• Title/Summary/Keyword: Phosphorus Removal

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Simultaneous Removal of Organic Pollutants, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus from Livestock Wastewater by Microbubble-Oxygen in a Single Reactor (단일반응기에서 마이크로버블-산소를 이용한 가축분뇨의 유기오염물질, 질소 및 인의 동시 제거)

  • Jang, Jae Kyung;Jin, Yu Jeong;Kang, Sukwon;Kim, Taeyoung;Paek, Yee;Sung, Je Hoon;Kim, Young Hwa
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.39 no.11
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    • pp.599-606
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    • 2017
  • The effects of microbubble-oxygen physicochemical method for the removal of organic pollutants, nitrogen, and phosphorus contained in animal manure were investigated using a laboratory scale single reactor. The characteristics of used livestock manure were $36,894{\pm}5,024mg\;TCOD/L$, $22,031{\pm}2,018mg\;SCOD/L$, $4,150{\pm}35mg\;NH_4-N/L$, and $659{\pm}113mg\;PO_4-P/L$. It was confirmed that the amount of organic pollutants, nitrogen, and phosphorus removal was increased by the use of oxygen rather than air as the gas supplied with the microbubble, and by input of larger oxygen amount. When the oxygen was fed with 600 mL flow rate per minute, TCOD and phosphorus removal were 2.5 times and 5.6 times higher than those of air supplied. As the microbubble-oxygen reaction time was longer, the removal rate of nutrients increased gradually. The removal rates of ammonium and phosphorus reach to $41.03{\pm}0.20%$ and $65.49{\pm}1.39%$, respectively, after 24 hours. When the coagulation treatment method was applied to increase phosphorus removal rate from the effluent of microbubble-oxygen treatment, the phosphorus was removed up to 92.7%. However, the removal rate of organic pollutants (TCOD) was as small as $28.7{\pm}0.2%$ within the first 6 hours, and then the negligible removal of TCOD was recorded. This study suggests that microbubble-oxygen can be applied not only livestock manure but also aeration tank of various wastewater treatment plant, which can reduce the load on the associated unit process and produce stable high-quality effluent.

Characteristics of By-product Ochre from Acid Mine Drainage (AMD) Treatment and Its Potential Use (산성광산배수 (AMD) 처리 부산물 ochre의 특성과 활용)

  • Jeong, Jung-Hwan;Kim, Ho-Jin;Kim, Young-Nam;Nam, Kwang-Soo;Kim, Kye-Hoon
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.43 no.3
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    • pp.304-314
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    • 2010
  • This study was carried out to find out potential use of ochre as an agent to reduce phosphorus content in water. Ochre is a by-product from treatment of acid mine drainage (AMD) which is composed mostly of $Fe_2O_3$, $Fe_2O_3{\cdot}H_2O$, $FeO{\cdot}OH$ and $Fe(OH)_3$. Three ochre samples (ochre-H, ochre-D and ochre-S) were collected from three treatment facilities in Gangwon province. Physico-chemical characteristics of three ochre samples including pH, electrical conductivity, total phosphorus, available phosphorus, particle size distribution were analyzed. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analysis were also carried out. In addition, experiments for phosphorus removal from water was performed. Calcium content of ochre-H was higher than that of ochre-D and ochre-S, whereas iron content of ochre-H was lower than that of ochre-D and ochre-S. All the phosphorus in water up to maximum 191,411 mg $kg^{-1}$ per unit mass of ochre was removed with ochre-H. Ochre has immense potential as an agent to reduce phosphorus content in water.

Microbial Communities of Activated Sludge in an Anaerobic/Aerobic Sequencing Batch Reactor using Slot Hybridization (Slot Hybridization을 이용한 연속 회분식 반응기내 미생물 분포 조사)

  • Jeon, Che Ok;Shin, Kum-Joo;Lee, Dae Sung;Suh, Pann-Ghill;Park, Jong Moon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.5
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    • pp.939-947
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    • 2000
  • Enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) was performed in an anaerobic/aerobic sequencing batch reactor (SBR). Influent was a synthetic wastewater based on acetate as a carbon source. The sludge age and hydraulic retention time were kept at 10 days and 16 hrs, respectively, Phosphate release during the anaerobic period and phosphate uptake in aerobic period were increased gradually with time. and after about 200 days, steady-state operation could be achieved with complete removal of influent phosphate. Number distribution of microbial community in the sludge performing EBPR was investigated during the steady state operation. 17 rRNA targeted oligonucleotide probes were designed and slot hybridization technique was used to determine the number distribution of each microorganism. In the acetate fed SBR, rRNA belonging to the beta subclass of proteobacteria was the most dominant in total rRNA and rRNA matching to CTE probe was the second, rRNAs of Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas, which are usually thought as phosphorus accumulating organisms in EBPR processes, constituted less than 10% of total rRNA. From this community analysis, it was inferred that microorganisms belong to the beta subclass of proteobacteia (BET) and CTE such as Rhodocyclus group were important in biological phosphorus removal. Therefore, the role of Acinetobacter, Aeromonas and Pseudomonas in the EBPR might have been overestimated.

