• Title/Summary/Keyword: North Korea

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A Comparative Study on the Natural Monument Designations of South and North Korea (남.북한의 천연기념물 지정내용 비교)

  • Na, Moung-Ha;Hong, Youn-Soon;Kim, Hak-Berm
    • Journal of the Korean Institute of Landscape Architecture
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    • v.35 no.5
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    • pp.92-99
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    • 2007
  • Korea began preserving and managing natural monuments in 1933 under the Japanese Colonization, but South and North Korea had to establish natural monument management policies separately because of the division after the Korean Independence. The purpose of this study is to compare and analyze the natural monument designations of South and North Koreas between 1933 and 2005 to introduce advanced polices for Oneness-Korea. The following are the results: According to data of December 2005, South Korea has 358 and North Korea has 474 natural monuments. North Korea has 116 more natural monuments than South Korea. In addition, over half of South Korea's designations are plants, whereas North Korea's designations are relatively well-balanced. Both South and North Korea designate plants(mostly trees) that are old and large. However, South Korea emphasizes the historical value of village forests, contrary to economic value in North Korea. Also, North Korea preserves many traditional fruit trees which have not been well-preserved in South Korea. As for animals, South Korea designates migratory wild animals by type and not by region to protect them at a national level, whereas North Korea designates the specific habitats of each type of wild animal. In addition, North Korea protects each region's cattle and chickens to preserve native traits of domesticated animals. Geologically, North Korea preserves 18 hot springs and 11 springs, whereas South Korea has none. Geographically, North Korea preserves 81 waterfalls, lakes, etc. In the conclusion, advanced natural monument management of South and North Korea is necessary to achieve effective preservation of natural monuments.

An Exploratory Study on the Distribution and Marketing Changes Under the North Korean System

  • LEE, Won-Jun
    • The Journal of Industrial Distribution & Business
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    • v.11 no.5
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    • pp.27-34
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: North Korea is a very close country geographically and culturally, but the nation has been one of the most secretive countries in the world. However, in recent years, North Korean society has been known to rapidly change its economic environment as well as its diplomatic and political environment. Since the gaining power of Jong-un, Kim in 2012, the North Korean government has implemented a new set of economic policies. North Korea has embraced limited market systems and mechanisms that have become a part of the formal planned economy. This study is concerned with the recent changes in the market and marketing activities of the communist country. It also seeks to gain an understanding of the changing market behavior of North Korean consumers. The purpose of this study is to enhance understanding of the market environments of North Korea and to provide appropriate implications for practitioners and researchers. Research design, data and methodology: Academic access to information that can understand North Korea's reality is minimal. Therefore, this study was conducted based on a qualitative analysis of secondary data. The existing literature on North Korea, related news and reports were the basis of the analysis. Analysis of secondary data related to North Korea was the main methodology of the study. Results: The official ideology of North Korea rejected most aspects of marketing, and yet there were marketing activities in North Korea. This article focuses on the development of market and marketing activities in North Korea during the recent years. This study indirectly confirmed that the market function is being activated in North Korea, and the basic functions of marketing such as advertisement, price, and distribution are being formed. In this process, the activation of the 'Jangmadang(market)' played a significant role. Conclusions: Research shows that North Korea is rapidly developing its own market function. In addition, marketing activities such as advertising and pricing strategies seem to be unprecedentedly active. However, due to changes in the political environment, the future development of North Korea's marketing is still in flux. Efforts to improve mutual understanding through continuous research are required.

Characteristics and Suggestions of Arbitration Act in North Korea (북한의 중재법의 주요 특징과 시사점)

  • Choi, Seok-Beom
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.17 no.3
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    • pp.57-79
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    • 2007
  • Laws regarding to Arbitration in North Korea are Arbitration Act, Foreign Economic Arbitration Act, Regulations on the Foreign Trade Arbitration Commission, Regulation for treatment of cases in Arbitration Commission, Rules of Hearing. North Korea has enacted the laws related to Arbitration including Arbitration Act enacted in 1995 and Foreign Economic Arbitration Act enacted in 1999. In the North Korea's planed economy system, as there will be many disputes among organizations, companies, other Institutions Arbitration Act resolves the disputes to compete the economic plan. North Korea's Arbitration Act is different from Normal Arbitration Acts in particular other socialist states in view of arbitration agreement and selection of arbitrator and functions as the tools controlling the members of North Korea and have the characteristics such as national arbitration system and mixture of criminal trial and governmental control and strict legal control system on violent acts in North Korea's plan and plan regulation. And North Korea's Arbitration Act deals with the civil disputes and limits the parties and subject matter of arbitration. The parties in dispute such as organizations, companies, other Institutions could apply for arbitration to Central Arbitration Body and Provincial (City under the direct control of Government) Arbitration Body and Sectional Arbitration Body. The purpose of this paper is to contribute to the enhancement of the understanding arbitration in North Korea by studying the clauses in the Arbitration Act.

