• Title/Summary/Keyword: Phosphorus Removal

Search Result 290, Processing Time 0.088 seconds

Relationship between Phosphorus Release and Intracellular Storage Polymer Synthesis by Phosphorus Accumulating Organisms (인축적 미생물의 인방출과 세포내 저장물질 합성관계)

  • Shin, Eung-Bai;Kim, Mee-Kyung;Hong, Jun-Hyeok;Kong, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
    • /
    • v.20 no.6
    • /
    • pp.692-697
    • /
    • 2004
  • Biological phosphorus removal is characterized by complex interactions between different intracellular components of energy as PHA. Therefore, fundamental understanding of the behavior of the intracellular components and their influence on the removal of phosphorus is essential before control strategies to stabilize the proper process. The purpose of this study is to investigate relationship between release of phosphorus and synthesis of intracellular storage polymer. Mass of stored intracellular storage polymer was 21.2 mg PHA/L, 28.8 mg PHA/g MLSS. And phosphorus release/intracellular storage polymer synthesis rate was 1.8545 mg stored polymer/mg Phosphate. In the aerobic phase, mass of PAOs synthesis is 49.37 mg PAOs/L. And PAOs fraction was 6.7-6.9%. Thus intracellular storage polymer synthesis by PAOs is calculated as 493mg PHA/g PAOs.

Enhancement of Sewage Treatment Efficiencies by Recirculation in Absorbent Biofilter System (재순환에 의한 흡수성 바이오필터 시스템의 오수처리효율 향상)

  • Kwun, Soon-Kuk;Cheon, Gi-Seol;Kim, Song-Bae
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Agricultural Engineers
    • /
    • v.47 no.3
    • /
    • pp.69-76
    • /
    • 2005
  • An Absorbent Biofilter System (ABS) combined with the recirculation process was investigated for the feasible application in additional removing of organics (BOD, SS) as well as nutrients (TN, TP) from small Community wastewater in Korea. Polyurethane biofilter media with high porosity and large surface area were /used for the aerobic system. A part of treated wastewater was recirculated into the anoxic septic tank to promote removal of nutrients. The concentrations of BOD and SS of treated wastewater satisfied the regulations for small on-site wastewater treatment facility (10 mg/L) during the overall experimental period. The effluent concentrations of BOD and SS were decreased with enhancement of removal efficiencies of 95.7 and $96.7\%$. The nitrogen and phosphorus removal efficiencies by the recirculation increased to $52.9\%\;and\;43.2\%$ in average during the overall experimental period, respectively. With the improvement, these values were increased as much as additional 42 and $18\%$ compared with those of non-recirculation. The rates of nitrification and denitrification were enhanced showing $65\~77\%\;and\;42\~92\%$, respectively. The described process modification is a low cost and effective method of enhancing nitrogen and phosphorus removal, especially on existing systems without changing major design components of a treatment facility.

Survey of Physicochemical Methods and Economic Analysis of Domestic Wastewater Treatment Plant for Advanced Treatment of Phosphorus Removal (총인 수질기준강화를 위한 국내 하수종말처리장의 물리화학적처리 특성조사 및 경제성 분석)

