close proximity to that photographed during the Japanese colonial period. 2. The minimized restoration of Gungnamji Pond faced deterrence for the land redevelopment project implemented in the 1960s, and the remainder of the land size is an attestment. The fundamental problem manifest in the restoration of Gungnamji Pond numerously attempted from 1964 through 1967 was the failure of basing the restorative work in the archaeological facts yet in the perspective of the latest generations, ultimately yielding a replication of Hyangwonji Pond of Gyeongbok Palace. More specifically, the methodologies employed in setting an island and a pavilion within a pond, or bridging an island with a land evidenced as to how Gungnamji Pond was modeled after Hyangwonji Pond of Gyeongbok Palace. Furthermore, Chihyanggyo (醉香橋) Bridge referenced in the designing of the bridge was hardly conceived as a form indigenous to the Joseon Dynasty, whose motivation and idea of the misguided restoration design at the time all the more devaluated Gungnamji Pond. Such an utterly pure replication of the design widely known as an ingredient for the traditional landscape was purposive towards the aesthetic symbolism and preference retained by Gyeongbok Palace, which was intended to entitle Gungnamji Pond to a physical status of the value in par with that of Gyeongbok Palace. 3. For its detachment to the authenticity as a historical site since its origin, Gungnamji Pond represented distortions of the landscape beauty and tradition even through the restorative process. The restorative process for such a historical monument, devoid of constructive use and certain of distortion, maintains extreme intimacy with the nationalistic cultural policy promoted by the Park, Jeong-hee regime through the 1960s and 1970s. In the context of the "manipulated discussions of tradition," the Park's cultural policy transformed the citizens' recollection into an idealized form of the past, further magnifying it at best. Consequently, many of the historical sites emerged as fancy and grand as they possibly could beyond their status quo across the nation, and "Gungnamji Pond" was a victim to this monopolistic government-led cultural policy incrementally sweeping away with new buildings and structures instituted regardless of their original space, and hence, their value.

Analyzing the User Intention of Booth Recommender System in Smart Exhibition Environment (스마트 전시환경에서 부스 추천시스템의 사용자 의도에 관한 조사연구)

  • Choi, Jae Ho;Xiang, Jun-Yong;Moon, Hyun Sil;Choi, Il Young;Kim, Jae Kyeong
    • Journal of Intelligence and Information Systems
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    • v.18 no.3
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    • pp.153-169
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    • 2012
  • Exhibitions have played a key role of effective marketing activity which directly informs services and products to current and potential customers. Through participating in exhibitions, exhibitors have got the opportunity to make face-to-face contact so that they can secure the market share and improve their corporate images. According to this economic importance of exhibitions, show organizers try to adopt a new IT technology for improving their performance, and researchers have also studied services which can improve the satisfaction of visitors through analyzing visit patterns of visitors. Especially, as smart technologies make them monitor activities of visitors in real-time, they have considered booth recommender systems which infer preference of visitors and recommender proper service to them like on-line environment. However, while there are many studies which can improve their performance in the side of new technological development, they have not considered the choice factor of visitors for booth recommender systems. That is, studies for factors which can influence the development direction and effective diffusion of these systems are insufficient. Most of prior studies for the acceptance of new technologies and the continuous intention of use have adopted Technology Acceptance Model (TAM) and Extended Technology Acceptance Model (ETAM). Booth recommender systems may not be new technology because they are similar with commercial recommender systems such as book recommender systems, in the smart exhibition environment, they can be considered new technology. However, for considering the smart exhibition environment beyond TAM, measurements for the intention of reuse should focus on how booth recommender systems can provide correct information to visitors. In this study, through literature reviews, we draw factors which can influence the satisfaction and reuse intention of visitors for booth recommender systems, and design a model to forecast adaptation of visitors for booth recommendation in the exhibition environment. For these purposes, we conduct a survey for visitors who attended DMC Culture Open in November 2011 and experienced booth recommender systems using own smart phone, and examine hypothesis by regression analysis. As a result, factors which can influence the satisfaction of visitors for booth recommender systems are the effectiveness, perceived ease of use, argument quality, serendipity, and so on. Moreover, the satisfaction for booth recommender systems has a positive relationship with the development of reuse intention. For these results, we have some insights for booth recommender systems in the smart exhibition environment. First, this study gives shape to important factors which are considered when they establish strategies which induce visitors to consistently use booth recommender systems. Recently, although show organizers try to improve their performances using new IT technologies, their visitors have not felt the satisfaction from these efforts. At this point, this study can help them to provide services which can improve the satisfaction of visitors and make them last relationship with visitors. On the other hands, this study suggests that they managers along the using time of booth recommender systems. For example, in the early stage of the adoption, they should focus on the argument quality, perceived ease of use, and serendipity, so that improve the acceptance of booth recommender systems. After these stages, they should bridge the differences between expectation and perception for booth recommender systems, and lead continuous uses of visitors. However, this study has some limitations. We only use four factors which can influence the satisfaction of visitors. Therefore, we should development our model to consider important additional factors. And the exhibition in our experiments has small number of booths so that visitors may not need to booth recommender systems. In the future study, we will conduct experiments in the exhibition environment which has a larger scale.