• 제목/요약/키워드: Phosphorus Removal

검색결과 290건 처리시간 0.163초

재순환에 의한 흡수성 바이오필터 시스템의 오수처리효율 향상 (Enhancement of Sewage Treatment Efficiencies by Recirculation in Absorbent Biofilter System)

  • 권순국;전기설;김성배
    • 한국농공학회논문집
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    • 제47권3호
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    • pp.69-76
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    • 2005
  • An Absorbent Biofilter System (ABS) combined with the recirculation process was investigated for the feasible application in additional removing of organics (BOD, SS) as well as nutrients (TN, TP) from small Community wastewater in Korea. Polyurethane biofilter media with high porosity and large surface area were /used for the aerobic system. A part of treated wastewater was recirculated into the anoxic septic tank to promote removal of nutrients. The concentrations of BOD and SS of treated wastewater satisfied the regulations for small on-site wastewater treatment facility (10 mg/L) during the overall experimental period. The effluent concentrations of BOD and SS were decreased with enhancement of removal efficiencies of 95.7 and $96.7\%$. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies by the recirculation increased to $52.9\%\;and\;43.2\%$ in average during the overall experimental period, respectively. With the improvement, these values were increased as much as additional 42 and $18\%$ compared with those of non-recirculation. The rates of nitrification and denitrification were enhanced showing $65\~77\%\;and\;42\~92\%$, respectively. The described process modification is a low cost and effective method of enhancing nitrogen and phosphorus removal, especially on existing systems without changing major design components of a treatment facility.

생물학적 회분식 인 제거 공정에서 pH의 영향과 그래뉼 생성 (Influence of Different Operational pH Conditions and Granulation on Enhanced Biological Sequencing Batch Phosphorus Removal)

  • 안조환
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • 제27권6호
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    • pp.754-759
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    • 2011
  • A sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was operated under different pH conditions to better understand the influence of pH to granulation in enhanced biological phosphorus removal systems. Granules from the SBR were also investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Considerable decreases in the amount of phosphorus released per substrate provided under anaerobic conditions and the content of biomass polyphosphate under aerobic conditions were observed when pH was changed from 7.5 to 7.0, followed by 6.5. Aerobic granulation was also observed at pH 7.0. A number of bacteria with the typical morphological traits of tetrad-forming organisms (TFOs) were observed at pH 7.0, including large members of cluster. Filamentous bacteria were also there in large numbers. The occurrence and growth of granules were further enhanced at pH 6.5. A SEM analysis showed that the aerobic granules had a compact microbial structure with shaperical shape and morphologically consisted of aggregates of small coccoid bacteria and filamentous bacteria encapsulated by extracellular polymeric substance. The main material ions identified by EDX moreover revealed that the structural materials for polyphosphate in the granules include phosphorus, potassium and calcium. Therefore, these results strongly suggested that PAOs are a dominant population in the microbial community of the aerobic granules.

총인 수질기준강화를 위한 국내 하수종말처리장의 물리화학적처리 특성조사 및 경제성 분석 (Survey of Physicochemical Methods and Economic Analysis of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant for Advanced Treatment of Phosphorus Removal)