  • Park, Hye-Young;Park, Sang-Min;Lee, Ki-Cheol;Kwon, Oh-Sang;Yu, Soon-Ju;Kim, Shin-Jo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.33 no.3
    • /
    • pp.212-221
    • /
    • 2011
  • Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are required to meet the reinforced discharge standards which are differentiated as 0.2, 0.3 and 0.5 mg-TP/L for the district I, II and III, respectively. Although most of WWTPs are operating advanced biological phosphorus removal system, the supplementary phosphorus treatment facility using chemical addition should be required almost at all WWTPs. Therefore, water quality data from several exemplary full-scale plants operating phosphorus treatment process were analyzed to evaluate the reliability of removal performance. Additionally, a series of jar tests were conducted to find optimal coagulants dose for phosphorus removal by chemical precipitation and to describe characteristics of the reaction and sludge production. Chemical costs and the increasing sludge volume in physicochemical phosphorus removal process were estimated based on the results of jar tests. The minimum coagulant (aluminium sulfate and poly aluminium chloride) doses to keep TP concentration below 0.5 and 0.2 mg/L were around 25 and 30 mg/L (as $Al_2O_3$), respectively, in the mixed liquor of activated sludge. In the tertiary treatment facility, relatively lower coagulant doses of 1/12~1/3 the minimum doses for activated sludge were required to achieve the same TP concentrations of 0.2~0.5 mg/L. Increase in suspended solids concentration due to chemical precipitates in mixed liquor was estimated at 10~11%, compared to the concentration without chemical addition. When coagulant was added into mixed liquor, chemical (aluminium sulfate) cost was estimated to be 4~10 times higher than in secondary effluent coagulation/separation process. Sludge production to be wasted was also 4~10 times higher than secondary effluent coagulation/separation process.

Change in Influent Concentration of Domestic Wastewater from Separated Sewer and Biological Nitrogen and Phosphorus Removal of a Full Scale Air-vent SBR (분류식 하수관거로의 전환시 유입하수의 성상 변화 및 선회와류식 SBR공법의 처리 특성)

  • Lee, Jang-Hee;Kang, Ho
    • Journal of Korean Society on Water Environment
    • /
    • v.28 no.1
    • /
    • pp.63-70
    • /
    • 2012
  • This study was carried out to investigate change in influent concentration of domestic wastewater flowed from a newly constructed separate sewer system (SSS) and biological nutrients removal efficiency of a full scale Air-vent sequential batch reactor (SBR, $600m^3/d$). The average concentration of $BOD_5$, SS, T-N and T-P from SSS were 246.5 mg/L, 231.6 mg/L, 42.974 mg/L, 5.360 mg/L, respectively which corresponds to 2.2times, 1.2times, 1.8times and 2.1times higher than those from the conventional combined sewer system (CSS). The removal efficiency of $BOD_5$, SS, T-N, and T-P for the Air-vent SBR operated with influent from SSS averaged 99.1%, 99.0%, 91.2%, and 93.5%, respectively. Especially the respective nitrogen and phosphorus removal was 15% greater than that of the SBR operated with influent from CSS. Simultaneous nitrification and denitrification (SND) was observed in an aerobic reactor(II) as a result of DO concentration gradient developed along the depth by the Air-vent system. In order to achieve T-N removal greater than 90%, the C/N ratio should be over 6.0 and the difference between $BOD_5$ loading and nitrogen loading rate be over 100 kg/day (0.130 kg $T-N/m^3{\cdot}d$). Even with high influent T-P concentration of 5.360 mg/L from SSS (compared with 2.465 mg/L from CSS) T-P removal achieved 93.5% which was 15.5% higher than that of the SBR with influent from CSS. This is probably due to high influent $BOD_5$ concentration from SSS that could provide soluble carbon source to release phosphorus at anaerobic condition. In order to achieve T-P removal greater than 90%, the difference between $BOD_5$ loading and phosphorus loading rate should be over 100 kg /day (0.130 kg $T-N/m^3{\cdot}d$).

Enhanced total phosphorus removal using a novel membrane bioreactor by sequentially alternating the inflow and by applying a two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation (유입흐름 변경 및 전응집 기반 이단응집 제어 적용 MBR을 통한 총인처리 개선 연구)

