• Title/Summary/Keyword: Near-total thyroidectomy

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Safety of Total and Near-total Thyroidectomy (갑상선 전 절제술 및 근전 절제술의 안전성에 대한 고찰)

  • Suh Kwang-Wook;Lee Woo-Cheol;Park Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.8 no.1
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    • pp.14-20
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    • 1992
  • To clarify the safety of both total and near-total thyroidectomy, and to guide a selectionof an adequate type of surgical treatment of thyroid diseases, 192 consecutive total or near-total thyroidectomy cases were reviewed. They were divided into two groups: ont, the total thyroidectomy group(Group T,N=111) and the other, the near-total thyroidectomy group (Group NT, N=81). In both groups, complication rates, associations of complication rates with extents of surgery and stage of lesion were observed. Complication rate was significantly higher in Group T (53.6% vs 12.3%, p<0.05). But the rate of permanent complications such as permanent hypoparathyroidism and recurrent laryngeal nerve injury was remarkably low(4.5% in Group T, 6.0% in Group NT) and shows no significant difference in both groups. There was no permanent complication in cases where any type of neck dissection had not been performed regardless of the type thyroidectomy. But among whom underwent central compartmental neck dissection(CCND) and functional neck dissection(FND), 4(4.4%) and 4(6.4%) cases showed permanent complications. There was no statistical significance in differences between Group I and NT. In cases who underwent concomittant classical radical neck dissection(RND), 3(25.5%) showed permament complications. In this subgroups, complications were significantly higher in Group T(p<0.005). Complications were also directly related to the stage of the lesion. Only one patient showed permanent complication in 74 intracapsular lesions but 9 permanent complications were observed in 118 advanced lesions. We could clarify both total and near-total thyroidectomy were safe operations and the complications were related to accompanying neck dissections and the disease status rather than total or near-total thyroidectomy itself. Thus, we think that for the cases where higher complication rates are expected, such as locally advanced thryoid cancers or the cases which required wider neck dissection, the near-total thyroidectomy would be a preferrable method.

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A Clinical Study of Surgically Treated 194 Cases of the Thyroid Cancer (외과적 절제술로 치험한 갑상선암 194예의 임상적 고찰)

  • Lee Suk-Jae;Kim Sung-Bae;Kim Sang-Hyo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.18 no.1
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    • pp.50-55
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    • 2002
  • Objectives: Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy with favorable histologic and prognostic characteristics. Total or near total thyroidectomy has been used as a standard surgical procedure. The aims of this study are to determine the extent of resection of thyroid gland and to find the influencing factors of lymph node metastasis. Materials and Methods: The authors reviewed the records of 194 patients of thyroid cancer surgically treated at Department of General Surgery, Inje University Busan Paik Hospital from January, 1996 to December, 2000. Pathologic classifications, surgical procedures, and lymph node metastasis were analyzed. Results: There were 163 women and 31 men. The age ranged from 12 to 79 years old (mean age 43.2 years). The histological classifications of 194 cases revealed papillary cancer in 171 cases (88.1%), follicular cancer in 17 cases (8.8%), undifferentiated cancer in 3 cases (1.6%), medullary cancer in 2 cases (1.0%) and mixed cancer in 1 case (0.5%). Among the 194 patients, lobectomy was perfomed in 31 patients, subtotal thyroidectomy in 30 patients, near total thyroidectomy in 82 patients and total thyroidectomy in 51 patients. In the subgroup of papillary carcinoma 141 cases with lymph node dissection, lymph node metastasis had no statistical significance according to sex, age and primary tumor size. Conclusions: The mainly performed surgical procedures were total thyroidectomy and near total thyroidectomy. In thyroid cancer surgery, the extent of resection was influenced by age, differentiation and primary tumor size. The lymph node dissection should be decided by lymph node metastasis identified by preoperative radiologic evaluation or intraoperative lymph node findings.

