• Title/Summary/Keyword: Phosphorus Removal

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Introduction of the Basin Sewerage Plan in Japan through Case Studies of the Lake Biwa Sewerage System (비와호 유역하수도 사례분석을 통한 일본 유역하수도계획의 소개)

  • Han, Mideok;Park, Bae Kyung;Park, Ji Hyoung;Kim, Yong Seok;Rhew, Doug Hee
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.9
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    • pp.533-541
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    • 2015
  • We investigate the Japan's Master Plan of Comprehensive Sewerage System (JMPS) and Lake Biwa basin sewerage and suggest future development direction of the Watershed Sewerage System Maintenance Plan in Korea enforced on February 2, 2013. The JMPS is designed for compliance with the environmental standard for water quality under the Environmental Policy Act. The effluent standards applied in the master plan of Lake Biwa's Sewerage Plan for the Lake Biwa is tougher than the national standards. Therefore the Lake Biwa Baisn Sewerage System was the first in Japan to adopt facilities that perform advanced treatment for nitrogen and phosphorus removal. BOD, SS, T-N and T-P concentrations of discharge water of sewage are 0.9, 0.6, 5.5, 0.06 mg/L, respectively. Especially removal efficiency for BOD is 99.5 percent. It is necessary to study the diversification of the evaluation criteria, cost minimization approach, subsidy system improvement, economic concept of discharge load adjustment system and establishment of basin sewerage concept for the development of the basin sewerage plan in Korea.

Optimization for SBR Process of Two-Sludge Type (Two-sludge 유형 SBR 공정의 최적 운영 조건 도출)

  • Ryu, Hong-Duck;Hwang, Jae-Sik;Kim, Keum-Yong;Lee, Sang-Ill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.29 no.2
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    • pp.229-234
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    • 2007
  • In the present work, the sequencing batch reactor process of two-sludge type was optimized. The effects of solid retention time, hydraulic retention time, length of biosorption phase and temperature variation were investigated, respectively. In the T-N removal, the long solid retention time was favored. It was speculated that SCOD biosorption efficiency was higher in long solid retention time than in short solid retention time. In the comparison of hydraulic retention time, the removal efficiency of $NH_4^+-N$ and T-N were almost same in all applied hydraulic retention times which were 8 hr, 10 hr and 15 hr. It was observed that there was no need to have the hydraulic retention time more than 20 min in biosorption phase for enhancement of T-N removal efficiency. An experimental comparison of removal efficiencies with different temperature conditions was carried out. Decrease of temperature didn't affect the performance of the process, however, phosphorus removal efficiency was a little higher at low temperature than high temperature. Consequently, the process developed in this study was much amenable to wastewater treatment which was conducted in the low temperature and high loading rate.

A Field Research on Mud Flat Remediation by Biological Treatments (생물학적 처리에 따른 갯벌 복원을 위한 현장 적용성 연구)

  • Cho, Dae-Chul;Bae, Hwan-Jin;Kwon, Sung-Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.13 no.7
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    • pp.3285-3294
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    • 2012
  • A field test on mud flat remediation was carried out in order to observe the effects of the treatments such as microbial dose and an oxygen releasing compound like $CaO_2$. The size of each treatment site was $100m^2$ and the dosage was 3.6 kg per site. The 6 week monitoring showed that pH on two sites was below 7 and ORP increased from .178~-188 mV to .121~-142 mV. In Ignition loss and COD there were no significant changes. Meanwhile nitrogen and phosphorus concentrations changed: ammonia concentration decreased both on control and treatment sites. Nitrate nitrogen decreased more on combined treatment site than on single microbial treatment (11.3% vs. 7.3%) probably because the extra oxygen supplied by $CaO_2$ formed more oxic environment so that the facilitated nitrification might produce more nitrate but the nitrate would be much rapidly released into the water layer out of the sediment. That also explains the total nitrogen reduction(6.1%). Similarly, T-P and $PO_4-P$ reduced by 29% and 31.8%, respectively on combined treatment sites, resulting from the phosphorus release effect though the initial concentrations of the two factors were considerably high.