  • Cha, Jaehwan;Shin, Kyung-Suk;Park, Seung-Kook;Shin, Jung-Hun;Kim, Byung-Goon
    • Journal of Korean Society of Water and Wastewater
    • /
    • v.31 no.1
    • /
    • pp.103-114
    • /
    • 2017
  • A membrane bioreactor by sequentially alternating the inflow and by applying a two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation was evaluated in terms of phosphorus removal efficiency and cost-savings. The MBR consisted of two identical alternative reaction tanks, followed by aerobic, anoxic and membrane tanks, where the wastewater and the internal return sludge alternatively flowed into each alternative reaction tank at every 2 hours. In the batch-operated alternative reaction tank, the initial concentration of nitrate rapidly decreased from 2.3 to 0.4 mg/L for only 20 minutes after stopping the inflow, followed by substantial release of phosphorus up to 4 mg/L under anaerobic condition. Jar test showed that the minimum alum doses to reduce the initial $PO_4$-P below 0.2 mg/L were 2 and 9 mol-Al/mol-P in the wastewater and the activated sludge from the membrane tank, respectively. It implies that a pre-coagulation in influent is more cost-efficient for phosphorus removal than the coagulation in the bioreactor. On the result of NUR test, there were little difference in terms of denitrification rate and contents of readily biodegradable COD between raw wastewater and pre-coagulated wastewater. When adding alum into the aerobic tank, alum doses above 26 mg/L as $Al_2O_3$ caused inhibitory effects on ammonia oxidation. Using the two-stage coagulation control based on pre-coagulation, the P concentration in the MBR effluent was kept below 0.2 mg/L with the alum of 2.7 mg/L as $Al_2O_3$, which was much lower than 5.1~7.4 mg/L as $Al_2O_3$ required for typical wastewater treatment plants. During the long-term operation of MBR, there was no change of the TMP increase rate before and after alum addition.

Phosphorus Removal (Characteristics by Anoxic Oxic Process) by Anoxic and Oxic Processed Combined with Iron Electrolysis (철 석출장치가 결합된 무산소.호기공정에 의한 인 제거 특성)

  • Kim, Min-Ho;Kim, Young-Gyu;Kim, Soo-Bok
    • Journal of Environmental Health Sciences
    • /
    • v.36 no.6
    • /
    • pp.502-509
    • /
    • 2010
  • In this study, the (phosphorous removal) the characteristics of phosphorous removal due to (the iron compound precipitated) iron compound precipitation by iron electrolysis in (the anoxic. oxic process) anoxic and oxic processes (equipped with the) in an iron precipitation device were analyzed. During the device operation period, the average concentration of BOD, T-N, and T-P were 219.9 mg/l, 54.6 mg/l and 6.71 mg/l, respectively. The BOD/$COD_{Cr}$ ratio was 0.74, and the BOD/T-N and BOD/T-P ratios were 4.0 and 32.8, respectively. The removal rate of (the organic matters) organic matter (BOD and $COD_{Cr}$) was very high at 91.6% or higher, and that of nitrogen was 80.5%. The phosphorous concentration (of the final) in the treated water was 0.43 mg/l (0.05-0.74 mg/l) on average, and the removal efficiency was high at 90.8%. The soluble T-P concentrations in (an) the anoxic reactor, oxic reactor (II) and final treated water were 1.99 mg/l, 0.79 mg/l and 0.43 mg/l, respectively, which indicated that the phosphorous concentration in the treated water was very low. Regardless of the changes in the concentrations of (organic matters) organic matter, nitrogen and phosphorous in the influent, the quality of the treated water was relatively stable and high. The removal rate of T-P somewhat increased with the increase in the F/M ratio in the influent, and it also linearly increased in proportion to the T-P loading rate in the influent. In the treatment process used in this study, phosphorous was removed (using) by the precipitated iron oxide. Therefore, the consumption of organic (matters) matter for biological phosphorus removal was minimized and (most of the organic matters were) was mostly used as the organic carbon source for the denitrification in the anoxic reactor. This (can be an economic) treatment process (without the need for the supply of additional organic matters) is economic and does not require the supply of additional organic matter.