  • 박혜영;박상민;이기철;권오상;유순주;김신조
    • 대한환경공학회지
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    • 제33권3호
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    • pp.212-221
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    • 2011
  • 우리나라의 공공하수처리시설은 생물학적 인 제거공정을 운전하고 있으나, '12년부터 지역구분(I, II, III)에 따라 각각 0.2, 0.3 및 0.5 mg/L로 강화되는 방류수수질기준을 준수하기 위해서는 화학물질을 이용한 추가적인 인 처리시설을 적용할 필요성이 대두되었다. 강화된 총인의 수질기준을 만족하기 위해 적용된 물리화학적 처리기술 성능의 구체적인 운영자료 구축을 위하여, 화학적 응집제 사용 중인 인 처리시설 중 모범적으로 가동하고 있는 국내 시설의 운영 데이터를 분석하여 처리성능을 평가하였다. 또한, jar 테스트를 이용해 물리화학적 인 제거공정 적용 시 최적 응집제 주입율 도출, 인 제거 및 슬러지 발생특성을 관찰하고 약품비용과 슬러지 발생증가량을 산정하여 실처리장에 응집제 적용 시 예상되는 경제성 분석을 하였다. 활성슬러지를 이용한 jar 테스트 결과, 0.5와 0.2 mg/L 이하의 총인 농도를 달성하기 위해 필요한 최소한의 응집제(황산알루미늄, 폴리염화알루미늄)의 주입농도는 각각 25와 30 mg/L (as $Al_2O_3$)이며, 2차 처리수의 경우에는 동일한 총인 농도를 달성하기 위해 요구되는 응집제 주입농도가 활성슬러지에 비해 약 1/12~1/3 수준으로 감소하였다. jar 테스트 결과, 활성슬러지에 응집제를 주입할 경우에 고형물 농도가 약 10~11%가 증가할 것으로 예측되었다. 한편, 활성슬러지에 응집제를 주입하는 경우의 응집제(황산알루미늄) 구입비는 2차 처리수에 주입하는 경우에 비해 약 4~10배 정도가 증가할 것으로 산정되었다. 또한, 슬러지 발생량은 약 4~10배 정도 증가할 것으로 예측되었다.

분류식 하수관거로의 전환시 유입하수의 성상 변화 및 선회와류식 SBR공법의 처리 특성 (Change in Influent Concentration of Domestic Wastewater from Separated Sewer and Biological Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal of a Full Scale Air-vent SBR)

  • 이장희;강호
    • 한국물환경학회지
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    • 제28권1호
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    • pp.63-70
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    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate change in influent concentration of domestic wastewater flowed from a newly constructed separate sewer system (SSS) and biological nutrients removal efficiency of a full scale Air-vent sequential batch reactor (SBR, $600m^3/d$). The average concentration of $BOD_5$, SS, T-N and T-P from SSS were 246.5 mg/L, 231.6 mg/L, 42.974 mg/L, 5.360 mg/L, respectively which corresponds to 2.2times, 1.2times, 1.8times and 2.1times higher than those from the conventional combined sewer system (CSS). The removal efficiency of $BOD_5$, SS, T-N, and T-P for the Air-vent SBR operated with influent from SSS averaged 99.1%, 99.0%, 91.2%, and 93.5%, respectively. Especially the respective nitrogen and phosphorus removal was 15% greater than that of the SBR operated with influent from CSS. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was observed in an aerobic reactor(II) as a result of DO concentration gradient developed along the depth by the Air-vent system. In order to achieve T-N removal greater than 90%, the C/N ratio should be over 6.0 and the difference between $BOD_5$ loading and nitrogen loading rate be over 100 kg/day (0.130 kg $T-N/m^3{\cdot}d$). Even with high influent T-P concentration of 5.360 mg/L from SSS (compared with 2.465 mg/L from CSS) T-P removal achieved 93.5% which was 15.5% higher than that of the SBR with influent from CSS. This is probably due to high influent $BOD_5$ concentration from SSS that could provide soluble carbon source to release phosphorus at anaerobic condition. In order to achieve T-P removal greater than 90%, the difference between $BOD_5$ loading and phosphorus loading rate should be over 100 kg /day (0.130 kg $T-N/m^3{\cdot}d$).