Local Complication after Surgical Resection for Thyroid Disease (갑상선 질환의 외과적 절제술에 대한 국소적 합병증)

  • Cho Hyun-Jin;Cho Tae-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.11 no.1
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    • pp.9-17
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    • 1995
  • This study was retrospectively reviewed and analysis of postoperative local complication on all patient undergoing thyroid operation of 242 cases of thyroid disease, at Department of General Surgery, Chosun University Hospital from January 1988 to December 1992. The result were follow: Postoperative local complication are as follow; 52 cases of transient hypocalcemia, 7 cases of thansient hoarseness, 3 cases of permanent hypocalcemia, 2 cases of permanent hoarseness, and other local complication were postoperative bleeding with airway obstraction, hematoma, infection. In pathologic classification according to complicative patients; The most common frequency of complication in benign disease was Graves' disease with 13 cases(54.2%), and the most frequency of complication in malignance disease was follicalar adenocarcinoma with 7 cases(53.9%). The frequency of complication according to operation procedure were unilateral lobectomy in 31 cases(19.9%), subtotal thyroidectomy in 15 cases(39.5%), near total thyroidectomy in 12 cases (44.4%), and total thyroidectomy in 10 cases(55.6%). There was a significant relationship between extent of operative procedure and frequency of complication. The incidence of local complication after thyroid resection was 57 of 196(29.1%) in the benign disease that was 15 of 26(57.7 %) in the intrathyroidal carcinoma and 13 of 20(65.0%) in the extrathyroidal carcinoma. There was significant different in frequency of local complication according to invasion and malignance of pathologic lesion. The most frequent complication after thyroid resection is transient hypocalcemia ; 39 of 196(19.9%) in the benign disease, 7 of 26(26.9%) in the intrathyroida1 carcinoma, and 6 of 10(30.0%) in the extrathyroidal carcinoma. Their complication rate increased in direct relationship to the invasion and malignance of pathologic lesion, but there was no statistically significant. Transient hypocalcemia was encountered in 52 cases of the total 242 patient(21.9%) ; 29 of 156(18.6%) after unilateral lobectomy, 9 of 38(23.7%) after subtotal thyroidectomy, and 5 of 18(27.8 %) after total thyroidectomy. The relation ship between temporal hypocalcemia and the extent of surgery was not statistically significant.

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Thyroid and Parathyroid Surgery without Wound Drains (갑상선 및 부갑상선 수술시 배액관 삽입술에 대한 검토)

  • Chung Woung-Youn;Park Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.119-124
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    • 1995
  • Traditionally, wound drainage after thyroid or parathyroid surgery has been widely used to prevent airway obstruction due to accumulation of hematoma or seroma within the paratracheal dead space. Recently, however, the routine use of drains after thyroid or parathyroid surgery has become a matter of controversy. To determine whether the rouine use of drains after thyroid or parathyroid surgery is warranted, a prospective study on the complications after various types of thyroid or parathyroid surgery without wound drains was conducted. Three hunded sixty-six consecutive patients underwent thyroid or parathyorid surgeries by one surgeon from January through December 1994 were included in this study. Of these, only 38 patients (10.4%) required the wound drains. Indications for drainage included the patients with a large dead space(n=9) or wet operative field at the conclusion of surgery(n=11), and patients with radical neck disection(n=18). In the remaining 328 patients(89.6%), the wounds were closed without drains after thyroid lobectomy and isthmusectomy(n=226), bilateral subtotal thyroidectomy(n=21), total or near-total thyroidectomy(n=62), isthmusectomy(n=9) and parathyroid surgery(n=l0). Histologic findings revealed benign tumors in 214(65.2%), carcinoma in 89(27.1%), Graves' disease in 15(4.7%), hyperparathyroidism in 7(2.1%) and parathyroid cyst in 3(0.9%). Among the 328 patients without drain used, wound related complications were seen in only 15 patients(4.6%); 12 patients with seroma and 3 patients with hematoma. All but one complications could be controlled by two or three aspirations, and the remaining one patient required re-exploration. There were no instances of laryngeal nerve palsy or wound infection. The mean length of hospital stay after surgery was 2.8 days with a range of 1 to 11 days. These results support the routine use of drains is not warranted in most thyroid or parathyroid surgeries.