Effects of Environmental Factors and Heavy Metals on the Growth and Phosphorus Removal of Alcaligenes sp. (환경인자와 중금속이 Alcaligenes sp.의 생장과 인 제거에 대한 영향)

  • Yoo, Ri-Bi;Kim, Hee-Jung;Lee, Seok-Eon;Lee, Moon-Soon;Woo, Sun-Hee;Choi, Jong-Soon;Baek, Ki-Tae;Chung, Keun-Yook
    • Korean Journal of Environmental Agriculture
    • /
    • v.30 no.2
    • /
    • pp.216-222
    • /
    • 2011
  • BACKGROUND: This study was performed to evaluate the effects of environmental factors and heavy metals on the growth and phosphorus removal capacity of Alcaligenes sp., which was well known as one of PAOs(Phosphorus Accumulating Microorganisms). METHODS AND RESULTS: The environmental factors used in this study were temperature, pH and carbon sources, and the heavy metals included Cu, Cd, Zn, As, and Ni. The growth and P removal efficiency of Alcaligenes sp. was maximal as temperature, pH, and carbon source were $25^{\circ}C$, 7, and glucose+acetate, respectively. Also, the $IC_{50}$(median inhibitory Concentration) values of Alcaligenes sp. for the Cu, Cd, Zn, As, and Ni were 5.03, 0.08, 0.73, 282.20 and 4.74 mg/L, respectively. CONCLUSION(S): Based on the results obtained from this study, it appears that the growth and P removal efficiency of Alcaligenes sp. were affected by the environment factors and at the best optimum condition for its growth and P removal efficiency, as the concentrations of heavy metals were gradually increased, its growth was correspondingly decreased.

Problems of lake water management in Korea (한국의 호수 수질관리의 문제점)

  • 김범철;전만식;김윤희
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Environment and Ecology Conference
    • /
    • 2003.10a
    • /
    • pp.105-126
    • /
    • 2003
  • In Korea most of annual rainfall is concentrated in several episodic heavy rains during the season of summer monsoon and typhoon. Because of uneven rainfall distribution many dams have been constructed in order to secure water supply in dry seasons. The Han River system has the most dams among Korean rivers, and the river is a series of dams now. Reservoirs need different strategy of water quality control from river water. Autochthonous organic matter and phosphorus should be the major target to be controlled in lakes. In this Paper some problems are discussed that makes efforts of water quality improvement ineffective in lakes of Korea, even after the substantial investment to wastewater treatment facilities.1) Phosphorus is the key factor controlling eutrophication of lakes and the reduction ofphosphors should be the major target of water treatment. However, water quality management strategy in Korea is still stream-oriented, and focused on BOD removal from sewage. Phosphorus removal efficiency remains as low as 10-30%, because biological treatment is adopted for both secondary treatment and advanced treatment. The standard for TP concentration of the sewage treatment plant effluent is 6 mgP/l in most of regions, and 2 mg/l in enforced region near metropolitan water intake point. TP in the effluents of sewage treatment plants are usually 1-2 mg/1, and most of plants meet the effluent regulation without a further phosphorus removal process. The generous TP standard for effluents discourages further efforts to improve phosphorus removal efficiency of sewage treatment. Considering that TP standard for the effluent is below 0.1 mg/l in some countries, it should be amended to below 0.1 mg/l in Korea, especially in the watershed of large lakes.2) Urban runoff and combined sewer overflow are not treated, even though their total loading into lakes can be comparable to municipal sewage discharges on dry days. Chemical coagulation and rapid settling might be the solution to urban runoff in regard of intermittent operation on only rainy days.3) Aggregated precipitation in Korea that is concentrated on several episodic heavyrains per year causes a large amount of nonpoint source pollution loading into lakes. It makes the treatment of nonpoint source discharge by methods of other countries of even rain pattern, such as retention pond or artificial wetland, impractical in Korea.4) The application rate of fertilizers in Korea is ten times as high as the average ofOECD countries. The total manure discharge from animal farming is thought to be over the capacity of soil treatment in Korea. Even though large portion of manure is composted for organic fertilizer, a lot of nutrients and organic matter emanates from organic compost. The reduction of application rate and discharge rate of phosphorus from agricultural fields should be encouraged by incentives and regulations.5) There is a lot of vegetable fields with high slopes in the upstream region of the HanRiver. Soil erosion is severe due to high slopes, and fertilizer is discharged in the form of adsorbed phosphorus on clay surface. The reduction of soil erosion in the upland area should be the major preventive policy for eutrophication. Uplands of high slope must be recovered to forest, and eroded gullies should be reformed into grass-buffered natural streams which are wider and resistant to bank erosion.