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Estimation of air pollutant emissions from heavy industry sector in North Korea (북한의 중공업 부문 대기오염물질 배출량 추정)

  • Lee, Young Won;Kim, Yong Pyo;Yeo, Min Ju
    • Particle and aerosol research
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    • v.17 no.4
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    • pp.133-148
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    • 2021
  • This study aims to estimate the amount of air pollutants emitted from heavy industry facilities in North Korea. To compare the emission in 2017 from the heavy industry sector in North Korea with South Korea, the heavy industry sector was classified with the South Korean classification (Matching Heavy Industry sector) and air pollutant emissions by Matching Heavy Industry sector in North Korea were estimated. The CO, NOx and SOx emissions of Matching Heavy Industry sector in North Korea are 22%, 73%, and 31% of the emission in South Korea, respectively. The air pollutant emissions in the Matching Heavy Industry sector in North Korea for CO, NOx and SOx were 0.6%, 124%, and 24% of the total air pollutant emission in North Korea estimated from EDGAR, respectively. As for the distribution of emissions by administrative district of the Matching Heavy Industry sector in North Korea, NOx was concentrated in the western part of North Korea, and CO and SOx emissions were concentrated in Hamgyong-bukto.

Comparative Study of Traditional Costume Succession in South and North Korea - Focus on Transition of Women's Jegory Construction - (한민족의 전통복식문화 계승 작업에 있어서 남북한 비교연구 - 여자 저고리 구성에 나타난 변화를 중심으로 -)

  • Chung Hye-Gyung
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.56 no.7 s.106
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    • pp.17-30
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    • 2006
  • The objectives of this study are to research into the traditional costume succession in south and north korea, and to compare similarity and difference of kinds, names, drawing of Jegory. Conclusions are described as follows: 1. In sort of Jegory, south and north korea have same kind of Jegory according to traditional form. But in making method, south korea have pursued various style from traditional type to modern type, north korea have maintained just simple and practical basic style. 2. South and north korea have used same or similar names for the basic part of Jegory. But north korea has made new names for constructional needs, so many differences were shown in the name of details. 3. In drawing of Jegory, north korea has hold traditional method and then tried to seek for rational, scientific technique. Also, due to the influence of south korea that advanced in modern aesthetic, drawing of Jegory in north korea were changed to similar.

The Effect of Economic Sanction against North Korea on North Korea-China Trade

  • Cho, Sung-Taek;Kim, Hyuk-Hwang
    • International Area Studies Review
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    • v.20 no.3
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    • pp.23-44
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    • 2016
  • This study attempts to scrutinize the effectiveness of the international economic sanction on North Korea by analyzing the determinants of the North Korea-China trade with Chinese Customs House data classified under general, border, processing, bonded warehouse. The result shows that after international economic sanctions, North Korea-China trade was increased across types of trade. In particular, sanction-sensitive items were increased after sanctions and China also weakened the effectiveness of sanctions. To put it concretely, North Korea's food and fuel imports from china increased in processing and border trade. In the case of luxury good, it was increased in general trade. Strategy goods (weaponry) increased only in bonded warehouse trade. For China's import from North Korea, food and fuel were increased in total, border and bonded warehouse trade. Considering the features of each type of trade, these increase are presumed to have been playing a decisive role in weakening the effect of international sanction on North Korea.