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The Coexisting Thyroid Carcinoma in Graves' Disease (Graves'병과 갑상선암)

  • Cho Tae-Hyung
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.11 no.2
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    • pp.125-131
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    • 1995
  • The authors present 15 cases in which the diagnosis of thyroid cancer was established pathologically among 300 cases of Graves' disease diagnosed clinically at Chosun University Hospital, from January 1982 to December 1994. These cases were analyzed in order to establish guidelines for prophylactic node dissection as part of the initial management of thyroid cancer in patients with Graves' disease. The analysis revealed the following: 1) The average age of the 15 patients was 34.5 years and the male: female ratio was 1 : 4.0. 2) In 8 of the 15 cases(53.5 %) the occult thyroid carcinoma measured less than 1.5cm. 3) The degree of invasivensess manifested in these fifteen cases may be summarized as follows: In Group 1(6 cases) there was absence of microscopic capsular invasion and of lymphnode metastasis. In Group 11(4 cases) threre was microscopic capsular invasion but absence of lymphnode metastasis: In Group III(4 cases) there was either extrathyrodal soft tissue invasion or regional lymph node metastasis: and in Group IV(1 case) there was lymphnode invasion and distant metastasis. 4) Thirteen patients underwent either subtotal or near total thyroidectomy, and 2 patients underwent total thyroidectomy. Seven patients underwent some type of neck dissection, as follows: anterior compartment dissection in one of the cases in Group I; functional neck dissection in two cases and jugular node dissection in one case in Group II; and anterior compartment dissection in one case and modified radical neck dissection in two cases in Group III. 5) The author propose the following guidelines for prophylactic initial node dissection when a unexpected coexisting thyroid carcinoma in encountered on the frozen section during the surgical management of Graves' disease; Group I cases do not require initial neck dissection in group II, anterior compartment dissection in sufficient. In Group III, either jugular node dissection or functional neck dissection should be performed, and followed by postoperative Ra$^{131}$I therapy, Group IV requires Ra$^{131}$I therapy with or without modified radical neck dissection depending in the patient's condition.

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Coexistent Parathyroid Adenoma and Well Differentiated Thyroid Careinoma (분화성 갑상선암과 공존한 부갑상선 선종)

  • Lee Joon-Ho;Chung Woong-Youn;Park Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.241-246
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    • 1997
  • It has become evident in recent years that parathyroid adenoma and well differentiated thyroid cancer occur together more than would be expected by chance alone. However, the association between them is not well understood. We have experienced 4 cases of coexistent parathyroid adenoma and well-differentiated thyroid cancer during the past 16 years. None of them had a familial incidence or a history of radiation exposure. Three cases showed symptomatic hypercalcemia(including renal stones, bone pain, joint pain) and in two of them(patient 1 and patient 2), thyroid abnormalities were detected preoperatively by neck ultrasonography or neck CT for evaluation of parathyroid lesions. However, in patient 3, a parathyoid humor was identified and removed incidentally during the course of thyroidectomy. In 3 cases, surgeries for thyroid carcinoma and parathyroid adenoma were performed during the same exploration of the neck, but in patient 4, thyroidectomy preceded parathyroidectomy; The interval between thyroidectomy and subsequent parathyroidectomy was 11 yeras. The thyroid tumors in 3 cases were papillary carcinoma, the sizes of which ranged from 1.0 cm to 1.5 cm in greatest diameter. The remaining case(patient 4) was minimal invasive follicular carcinoma. Total or near-total thyroidectomy with various types of cervical lymphnode dissection and bilateral neck exploration for the parathyroid lesion was performed in 3 cases with papillary carcinoma. Ipsilateral lobectomy and contralateral partial thyroidectomy with consequent unilateral neck exploration for the parathyroid tumor was performed in the case of follicular cancer. In our experience, parathyroid adenoma and well-differentiated thyroid carcinomas can be coexistent and we felt that the attention to the hypercalcemic patients would be needed for detection of this rare condition.

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Completion Thyroidectomy for Differentiated Thyroid Carcinoma (분화성 갑상선암의 완결 감상선 절제술)