Evaluation of Swine Wastewater Pretreatment Using Anaerobic Filter (Anaerobic Filter에 의한 양돈폐수의 전처리 특성 평가)

  • Kang, Ho;Moon, Seo-yeon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.37 no.7
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    • pp.418-425
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    • 2015
  • Anaerobic Filters (AF) packed with porous ceramic floating media were operated at different operational conditions to identify the feasibility of the renewable bioenergy, methane production from swine wastewater and to verify the suitability of effluent from anaerobic filters for the subsequent biological nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Stepwise increase in organic loading rates (OLRs) or decrease in hydraulic retention times (HRTs) with influent TCOD concentration of 14,000 mg/L were utilized at mesophilic temperature. The maximum methane productivity of 1.74 volume of $CH_4$ per volume of reactor per day (v/v-d) was achieved at an hydraulic retention time (HRT) of 0.5 day (OLR 28 g TVS/L-d). Based on the biogas production, the highest total volatile solids (TVS) removal efficiency of 63% was obtained at an HRT of 3 days (OLR 4.67 g TVS/L-d), however based on the result from the effluent total chemical oxygen demand (TCOD) analysis, the highest TCOD removal efficiency of 75% was achieved. The effluent alkalinity concentration over the range of 2,050~2,980 mg/L as $CaCO_3$ at all operational conditions, could compensate the alkalinity destruction caused by nitrification. The effluent from the anaerobic filter operated under the HRT of 2 days showed the COD/TKN ratio of 15~35 and COD/TP ratio of 38~56. Therefore effluent C/N/P ratio is able to satisfy the optimum COD/TKN ratio of greater than 8.0 and COD/TP ratio of 33 for the subsequent biological nutrient removal.

A study of improvement of river water quality(T-P) in pilot-scale operation (파일롯 규모의 운영에 따른 하천수질(T-P) 개선에 관한 연구)

  • Choi, Kyoungsoo;Lee, Chaeyoung
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.323-334
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    • 2021
  • Pilot-scale coagulation and sedimentation processes were operated to investigate the T-P (Total phosphorus) removal efficiency. A multiple regression model was also derived to predict the water quality improvement effect with river water characteristics. The inflow rates for the pilot-scale facility were 157-576 m3/day, and the coagulant doses were in the range of 13.7-58.5 mg/L (average 38.9 mg/L) for PAC (Poly alum chloride) and 16.5-62.1 mg/L (average 36.0 mg/L) for alum. The results found that the influent BOD (Biochemical oxygen demand) and T-P concentrations were 4.9 mg/L and 0.115 mg/L, and the removal efficiencies were 52.7% and 59.4%, respectively. T-P removal efficiencies on wet weather days were higher by 10% than dry weather days because influent solids influenced T-P's coagulation process. The pH of river water was 6.9-7.8, and the average pH was 7.3. Although the pH variation was not significant, the trend showed that the treatment efficiency of T-P and PO4-P removal increased. Thus, the pH range considered in this study seems to be appropriate for the coagulation process, which is essential for phosphorous removal. The T-P removal efficiencies were 19.6-93.3% (average 59.2%) for PAC and 16.4-98.5%(average 55.9%) for alum; thus, both coagulants showed similar results. Furthermore, the average coagulant doses were similar at 42.4 mg/L for PAC and 41.3 mg/L for alum. When the T-P concentration of the effluent was compared by the [Al]/[P] ratio, the phosphorus concentration of the treated water decreased with an increasing [Al]/[P] ratio, and the lowest T-P concentration range appeared at the [Al]/[P] ratio of 10-30. A seasonal multiple regression analysis equations were derived from the relationships between 10 independent and dependent variables (T-P concentration of effluent). This study could help lake water quality maintenance, reduce eutrophication, and improve direction settings for urban planning, especially plans related to developing waterfront cities.