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Quantifying the Interactive Inhibitory Effect of Heavy Metals on the Growth and Phosphorus Removal of Pseudomonas taeanensis

  • Yoo, Jin;Kim, Deok-Hyun;Oh, Eun-Ji;Chung, Keun-Yook
    • Korean Journal of Soil Science and Fertilizer
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    • v.51 no.1
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    • pp.35-49
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    • 2018
  • This study was initiated to quantitatively evaluate the effects of five heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni) on growth and P removal efficiencies of Pseudomonastaeanensis, known as the phosphorus accumulating microorganism. The heavy metals were added individually and with the binary mixture to the batch culturing system of Pseudomonastaeanensis. $IC_{50}$ and $EC_{50}$ were used to quantitatively evaluate their effects on the growth and phosphorus removal efficiency of Pseudomonas taeanensis in those treatments. Additionally, additive index value method was used to evaluate the interactive effects of heavy metals for Pseudomonas taeanensis in this study. As those heavy metals were singly added to Pseudomonastaeanensis, the greatest inhibitory effect on its growth and P removal efficiency was observed in Cd, whereas, the smallest effect was found in Ni. As the concentrations of all heavy metals added were gradually increased, its growth and P removal efficiency was correspondingly decreased. Specifically, $IC_{50}$ of Pseudomonas taeanensis for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni were $0.44mg\;L^{-1}$, $5.12mg\;L^{-1}$, $7.46mg\;L^{-1}$, $8.37mg\;L^{-1}$ and $14.56mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. The P removal efficiency of Pseudomonas taeanensis was 81.1%. $EC_{50}$ values of Pseudomonas taeanensis for Cd, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Ni were $0.44mg\;L^{-1}$, $4.08mg\;L^{-1}$, $7.17mg\;L^{-1}$, $8.90mg\;L^{-1}$ and $11.26mg\;L^{-1}$, respectively. In the binary treatments of heavy metals, the lowest $IC_{50}$ and $EC_{50}$ were found in the Cd + Cu treatment, whereas, the highest $IC_{50}$ and $EC_{50}$ were found in the Zn + Pb and Pb + Ni treatments, respectively. Most of the interactive effects for the binary mixture treatments of heavy metals were antagonistic. Based on the results obtained from this study, it appears that they could provide the basic information about the toxic effects of the respective individual and binary treatments of heavy metals on the growth and P removal efficiency of other phosphorus accumulating organisms.

Economic Assesment of Phosphorus Control System for Reject Water using a Integral Type Slow Mixing/Sedimentation Tank and Fiber Filter (일체형 완속교반침전조와 섬유여과기를 이용한 반류수 인 제어시스템의 경제성 연구)

  • Kim, Mi-Ran;Kim, Jeong-Sook;Jang, Jeong-Gook
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.55 no.6
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    • pp.822-829
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    • 2017
  • As a method to reduce the total phosphorus in sewage treatment plant, we applied the integral type slow mixing/sedimentation fiber filtration system to compare the control methods for the sewage effluent and the reject water. It was analyzed that about 92.4 kg T-P/day should be removed in order to satisfy the final concentration of phosphorus of 0.2 mg T-P/L, which is reinforced effluent standard. Therefore the total phosphorus removal efficiency should be 96% for sewage effluent and 69.2% for reject water (dehydrated filtrate) respectively. The system operation cost to achieve the target of total phosphorus removal efficiency was assessed. It has been found that the treatment cost of the reject water containing high concentration of phosphorus with a low flow rate is reduced to about 1/2.4 of the coagulant cost and about 1/120 of the electricity cost, compared to that of the sewage effluent treatment. Also the economics of the integral type slow mixing/sedimentation fiber filtration system and the general coagulation and sedimentation system were compared. It was evaluated that the development system was more economical because the installation area of the integral type slow mixing/sedimentation fiber filtration system was about 1/7 smaller than that of the general coagulation and sedimentation system, and the annual operation cost including the required amount of coagulant and electricity cost of the development system was lowered about 1/1.7 than that of the general system.