An assessment of sanctions on North Korea and the prospect (대북 제재 조치 평가 및 전망)

  • Cheon, Seong- Whu
    • Strategy21
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    • s.31
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    • pp.5-26
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    • 2013
  • The South Korean society has experienced many changes since the sinking of ROKS Cheonan. The government reviewed its defense posture and adopted the 5·24 Measure in its relations with North Korea. As a result, the people of South Korea became more conscious of security situations on the Korean peninsula while North Korea's economy suffered badly. Meanwhile, the South Korean government has taken a flexible stance toward North Korea in terms of exchange and cooperation since September 2011. The flexible stance was to manage inter-Korea relations in a stable manner and relieve the hardships of the North Korean people while preserving the spirits and purposes of the 5·24 Measure. The UN Security Council adopted twenty-six resolutions and statements on North Korea since June 25, 1950. They include thirteen U.N. Security Council resolutions including those concerning nuclear weapons or missile programs, nine Presidential statements, and four press statements. Resolution 82, the first U.N. resolution on North Korea, came when the Korean War broke out. Resolution 825, the first one related to nuclear or missile programs, was adopted in response to North Korea's withdrawal from the NPT. Apart from these U.N. resolutions, the United States has imposed separate sanctions against North Korea. North Korea's nuclear weapons program can be considered in comparison with that of Iran in terms of the consequences they create for the regional security. The Security Council has adopted six resolutions on Iran so far. One should note that the resolutions on Iran have had much stronger sanctions compared to those imposed on North Korea. That is, while the North Korea case may be viewed as a more serious threat to international security from the perspective of nuclear weapons development or proliferation, tougher sanctions have been placed on Iran. There are two approaches that South Korea should take in addressing the related issues. First, we should aim to reduce the gap between sanctions imposed on Iran and North Korea. It is difficult to understand that a country with more serious problems is rewarded with lighter sanctions. We should take measures through the Security Council Sanctions Committee to make individuals and groups in North Korea that play a central role in developing nuclear weapons and missiles subject to additional sanctions. Second, we have to change. Other countries in the international community have become tired of North Korea's nuclear issue and now they look to South Korea for initiative. We should correctly understand this current situation and play a leading role within our capacity. Knowingly and unknowingly, the notion that the North Korean nuclear issue may be left to South Korea has been spread around the international community. Although the situation is grave, we should try to open a new horizon in ushering in the unification era by taking the initiative with confidence that there is a looming hope ahead of us. For these tasks, we should stop thinking in the old way that has been ossified for the last two decades. We should not be pushed around by neighboring great powers in dealing with North Korea related issues anymore; we should take the initiative with resolution that we will play our role at the center of four great powers and with confidence that we can do it. Based on the confidence that the Republic of Korea has become a country with enough capacity to take the initiative, we should establish a 'National Grand Strategy' representing South Korea's strategic vision that the unification is the ultimate solution to the problems related to North Korea's nuclear weapons program.

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UNSC Resolution against North Korea and ROKN's Reactions (유엔 안보리 대북제재 결의와 우리 해군의 대응)

  • Park, Chang Kwoun
    • Strategy21
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    • s.39
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    • pp.82-113
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    • 2016
  • This paper analyzes the contents and the effects of the UNSC 2270, and its implications to South Korea's defense strategy and navy. The UN Security Council passed strong sanctions against North Korea which punish North Korea's 4th nuclear test. The sanctions compared to the previous ones require international society to take practical actions such as comprehensive trade bans as well as diplomatic isolation which will put significant pains on North Korea. Especially, these measures would greatly hamper economic development policy of Kim Joung-un regime. Because Kim Jung-un regime has inherent legitimacy problems which stems from the third family succession of the power, economic difficulties may play an important cause on the regime instability in the long term. In fact, the United States sees this possibility as an option to coerce North Korea in which North Korea choose denuclearization for its regime survival. Nevertheless, the prospects of the UN sanctions are not so optimistic. Considering North Korea's willingness for nuclear development and its level of nuclear technology, North Korea will try to play a gambit with the US and South Korea by exploiting its strategic advantages. North Korea's response will have three following strategies. First, it would actively pursue political and economic survival strategy by using China's support for the regime, strengthening its power grip in the name of countering US hostile policy, and enhancing peace propaganda. Second, North Korea will accelerate efforts to position its status as a nuclear de facto state. For this purpose, it could create nuclear crisis on the peninsula. Third, it would exploit local provocations as an exit strategy to get over the current situation. In order to counter North Korea's actions and punish North Korea's behavior strongly, South Korea needs following strategies and efforts. It should first make all the efforts to implement the UN sanctions. Strong and practical nuclear deterrence strategy and capability with the U.S. should be developed. Effective strategy and capabilities for the prevention and deterrence of North Korea's provocation should be prepared. For this purpose, North Korea's provocation strategy should be thoroughly reviewed. Active international cooperation is needed to punish and coerce North Korea's behavior. Finally, South Korea should prepare for the possible occurrence of North Korea's contingency and make use of the situation as an opportunity to achieve unification. All these strategies and efforts demand the more active roles and missions of South Korea's navy and thus, nullify North Korea's intention militarily.