Evaluation of Physical Property on EM Media for Water Treatment (수처리용 EM 담체의 물리적 특성 평가)

  • Bae, Su-Hyun;Ra, Deog-Gwan
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Environmental Technology
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    • v.19 no.6
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    • pp.493-502
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    • 2018
  • The purpose of this study was to develop EM media for water treatment and to remove nitrogen and phosphorus which cause water algae boom in water system. The ideal mixing ratio of raw material such as clay: zeolite: vermiculite: activated carbon for manufacturing the EM media was 10: 2.5: 0.1: 2, and the calcination temperature was $700^{\circ}C$. The comparison of the physical properties of manufactures using distilled water and EM activated liquid as the material mixture are as follows. Porosity and density of EM media were 39.98 % and $1.13kg/m^3$, adsorption efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus were 69.3 % and 38.9 %. In contrast, porosity and density of distilled water media were 37.80 % and $1.11kg/m^3$, and adsorption efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus were 62.5 % and 37.8 %. The adsorption rate of nitrogen and phosphorus in the EM media was higher than that of the distilled water made one by 6.8 % and 1.1 %, respectively. The adsorption characteristics of the media to nitrogen and phosphorus could be expressed by the Freudlich adsorption isotherm. The change of calcination time did not affect the adsorption efficiency of phosphorus and nitrogen when EM media was formed, but it was considered that it affects the strength of media. Nitrogen removal efficiency was the best record in 4 hours of calcination time and 3 hours of calcination time in phosphorus removal efficiency.

Effect of Calcium Ion and Initial pH on Phosphorus Removal using TiCl4 Coagulant (칼슘이온과 초기 pH가 TiCl4 응집제의 인 제거에 미치는 영향)

  • Kang, Seong Hyeon;Kang, Jang Hyeon;Kim, Han Gyul;Jeong, Hee Hoon;Kim, Jong Ho;Ahn, Johng-Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.3
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    • pp.164-168
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    • 2017
  • This study experimentally determined the effect of calcium ion ($Ca^{2+}$) (0-0.55 mM) and intial pH (4.0-10.0) on phosphorus (P) removal in synthetic wastewater (2 mg P/L) using titanium tetrachloride ($TiCl_4$) (0.12-0.18 mM). At TiCl4 concentration ([$TiCl_4$]) = 0.12 mM, the P removal efficiency was the highest (95.1%) at pH 7 but the efficiency decreased to 51.4% at pH 8. The P removal efficiency was 55.6% at $Ca^{2+}$ concentration ([$Ca^{2+}$]) = 0 mM but the efficiency increased to 90.5% at [$Ca^{2+}$] = 0.045 mM at [$TiCl_4$] = 0.12 mM. On the other hand, the P removal efficiency difference was not large (96.5-99.5%) with [$Ca^{2+}$] at [$TiCl_4$] = 0.15-0.18 mM. Within the design boundaries of $0.00{\leq}[Ca^{2+}]{\leq}0.18mM$ and $7.0{\leq}initial$ $pH{\leq}9.0$ at [$TiCl_4$] = 0.12 mM, the 90% P removal efficiency could be achieved at $[Ca2+]{\geq}0.10mM$ with pH 8.0 and $[Ca2+]{\geq}0.12mM$ with pH 9.0.

Optimum Management Plan of Swine Wastewater Treatment Plant for the Removal of High-concentration Nitrogen (고농도 질소제거를 위한 축산폐수 처리시설 적정관리 방안)

  • Shin, Nam-Cheol;Jung, Yoo-Jin;Sung, Nak-Chang
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
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    • v.19 no.3
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    • pp.194-200
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    • 2000
  • The amount of swine wastewater reaches about $197,000m^3$ per day at live-stock houses in the whole country. A half of the swine wastewater resources are too small to be restricted legally. This untreated wastewater causes the eutrophication in the water bodies. In case of swine wastewater treatment, the solid-liquid separation must be performed because feces(solid phase) and urine(liquid phase) have large differences in nitrogen and phosphorus concentration. It is necessary to assess exactly the concentration of the pollutants in swine wastewater for planning the wastewater treatment facilities. A full-scale operation was carried out in K city and the plant is consists of conventional plant, the supplementary flocculation basin of chemical treatment process and $anaerobic{\cdot}aerobic$ basin for nitrogen removal. The improved full-scale swine wastewater treatment plant removed the $1,500{\sim}3,000mg/l$ of total-nitrogen(T-N) to 120mg/l of T-N and $131{\sim}156mg/l$ of total-phosphorus(T-P) to $0.15{\sim}1.00mg/l$ of T-N. Accordingly, as a results of operational improvement, the removal efficiencies of T-N and T-P were over $92{\sim}96%$, 99%, respectively. The continuous supply of organic carbon sources and the state of pH played important roles for the harmonious metabolism in anaerobic basin and the pH value of anaerobic basin maintained at about 9.0 for the period of the study.