  • Kim Myung-Kwan;Lee Yun-Bok;Chin Hyung-Min;Chun Chung-Soo;Suh Young-Jin;Kim Jun-Gi;Park Woo-Bae
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.13 no.1
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    • pp.35-39
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    • 1997
  • Background: Completion thyroidectomy is defined as the surgical removal of the remnant thyroid tissue following procedures less than total or near-total thyroidectomy. Although some authors advocate subtotal thyroidectomy with lower complication rates, total or completion thyroidectomy have been defended by others because of the improved survival and lower morbidity that is comparable with subtotal thyroidectomy. Objectives: The purpose of this paper is to review the necessity and safety of completion thyroidectomy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma(DTC). Materials & Methods: During the past 10 years(1986 to 1996) , authors have performed 211 total thyroidectomy. Ten of these patients were treated by completion thyroidectomy for DTC. Initial operation of 7 patients had been performed at St. Vincents Hospital and 3 patients at other hospital. The medical records of patients undergoing completion thyroidectomy were retrospectively reviewed. Results: The completion thyroidectomy specimen contained residual tumor cells in 8 of the 8 patients with papillary carcinoma and none of the two patients with follicular carcinoma. Complications of completion thyroidectomy were transient hypoparathyroidism in two patients and transient unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve palsy in one patient. But permanent complications were not noticed. Conclusion: We recommend completion thyroidectomy as an efficient and safe method of surgical treatment with a low complication rate for DTC.

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A Clinical Analysis of the Thyroid Cancer (갑상선암의 임상적 고찰)

  • Park Ki-Min;Kang Hyung-Kil;Kim Lee-Su;Lee Bong-Hwa
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.213-220
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    • 1997
  • Background: Thyroid cancer is a relatively rare neoplasm and its incidence varies geographically and ethnically around the world. Thyroid cancer is the most common endocrine malignancy, but it has a wide spectrum of biologic behavior, histologic appearance, and management. Purpose: The purpose of the study was to analyse and evaluate all aspects of the clinical consideration in thyroid cancer. Method: Between 1986 and 1995, a retrospective analysis of 77 thyrod cancer patients admitted at the Department of Surgery, Hangang Sacred Heart Hospital, Hallym University was made to assess clinical entities. Result: By the pathological classification, the papillary carcinoma was the most common type(83.1%). Male to female ratio was 1 : 5.4 and most prevalent age group was noted from fourth decade to fifth decade(46.8%). The most common duration of illness between the appearance of the symptoms and the treatment was below 6 months(44.2%), and the most common symptom was the palpable mass at the anterior portion of the neck(96.1%). Most cases of the thyroid cancer were appeared as cold nodule in the $^{99m}$Tc-thyroid scan(95.7%). In the site of tumor location, the right and left lobe was distributed similarly. In the extent of tumor, incidence of intrathyroidal location was 41.6%, and that of the metastasis to the cervical lymph nodes was 44.2% and that of the direct capsular invasion was 27.3%, and incidence of both involved case was 13%. Surgical procedures were total thyroidectomy alone in 27 cases(35.1%) or with modified neck dissection in 6 cases(7.8%), or with radical neck dissection in 2 cases (2.6%), near total thyroidectomy alone in 22 cases(28.6%), ipsilateral lobectomy with isthmectomy alone in 12 cases(15.6%) or with modified neck dissection in 1 case(1.3%), and biopsy only in 7 cases(9.1%). The most common postoperative complications were transient hypoparathyroidism(5.2%) and transient unilateral recurrent laryngeal nerve paralysis(5.2%). Conclusion: The major problem of management of thyroid cancer include a wide spectrum of clinical behaviour of this tumor entity, the lack of reliable prognostic factors and lack of an objective assessment of the various treatment modalities. But because of showing the favorable prognosis for most thyroid cancer, appropriate and aggressive management should be recommended.

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$H\"{u}rthle$ Cell Tumor of the Thyroid (갑상선의 $H\"{u}rthle$씨 세포 종양)