The Scope of Application of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act and Foreign Investment Act (북한의 외국인투자법과 대외경제중재법의 적용범위)

  • Jon, Woo-jung
    • Journal of Arbitration Studies
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    • v.30 no.2
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    • pp.91-120
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    • 2020
  • The Scope of Application of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act and Foreign Investment Act This article examines whether the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act and the Foreign Investment Act of North Korea apply to South Korean parties or companies. This article analyzes laws and agreements related to economic cooperation between South Korea and North Korea. Furthermore, this article compares and evaluates laws related to foreign investment and enacted in North Korea. Now, North Korea's door is closed due to economic sanctions against it, but it will be opened soon. Thus, this article prepares for the future opening of North Korea's markets. Is there a rule of laws in North Korea or just a ruler? Are there laws in North Korea? North Korea has enacted a number of legislation to attract foreign investors, referring to those Chinese laws. For example, North Korea enacted the Foreigner Investment Act, the Foreigner Company Act, the Foreign Investment Bank Act, the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act, the Foreign Economic Contract Act, the International Trade Act, and the Free Economy and Trade Zone Act, among others. Article 2 (2) of the Foreign Investment Law of North Korea states, "Foreign investors are corporations and individuals from other countries investing in our country." It is interpreted that South Korea is not included in the "other countries" of this definition. According to many mutual agreements signed by South Korea and North Korea, the relationship between the two Koreas is a special relation inside the Korean ethnic group. An arbitration between a South Korean party and a North Korean party has the characteristics of both domestic arbitrations and international arbitrations. If the South Korea and North Korea Commercial Arbitration Commission or the Kaesong Industrial Complex Arbitration Commission is not established, the possibility of arbitration by the Chosun International Trade Arbitration Commission, established under North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act, should be examined. There have been no cases where the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act is applied to disputes between parties of South Korea and North Korea. It might be possible to apply the Foreign Economic Arbitration Act by recognizing the "foreign factor" of a dispute between the South Korean party and North Korean party. It is necessary to raise legislative clarifications by revising the North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act as to whether Korean parties or companies are included in the scope of this Act's application. Even if it is interpreted that South Korean parties or companies are not included in the scope of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act, disputes between South Korean companies and North Korean companies can be resolved by foreign arbitration institutes such as CIETAC in China, HKIAC in Hong Kong, or SIAC in Singapore. Such arbitration awards could be enforced in North Korea pursuant to Article 64 of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act. This is because the arbitration awards of foreign arbitration institutes are included in the scope of North Korea's Foreign Economic Arbitration Act. The matter is how to enforce the North Korean laws when a North Korean party or North Korean government does not abide by the laws or their contracts. It is essential for North Korea to join the New York Convention (Convention on the Recognition and Enforcement of Foreign Arbitral Awards) and the ICSID Convention (Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes Between States and Nationals of Other States).

A Study on Building Database for Territorial Use of the North Korea (북한지역 국토이용 DB 구축 연구)

  • SaKong, Ho-Sang;Seo, Ki-Hwan;Han, Shun-Hee
    • Spatial Information Research
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    • v.15 no.3
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    • pp.323-333
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    • 2007
  • Recently, the South and North Korea have collaborated in the economic cooperation. Success for the cooperation of the South and North Korea has supported the basic and fundamental GIS data building for geographic information (GI) and the land-use of the North Korea. This North Korea GIS project is also vital to facilitate rebuilding and reconnecting socio-economic infrastructures such as reconnecting road and railway networks between the South and North Korea. Thus, this paper emphasizes on the fundamental issues of GIS data building in North Korea area and suggests GI and data establishment methods of the North Korea regions which has not been achieved in GIS research activities in Korea. As the basic GI and data in the North Korea, topographical maps, satellite imageries, and thematic maps were collected and used for surveying of territorial areas of the North Korea. The database of those dataset were built by scanning, image processing, and classifying land-use types. In addition, this paper exacted vector data from the database and included the vector data into the database as other basic GI dataset that enable to analyze quantitative and qualitative territorial land use and development in the North Korea.

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