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Treatment of N, P of Auto-Thermal Thermophilic Aerobic Digestion Filtrate with Struvite Crystallization (Struvite 결정화 반응을 이용한 고온 소화 여과액의 N, P 처리 특성)

  • Choo, Yeon-Duk;Kim, Keum-Yong;Ryu, Hong-Duck;Lee, Sang-Ill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.33 no.11
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    • pp.783-789
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    • 2011
  • Recently, auto-thermal thermophilic aerobic digestion (ATAD) has a great attention for destruction of wasted sludge biomass in wastewater treatment plant. Reduction of sludge concentration has been successfully achieved with pilot scale ATAD and ceramic filtration process in field condition. However, high concentration of COD, total nitrogen (TN) and total phosphorus (TP) was observed in filtrate, which should be treated before recirculation of filtrate to biological wastewater treatment plant. This study was focused on removal of nitrogen and phosphorus contained in the filtrate of ATAD, using struvite crystallization method. The effect of operational and environmental parameters (such as, N, P and Mg ion concentration and molar ratio, pH, reaction time, agitation strength, seed dosage, and reaction temperature) on the treatment of TN and TP with struvite crystallization were evaluated. Magnesium (as $MgCl_26H_2O$) and phosphorus (as $K_2HPO_4$) ions were, if necessary, added to increase nitrogen removal efficiency by the crystal formation. Average concentration of $NH_4^+-N$ and $PO_4^{3-}-P$ of the filtrate were 1716.5 mg/L and 325.5 mg/L, respectively. Relationship between removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus and molar ratios of $Mg^{2+}$ and $PO_4^{3-}-P$ to $NH_4^+-N$ was examined. Crystal formation and nitrogen removal efficiencies were significantly increased as increasing molar ratios of magnesium and phosphorus to nitrogen. As molar ratio of $Mg^{2+}:PO_4^{3-}-P:NH_4^+-N$ were maintained to 2 : 1 : 1 and 2 : 2 : 1, removal efficiencies of nitrogen and phosphorus were 71.6% and 99.9%, and 93.8% and 98.6%, respectively. However, the effect of reaction time, mixing intensity, seed dose and temperature on the struvite crystallization reaction was not significant, comparing to those of molar ratios. Settled sludge volume after struvite crystallization was observed to be reduced with increase of seed dose and to be increased at high temperature.

Development of Economic Culture System Using Wastewater for Microalgae in Winter Season (폐수를 이용한 겨울철 경제적 미세조류 배양 시스템의 개발)

  • Lee, Sang-Ah;Lee, Changsoo;Lee, Seung-Hoon;An, Kwang-Guk;Oh, Hee-Mock;Kim, Hee-Sik;Ahn, Chi-Yong
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Biology
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    • v.32 no.1
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    • pp.58-67
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    • 2014
  • The outdoor mass cultivation is not possible for microalgae in Korea all year round, due to cold winter season. It is not easy to maintain proper level of productivity of microalgae even in winter. To prevent a drastic decrease of temperature in a greenhouse, two layers were covered additionally, inside the original plastic layer of the greenhouse. The middle layer was made up of plastic and the inner layer, of non-woven fabric. Acrylic transparent bioreactors were constructed to get more sunlight, not only from the upper side but also from the lateral and bottom directions. In winter at freezing temperatures, six different culture conditions were compared in the triply covered, insulated greenhouse. Wastewater after anaerobic digestion was used for the cultivation of microalgae to minimize the production cost. Water temperature in the bioreactors remained above $10^{\circ}C$ on average, even without any external heating system, proving that the triple-layered greenhouse is effective in keeping heat. Algal biomass reached to 0.37g $L^{-1}$ with the highest temperature, in the experimental group of light-reflection board at the bottom, with nitrogen and phosphorus removal rate of 92% and 99%, respectively. When fatty acid composition was analyzed using gas-chromatography, linoleate (C18 : 3n3) occupied the highest proportion up to 61%, in the all experiment groups. Chemical oxygen demand (COD), however, did not decrease during the cultivation, but rather increased. Although the algal biomass productivity was not comparable to warm seasons, it was possible to maintain water temperature for algae cultivation even in the coldest season, at the minimum cost.