유입흐름 변경 및 전응집 기반 이단응집 제어 적용 MBR을 통한 총인처리 개선 연구 (Enhanced total phosphorus removal using a novel membrane bioreactor by sequentially alternating the inflow and by applying a two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation)

  • 차재환;신경숙;박승국;신정훈;김병군
    • 상하수도학회지
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    • 제31권1호
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    • pp.103-114
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    • 2017
  • A membrane bioreactor by sequentially alternating the inflow and by applying a two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation was evaluated in terms of phosphorus removal efficiency and cost-savings. The MBR consisted of two identical alternative reaction tanks, followed by aerobic, anoxic and membrane tanks, where the wastewater and the internal return sludge alternatively flowed into each alternative reaction tank at every 2 hours. In the batch-operated alternative reaction tank, the initial concentration of nitrate rapidly decreased from 2.3 to 0.4 mg/L for only 20 minutes after stopping the inflow, followed by substantial release of phosphorus up to 4 mg/L under anaerobic condition. Jar test showed that the minimum alum doses to reduce the initial $PO_4$-P below 0.2 mg/L were 2 and 9 mol-Al/mol-P in the wastewater and the activated sludge from the membrane tank, respectively. It implies that a pre-coagulation in influent is more cost-efficient for phosphorus removal than the coagulation in the bioreactor. On the result of NUR test, there were little difference in terms of denitrification rate and contents of readily biodegradable COD between raw wastewater and pre-coagulated wastewater. When adding alum into the aerobic tank, alum doses above 26 mg/L as $Al_2O_3$ caused inhibitory effects on ammonia oxidation. Using the two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation, the P concentration in the MBR effluent was kept below 0.2 mg/L with the alum of 2.7 mg/L as $Al_2O_3$, which was much lower than 5.1~7.4 mg/L as $Al_2O_3$ required for typical wastewater treatment plants. During the long-term operation of MBR, there was no change of the TMP increase rate before and after alum addition.

철 석출장치가 결합된 무산소.호기공정에 의한 인 제거 특성 (Phosphorus Removal (Characteristics by Anoxic Oxic Process) by Anoxic and Oxic Processed Combined with Iron Electrolysis)

  • 김민호;김영규;김수복
    • 한국환경보건학회지
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    • 제36권6호
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    • pp.502-509
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    • 2010
  • In this study, the (phosphorous removal) the characteristics of phosphorous removal due to (the iron compound precipitated) iron compound precipitation by iron electrolysis in (the anoxic. oxic process) anoxic and oxic processes (equipped with the) in an iron precipitation device were analyzed. During the device operation period, the average concentration of BOD, T-N, and T-P were 219.9 mg/l, 54.6 mg/l and 6.71 mg/l, respectively. The BOD/$COD_{Cr}$ ratio was 0.74, and the BOD/T-N and BOD/T-P ratios were 4.0 and 32.8, respectively. The removal rate of (the organic matters) organic matter (BOD and $COD_{Cr}$) was very high at 91.6% or higher, and that of nitrogen was 80.5%. The phosphorous concentration (of the final) in the treated water was 0.43 mg/l (0.05-0.74 mg/l) on average, and the removal efficiency was high at 90.8%. The soluble T-P concentrations in (an) the anoxic reactor, oxic reactor (II) and final treated water were 1.99 mg/l, 0.79 mg/l and 0.43 mg/l, respectively, which indicated that the phosphorous concentration in the treated water was very low. Regardless of the changes in the concentrations of (organic matters) organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorous in the influent, the quality of the treated water was relatively stable and high. The removal rate of T-P somewhat increased with the increase in the F/M ratio in the influent, and it also linearly increased in proportion to the T-P loading rate in the influent. In the treatment process used in this study, phosphorous was removed (using) by the precipitated iron oxide. Therefore, the consumption of organic (matters) matter for biological phosphorus removal was minimized and (most of the organic matters were) was mostly used as the organic carbon source for the denitrification in the anoxic reactor. This (can be an economic) treatment process (without the need for the supply of additional organic matters) is economic and does not require the supply of additional organic matter.

환경인자와 중금속이 Alcaligenes sp.의 생장과 인 제거에 대한 영향 (Effects of Environmental Factors and Heavy Metals on the Growth and Phosphorus Removal of Alcaligenes sp.)

