• Title/Summary/Keyword: NIR

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THE EFFECT OF THE REPEATABILITY FILE IN THE NIRS EATTY ACIDS ANALYSIS OF ANIMAL EATS

  • Perez Marin, M.D.;De Pedro, E.;Garcia Olmo, J.;Garrido Varo, A.
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • 2001.06a
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    • pp.4107-4107
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    • 2001
  • Previous works have shown the viability of NIRS technology for the prediction of fatty acids in Iberian pig fat, but although the resulting equations showed high precision, in the predictions of new samples important fluctuations were detected, greater with the time passed from calibration development to NIRS analysis. This fact makes the use of NIRS calibrations in routine analysis difficult. Moreover, this problem only appears in products like fat, that show spectrums with very defined absorption peaks at some wavelengths. This circumstance causes a high sensibility to small changes of the instrument, which are not perceived with the normal checks. To avoid these inconveniences, the software WinISI 1.04 has a mathematic algorithm that consist of create a “Repeatability File”. This file is used during calibration development to minimize the variation sources that can affect the NIRS predictions. The objective of the current work is the evaluation of the use of a repeatability file in quantitative NIRS analysis of Iberian pig fat. A total of 188 samples of Iberian pig fat, produced by COVAP, were used. NIR data were recorded using a FOSS NIRSystems 6500 I spectrophotometer equipped with a spinning module. Samples were analysed by folded transmission, using two sample cells of 0.1mm pathlength and gold surface. High accuracy calibration equations were obtained, without and with repeatability file, to determine the content of six fatty acids: miristic (SECV$\sub$without/=0.07% r$^2$$\sub$without/=0.76 and SECV$\sub$with/=0.08% r$^2$$\sub$with/=0.65), Palmitic (SECV$\sub$without/=0.28 r$^2$$\sub$without/=0.97 and SECV$\sub$with/=0.24% r$^2$$\sub$with/=0.98), palmitoleic (SECV$\sub$without/=0.08 r$^2$$\sub$without/=0.94 and SECV$\sub$with/=0.09% r$^2$$\sub$with/=0.92), Stearic (SECV$\sub$without/=0.27 r$^2$$\sub$without/=0.97 and SECV$\sub$with/=0.29% r$^2$$\sub$with/=0.96), oleic (SECV$\sub$without/=0.20 r$^2$$\sub$without/=0.99 and SECV$\sub$with/=0.20% r$^2$$\sub$with/=0.99) and linoleic (SECV$\sub$without/=0.16 r$^2$$\sub$without/=0.98 and SECV$\sub$with/=0.16% r$^2$$\sub$with/=0.98). The use of a repeatability file like a tool to reduce the variation sources that can disturbed the prediction accuracy was very effective. Although in calibration results the differences are negligible, the effect caused by the repeatability file is appreciated mainly when are predicted new samples that are not in the calibration set and whose spectrum were recorded a long time after the equation development. In this case, bias values corresponding to fatty acids predictions were lower when the repeatability file was used: miristic (bias$\sub$without/=-0.05 and bias$\sub$with/=-0.04), Palmitic (bias$\sub$without/=-0.42 and bias$\sub$with/=-0.11), Palmitoleic (bias$\sub$without/=-0.03 and bias$\sub$with/=0.03), Stearic (bias$\sub$without/=0.47 and bias$\sub$with/=0.28), oleic (bias$\sub$without/=0.14 and bias$\sub$with/=-0.04) and linoleic (bias$\sub$without/=0.25 and bias$\sub$with/=-0.20).