  • PDF

Study on Phosphorus Removal in the Secondary Effluent by Flotation Using Microbubble Liquid Film System (미세기포 액막화 부상법을 이용한 하수 2차 처리수의 인 제거에 관한 연구)

  • Lee, Shun-Hwa;Kang, Hyun-Woo;Lee, Se-Han;Kwon, Jin-Ha;Jung, Kye-Joo
    • Journal of Korean Society of Environmental Engineers
    • /
    • v.34 no.1
    • /
    • pp.42-48
    • /
    • 2012
  • In this study, experiment on phosphorus removal was performed by using microbubble liquid film flotation tank with microbubble module. After dissolving gas and liquid in dissolving tank, microbubble liquid film system created microbubbles in equal size under fixed low pressure. After being passed through $A_2O$ and m-$O_3$ process, secondary treatment wastewater was used as influent in phosphorus removal process. When the T-P concentration of influent was 2.89 mg/L, alum(8%, 30 mg/L) was injected into a microbubble flotation tank, the treatment resulted 94% of T-P removal rate. Remaining T-P concentration was less than 0.2 mg/L, which is in accord with the effluent quality standard. Seasonal variations in water temperature showed no differences in T-P removal property. When the inflow concentration of SS was 1.0 mg/L or more, it served as coagulation nuclei in the coagulation process. In that condition, average T-P removal rate was higher than 97%. When 50% of floated scum was returned, coagulator Al included in scum assisted the injected coagulator and maximized the coagulation efficiency of pollutant. In such treatment, the T-P concentration was measured as 0.18 mg/L and satisfied the outflow water quality standard, which is 0.2 mg/L or less.

Effects of CellCaSi and Inorganic Additives on Phosphorus Removal in Water (규산질다공체와 무기첨가물의 수중 인 제거 효과)

  • Park, Myung-Hwan;Han, Myung-Soo;Lee, Seog-June;Ahn, Chi-Yong;Yoon, Byung-Dae;Oh, Hee-Mock
    • Korean Journal of Ecology and Environment
    • /
    • v.35 no.3 s.99
    • /
    • pp.213-219
    • /
    • 2002
  • The CellCaSi, a porous silicate material, was tested for the removal of phosphorus (P as phosphate) in water. The effect of the CellCaSi was investigated on the basis of both particle size (under 1,2, and 4 mm) and added amount (0, 1, 2.5, 5, and 10 g/1) of the CellCaSi. The removal efficiency of phosphorus was highest with a particle size of under 1 mm and also increased with an increasing amount of the CellCaSi. The pH change showed little effect on the phosphorus removal of the CellCaSi. The calcium ion was eluted from the CellCaSi into the water, while the aluminium and iron were not. The eluted calcium ion was combined with dissolved phosphorus and then precipitated. The highest removal efficiency of phosphorus was obtained by the combined addition of the CellCaSi, calcium chloride, and ferric chloride. That is, the phosphorus concentrations of 0.10 and 1.0 mg/1 decreased to 0.03 and 0.47 mg/l by the addition of the CellCaSi (1 g/l), calcium ion (30 mg/l), and ferric ion (1 mg/l) at day 8 after treatment. The water qualities at the end of the experiment were as follows: pH was 8.1 and conductivity was 318 ${\mu}$S/cm (a registered maximum conductivity of 500${\mu}$S/cm for raw and potable wafers).