  • 유리비;김희정;이석언;이문순;우선희;최종순;백기태;정근욱
    • 한국환경농학회지
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    • 제30권2호
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    • pp.216-222
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    • 2011
  • Alcaligenes sp.의 인 제거에 대한 환경인자로 각각 온도, pH, 탄소원의 효과를 알아본 결과 $25^{\circ}C$, pH 7, glucose+acetate이 탄소원일 때 인 제거효율이 가장 좋은 것으로 확인 할 수 있었다. 5가지 중금속의 독성효과에 따른 Alcaligenes sp.의 생장은 중금속의 농도가 높아질수록 억제되었으며, $IC_{50}$값은 구리 5.03 mg/L, 카드뮴 0.08 mg/L, 아연 0.73 mg/L, 비소 282.20 mg/L, 니켈 4.74 mg/L로 나타났다. 모든 중금속의 농도가 높아질수록 생장이 억제되어 인 제거 역시 억제되는 것을 확인 할 수 있었다.

한국의 호수 수질관리의 문제점 (Problems of lake water management in Korea)

  • 김범철;전만식;김윤희
    • 한국환경생태학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 한국환경생태학회 2003년도 추계학술논문발표회 논문집
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    • pp.105-126
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    • 2003
  • In Korea most of annual rainfall is concentrated in several episodic heavy rains during the season of summer monsoon and typhoon. Because of uneven rainfall distribution many dams have been constructed in order to secure water supply in dry seasons. The Han River system has the most dams among Korean rivers, and the river is a series of dams now. Reservoirs need different strategy of water quality control from river water. Autochthonous organic matter and phosphorus should be the major target to be controlled in lakes. In this Paper some problems are discussed that makes efforts of water quality improvement ineffective in lakes of Korea, even after the substantial investment to wastewater treatment facilities.1) Phosphorus is the key factor controlling eutrophication of lakes and the reduction ofphosphors should be the major target of water treatment. However, water quality management strategy in Korea is still stream-oriented, and focused on BOD removal from sewage. Phosphorus removal efficiency remains as low as 10-30%, because biological treatment is adopted for both secondary treatment and advanced treatment. The standard for TP concentration of the sewage treatment plant effluent is 6 mgP/l in most of regions, and 2 mg/l in enforced region near metropolitan water intake point. TP in the effluents of sewage treatment plants are usually 1-2 mg/1, and most of plants meet the effluent regulation without a further phosphorus removal process. The generous TP standard for effluents discourages further efforts to improve phosphorus removal efficiency of sewage treatment. Considering that TP standard for the effluent is below 0.1 mg/l in some countries, it should be amended to below 0.1 mg/l in Korea, especially in the watershed of large lakes.2) Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow are not treated, even though their total loading into lakes can be comparable to municipal sewage discharges on dry days. Chemical coagulation and rapid settling might be the solution to urban runoff in regard of intermittent operation on only rainy days.3) Aggregated precipitation in Korea that is concentrated on several episodic heavyrains per year causes a large amount of nonpoint source pollution loading into lakes. It makes the treatment of nonpoint source discharge by methods of other countries of even rain pattern, such as retention pond or artificial wetland, impractical in Korea.4) The application rate of fertilizers in Korea is ten times as high as the average ofOECD countries. The total manure discharge from animal farming is thought to be over the capacity of soil treatment in Korea. Even though large portion of manure is composted for organic fertilizer, a lot of nutrients and organic matter emanates from organic compost. The reduction of application rate and discharge rate of phosphorus from agricultural fields should be encouraged by incentives and regulations.5) There is a lot of vegetable fields with high slopes in the upstream region of the HanRiver. Soil erosion is severe due to high slopes, and fertilizer is discharged in the form of adsorbed phosphorus on clay surface. The reduction of soil erosion in the upland area should be the major preventive policy for eutrophication. Uplands of high slope must be recovered to forest, and eroded gullies should be reformed into grass-buffered natural streams which are wider and resistant to bank erosion.