Optimization for Phosphorus Remove by Loess Ball Using Chromobacterium (Chromobacterium을 이용한 황토볼에 의한 인산 제거를 위한 최적화)

  • Choi Du Bok;Lee Choon-Boem;Cha Wol-Suk
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.15 no.4 s.71
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    • pp.584-589
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    • 2005
  • To investigate factors affecting the removal of phosphorus from the practical wastewater in the F-STEP PROCESS using a loess ball and Chromobacterium WS 2-14, first, the loess ball size and calcining temperature, initial pH, initial phosphorus concentration, working temperature, and aeration were studied. A $2\~4mm$ of loess ball made at $960^{\circ}C$ of calcining temperature was the most suitable one for the removal of phosphorus. When the initial pH was increased from 3.0 to 6.0, the removal efficiency of phosphorus was increased. Especially, at 6.0 of initial pH, the maximum removal efficiency of phosphorus was $88.7\%$. The maximum removal efficiency of phosphorous was gained, 1.8mg/h when the initial concentration of phosphorous was 5.0mg/1. When the operating temperature was $30^{\circ}C$, the maximum removal efficiency of phosphorus was obtained. In the case of aeration, when it was increased from 0.5 to 5.0L/min, the removal efficiency of phosphorus was increased. On the other hand, above 7.0 L/min, the removal efficiency of phosphorus did not increased. Using the optimum operation conditions, pilot tests for the effective removal efficiency of phosphorus were carried out for 65 days. The average removal efficiency of phosphorus was $92.0\%$. The average removal efficiency of COD, BOD, and SS were 77.1, 74.2, and $86.4\%$, respectively. from the results, it can be concluded that F-STEP PROCESS using loess ball might be useful process for phosphorus removal.

Fine-Scale Population Structure of Accumulibacter phosphatis in Enhanced Biological Phosphorus Removal Sludge

  • Wang, Qian;Shao, Yongqi;Huong, Vu Thi Thu;Park, Woo-Jun;Park, Jong-Moon;Jeon, Che-Ok
    • Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology
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    • v.18 no.7
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    • pp.1290-1297
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    • 2008
  • To investigate the diversities of Accumulibacter phosphatis and its polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) synthase gene (phaC) in enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) sludge, an acetate-fed sequencing batch reactor was operated. Analysis of microbial communities using fluorescence in situ hybridization and 16S rRNA gene clone libraries showed that the population of Accumulibacter phosphatis in the EBPR sludge comprised more than 50% of total bacteria, and was clearly divided into two subgroups with about 97.5% sequence identity of the 16S rRNA genes. PAO phaC primers targeting the phaC genes of Accumulibacter phosphatis were designed and applied to retrieve fragments of putative phaC homologs of Accumulibacter phosphatis from EBPR sludge. PAO phaC primers targeting $G_{1PAO},\;G_{2PAO},\;and\;G_{3PAO}$ groups produced PCR amplicons successfully; the resulting sequences of the phaC gene homologs were diverse, and were distantly related to metagenomic phaC sequences of Accumulibacter phosphatis with 75-98% DNA sequence identities. Degenerate NPAO (non-PAO) phaC primers targeting phaC genes of non-Accumulibacter phosphatis bacteria were also designed and applied to the EBPR sludge. Twenty-four phaC homologs retrieved from NPAO phaC primers were different from the phaC gene homologs derived from Accumulibacter phosphatis, which suggests that the PAO phaC primers were specific for the amplification of phaC gene homologs of Accumulibacter phosphatis, and the putative phaC gene homologs by PAO phaC primers were derived from Accumulibacter phosphatis in the EBPR sludge. Among 24 phaC homologs, a phaC homolog (GINPAO-2), which was dominant in the NPAO phaC clone library, showed the strongest signal in slot hybridization and shared approximately 60% nucleotide identity with the $G_{4PAO}$ group of Accumulibacter phosphatis, which suggests that GINPAO-2 might be derived from Accumulibacter phosphatis. In conclusion, analyses of the 16S rRNA and phaC genes showed that Accumulibacter phosphatis might be phylogenetically and metabolically diverse.