  • Chung Woong-Youn;Kim Suk-Ju;Park Cheong-Soo
    • Korean Journal of Head & Neck Oncology
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    • v.13 no.2
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    • pp.206-212
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    • 1997
  • H$\"{u}$rthle cell neoplasm of the thyroid gland is an uncommon, but potentially malignant lesion. However, in many instances, the malignant potential of the H$\"{u}$rthle cell neoplasm is very difficult to judge histologically. For this reason, the biologic behavior of this tumor and its optimal treatment have come under considerable debate in recent years. In order to review the clinicopathologic features of the H$\"{u}$rthle cell neoplasm and to determine its optimal treatment modalities, we studied 26 patients with path logical proof of H$\"{u}$rthle cell tumor from January 1987 to September 1997. We also performed an immunohistochemical study using the monoclonal antibodies against antigen CD34 for the angiogenic activity of this tumor and evaluated the differences of microvessel density(MVD) between benign and malignant tumors. The age of the patients ranged from 1 to 71 years with a mean of 44.2 years. There were 6 males and 20 females(M : F= 1 : 3.3). The accuracies of fine needle aspiration biopsy and frozen section were very low; 6.3% and 34.8%, respectively. There were 20 benign tumors and 6 malignant tumors(23.1%). All the malignant tumors were microinvasive(intermediate) type which had minimal capsular invasion and most of them(5 cases) were diagnosed postoperatively. Any specific clinicopathologic differences were not seen between benign and intermediate groups. Most of the cases had conservative surgeries(15 ipsilateral lobectomy-isthmusectomy, 7 subtotal thyroidectomy) while total thyroidectomy was performed in 4 cases. Of the cases with malignant tumor, 2 had ipsilateral lobectomy-isthmusectomy, 3 had subtotal thyroidectomy and the remaining 1 had total thyroidectomy. Mean size of the tumors was 3.0 cm(0.1- 8.5 cm) in the greatest diameter and multiple tumors were seen in 6 cases(23.1 %). During the follow-up period, only one recurrence(3.8%) of benign tumor occurred but distant metastasis or cause-specific death was seen in the benign or intermediate groups. Mean MVDs of the benign(n=13) and intermediate(n=6) groups were $121.7{\pm}35.3$ and $114.3{\pm}31.7$, respectively and there was no statistical significance between them. In conclusion, because of the low accuracies of fine needle aspiration biopsy and frozen section for the H$\"{u}$rthle cell neoplasm, the extent of surgery could be individualized based on permanent pathologic examination; Conservative surgery would be adequate for patients with benign or intermediate H$\"{u}$rthle cell neoplasm and total or near-total thyroidectomy for those with definite malignancy.

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Diagnostic value of Thyroglobulin Measurement with Fine-needle Aspiration Biopsy for Lymph Node Metastases in Patients with a History of Differentiated Thyroid Cancer

  • Zhang, Hai-Shan;Wang, Ren-Jie;Fu, Qing-Feng;Gao, Shi;Sun, Bu-Tong;Sun, Hui;Ma, Qing-Jie
    • Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention
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    • v.15 no.24
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    • pp.10905-10909
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    • 2015
  • Purpose: The aim of this study was to evaluate the diagnostic value of FNA-Tg for detecting lymph node metastases in patients with a history of differentiated thyroid cancer (DTC). Materials and Methods: A total of 58 patients with DTC diagnosis and evidence of single or multiple suspicious cervical lymph nodes were assessed. All underwent total or near-total thyroidectomy with (35 cases) or without (23 cases) radioiodine (RAI) ablation, followed by thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) suppression therapy. A total of 68 lymph nodes were examined by ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration (US-FNA) for both cytological examination and FNA-Tg measurement. Serum Tg and anti-thyroglobulin antibody (TgAb) levels were also measured. Diagnostic performance including sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, positive (PPV) and negative predictive value (NPV) of FNAC and FNA-Tg were calculated and compared. The Spearman's rank correlation coefficient was used to estimate the relationship between FNA-Tg and serum TgAb. Results: The FNA-Tg levels were significantly higher with DTC metastatic lymph nodes (median 927.7 ng/mL, interquartile range 602.9 ng/mL) than non-metastatic lymph nodes (median 0.1 ng/mL, interquartile range 0.4 ng/mL) (p<0.01). Considering 1.0 ng/mL as a threshold value for FNA-Tg, the sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, PPV and NPV of FNA-Tg were 95.7%, 95.5%, 95.6%, 97.8% and 91.3%, respectively. The sensitivity and accuracy of the combination of FNAC and FNA-Tg were significantly higher than that of FNAC alone (p<0.05). The diagnostic performance of FNA-Tg was not significantly different between cases with or without RAI ablation, and the serum TgAb levels did not interfere with FNA-Tg measurements. Conclusions: Measurement of FNA-Tg is useful. The combination of FNAC and FNA-Tg is more sensitive and accurate for detecting lymph node metastases in patients with a history of DTC than FNAC alone. Serum TgAbs appear to be irrelevant for measurement of FNA-Tg.