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미세기포 액막화 부상법을 이용한 하수 2차 처리수의 인 제거에 관한 연구 (Study on Phosphorus Removal in the Secondary Effluent by Flotation Using Microbubble Liquid Film System)

  • 이순화;강현우;이세한;권진하;정계주
    • 대한환경공학회지
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    • 제34권1호
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    • pp.42-48
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    • 2012
  • 본 연구에서는 미세기포 액막화 부상조를 이용하여 인 제거에 관한 연구를 실시하였다. 미세기포 액막화 부상조는 기체용해탱크를 이용하여 부상 전 기 액을 충분히 용해시킨 후 일정한 저 압력으로 동일한 미세기포를 생성하도록 하는 방법을 사용하였다. $A_2O$ 공정과 m-$O_3$(미세기포 생성장치와 오존용해탱크가 결합된 공정)복합공정을 거친 2차 유출수를 인 제거 공정의 유입수로 사용하였으며, 원수의 T-P 농도가 2.89 mg/L일 때, 8%의 Alum을 30 mg/L의 농도로 주입하였을 경우 T-P 제거율이 94%를 나타내었고, T-P의 방류수수질기준인 0.2 mg/L 이하를 만족시키는 것으로 조사되었으며, 계절에 따른 수온 변화는 T-P 제거 특성에 영향을 주지 않았다. SS의 유입농도가 1.0 mg/L 이상일 시 SS가 응집공정 내의 seed 역할을 하여 평균 T-P의 제거율이 97% 이상 되는 것으로 조사되었고, 부상스컴을 50% 반송할 경우, 부상스컴 내에 포함되어 있는 응집제 성분 Al이 주입되는 응집제의 역할을 보조하여 오염물질의 응집효율을 극대화 시키는 것으로 조사되었다. 이러한 조건에서 T-P의 방류수 수질기준 0.2 mg/L 이하를 만족하는 0.18 mg/L의 농도를 나타내는 것으로 조사되었다.

규산질다공체와 무기첨가물의 수중 인 제거 효과 (Effects of CellCaSi and Inorganic Additives on Phosphorus Removal in Water)

  • 박명환;한명수;이석준;안치용;윤병대;오희목
    • 생태와환경
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    • 제35권3호통권99호
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    • pp.213-219
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    • 2002
  • 녹조 제어를 위하여 수중의 인 제거에 관여하는 CellCaSi의 여러 가지 조건별 인 제거효과를 조사하였다. CellCaSi의 입도에 따른 인 제거효과는 직경 1, 2 그리고 4mm 이하의 3가지 중 1mm 이하의 작은 입자를 사용했을 때 가장 우수하였다. CellCaSi의 인 제거효과는 처리량의 증가에 비례하였다. 수중의 pH 5, 7, 9에서 초기 인 농도 0.20mg/l는 각각 0.09, 0.08및 0.08mg/l로 감소되어 상이한 pH조건에 따른 CellCaSi의 인 제거효과는 큰 차이를 보이지 않았다. CellCaSi에서 용출되는 양이온은 Ca이며, Al과 Fe양이온은 검출되지 않았다. 초기에 급격히 용출된 Ca양이온은 수중의 인과 반응하는 것으로 확인되었다. 초기 인 농도 0.10, 1.0mg/1는 CellCaSi와 Ca, Fe 화합물을 첨가한 처리구에서 8일 후 각각 0.03,0.47mg/l를 기록하며 가장 많이 감소하였다. 이에 따라 인 제거효과는 CellCaSi와 Ca, Fe 화합물을 동시에 처리하였을 때 가장 좋은 것으로 조사되었다. CellCaSi의 처리에 따라 pH가 약간 증가하였고, 전기전도도도 증가되지만 상수원수 기준 허용치 (500${\mu}$S/cm) 이내였다.