The Effect of Substrates and Nitrate on Biological Phosphorus Release (생물학적 인 방출시 유기물 및 질산염에 대한 영향)

  • Min, Kyung-Kook;Weon, Seung-Yeon;Lee, Sang-Ill
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.22 no.1
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    • pp.141-148
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    • 2000
  • In this study, effects of substrates and nitrate on biological phosphorus release in EBPR(enhanced biological phosphorus removal) process were examined using batch test apparatus at anaerobic conditions. The sludge used in this experiments was taken from SBR(sequencing batch reactor) treating swine wastewater at aeration period. Phosphorus release rates obtained with substrates of FSW(fermented swine wastewater), acetate, propionate, domestic wastewater and methanol were 6.19, 5.99, 1.52, 1.2 and $1.03mgP/gVSS{\cdot}hr$, respectively. Those observed with acetate and FSW were 4~5 times greater than those with propionate, methanol and domestic wastewater. Therefore phosphorus release rates were significantly affected by type of substrate added at anaerobic condition. Phosphorus release was greatly affected by concentration of nitrate in anoxic condition. Comparing to acetate, propionate and FSW, phosphorus release was observed after almost completely depletion of nitrate concentration with methanol and domestic wastewater added as substrate. In the cases supplied with acetate, propionate and FSW, phosphorus release rates were less influenced by a nitrate concentration than those with methanol and domestic wastewater.

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Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal in Membrane Bio-Reactor (MBR) Using Simultaneous Nitrification and Denitrification (SND) (동시 질산화-탈질(SND) 반응을 적용한 MBR 반응조에서 질소 및 인 제거 특성)

  • Tian, Dong-Jie;Lim, Hyun-Suk;An, Chan-Hyun;Lee, Bong-Gyu;Jun, Hang-Bae;Park, Chan-Il
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
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    • v.35 no.10
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    • pp.724-729
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    • 2013
  • Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) occurs concurrently in the same reactor under micro dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions. Anaerobic zone was applied for phosphorus release prior to an aerated membrane bio-reactor (MBR), and anoxic zone was installed by placing a baffle in the MBR for enhancing denitrification even in high DO concentration in the MBR. Phosphorus removal was tested by alum coagulation in the anaerobic reactor preceding to MBR. DO concentration were 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.75 mg/L in the MBR at different operating stages for finding optimum DO concentration in MBR for nitrogen removal by SND. pH was maintained at 7.0~8.0 without addition of alkaline solution even with alum addition due to high alkalinity in the raw sewage. Both TCODcr and $NH_4^+$-N removal efficiency were over 90% at all DO concentration. TN removal efficiencies were 50, 51, 54, 66% at DO concentration of 2.0, 1.5, 1.0, 0.75 mg/L, respectively. At DO concentration of 0.75 mg/L with addition of alum, TN removal efficiency decreased to 54%. TP removal efficiency increased from 29% to 95% by adding alum to anaerobic reactor. The period of chemical backwashing of the membrane module increased from 15~20 days to 40~50 days after addition of alum.

The Removal of Algae and Phosphorus in Eutrophic Waters Using Various Filter Media (몇 가지 여재를 이용한 부영양수 내의 조류 및 인 제거효과)

  • Park, Chae-Hong;Park, Myung-Hwan;Choi, Dong-Ho;Lee, Joon-Heon;Lee, Myung-Hoon;Hwang, Soon-Jin
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
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    • v.45 no.1
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    • pp.102-109
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    • 2012
  • In this study, the four different filter media (sponge, volcanic stone, activated carbon and magnesium hydroxide) were tested for the removal of algae and phosphorus in the two eutrophic water samples (natural water and artificial algal culture with BG-11 medium). These filter media were used in the column device as single or combined applications. The effect of the $Mg(OH)_2$ on phosphorus removal was examined using different particle sizes (<2 mm and >2 mm) and concentrations (0, 10, 50 and 100 g $L^{-1}$) of magnesium hydroxide. The removal efficiency of phosphate by magnesium hydroxide was increased with longer experimental time and higher concentration. However, there was no significant difference in the degree of phosphorus removal between any two particle sizes (1 mg P $L^{-1}$: F=0.109, P=0.685; 10 mg P $L^{-1}$: F=1.542, P=0.355). Among the four media, activated carbon showed the most potent effect on the removal of both algae and phosphorus. The highest removal efficiency of algae and phosphorus was obtained by combining four columns of each filter medium. Interestingly, integration of four filter columns showed higher removal efficiency than activated carbon alone. The highest removal efficiency by integrated filter columns seemed to be caused by a synergistic effect of combined activated carbon and magnesium hydroxide.