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NIRS AS AN ESSENTIAL TOOL IN FOOD SAFETY PROGRAMS: FEED INGREDIENTS PREDICTION H COMMERCIAL COMPOUND FEEDING STUFFS

  • Varo, Ana-Garrido;MariaDoloresPerezMarin;Cabrera, Augusto-Gomez;JoseEmilioGuerrero Ginel;FelixdePaz;NatividadDelgado
    • Proceedings of the Korean Society of Near Infrared Spectroscopy Conference
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    • 2001.06a
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    • pp.1153-1153
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    • 2001
  • Directive 79/373/EEC on the marketing of compound feeding stuffs, provided far a flexible declaration arrangement confined to the indication of the feed materials without stating their quantity and the possibility was retained to declare categories of feed materials instead of declaring the feed materials themselves. However, the BSE (Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy) and the dioxin crisis have demonstrated the inadequacy of the current provisions and the need of detailed qualitative and quantitative information. On 10 January 2000 the Commission submitted to the Council a proposal for a Directive related to the marketing of compound feeding stuffs and the Council adopted a Common Position (EC N$^{\circ}$/2001) published at the Official Journal of the European Communities of 2. 2. 2001. According to the EC (EC N$^{\circ}$ 6/2001) the feeds material contained in compound feeding stufs intended for animals other than pets must be declared according to their percentage by weight, by descending order of weight and within the following brackets (I :< 30%; II :> 15 to 30%; III :> 5 to 15%; IV : 2% to 5%; V: < 2%). For practical reasons, it shall be allowed that the declarations of feed materials included in the compound feeding stuffs are provided on an ad hoc label or accompanying document. However, documents alone will not be sufficient to restore public confidence on the animal feed industry. The objective of the present work is to obtain calibration equations fur the instanteneous and simultaneous prediction of the chemical composition and the percentage of ingredients of unground compound feeding stuffs. A total of 287 samples of unground compound feeds marketed in Spain were scanned in a FOSS-NIR Systems 6500 monochromator using a rectangular cup with a quartz window (16 $\times$ 3.5 cm). Calibration equations were obtained for the prediction of moisture ($R^2$= 0.84, SECV = 0.54), crude protein ($R^2$= 0.96, SECV = 0.75), fat ($R^2$= 0.86, SECV = 0.54), crude fiber ($R^2$= 0.97, SECV = 0.63) and ashes ($R^2$= 0.86, SECV = 0.83). The sane set of spectroscopic data was used to predict the ingredient composition of the compound feeds. The preliminary results show that NIRS has an excellent ability ($r^2$$\geq$ 0, 9; RPD $\geq$ 3) for the prediction of the percentage of inclusion of alfalfa, sunflower meal, gluten meal, sugar beet pulp, palm meal, poultry meal, total meat meal (meat and bone meal and poultry meal) and whey. Other equations with a good predictive performance ($R^2$$\geq$0, 7; 2$\leq$RPD$\leq$3) were the obtained for the prediction of soya bean meal, corn, molasses, animal fat and lupin meal. The equations obtained for the prediction of other constituents (barley, bran, rice, manioc, meat and bone meal, fish meal, calcium carbonate, ammonium clorure and salt have an accuracy enough to fulfill the requirements layed down by the Common Position (EC Nº 6/2001). NIRS technology should be considered as an essential tool in food Safety Programs.

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Application of Hyperspectral Imagery to Decision Tree Classifier for Assessment of Spring Potato (Solanum tuberosum) Damage by Salinity and Drought (초분광 영상을 이용한 의사결정 트리 기반 봄감자(Solanum tuberosum)의 염해 판별)

  • Kang, Kyeong-Suk;Ryu, Chan-Seok;Jang, Si-Hyeong;Kang, Ye-Seong;Jun, Sae-Rom;Park, Jun-Woo;Song, Hye-Young;Lee, Su Hwan
    • Korean Journal of Agricultural and Forest Meteorology
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    • v.21 no.4
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    • pp.317-326
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    • 2019
  • Salinity which is often detected on reclaimed land is a major detrimental factor to crop growth. It would be advantageous to develop an approach for assessment of salinity and drought damages using a non-destructive method in a large landfills area. The objective of this study was to examine applicability of the decision tree classifier using imagery for classifying for spring potatoes (Solanum tuberosum) damaged by salinity or drought at vegetation growth stages. We focused on comparing the accuracies of OA (Overall accuracy) and KC (Kappa coefficient) between the simple reflectance and the band ratios minimizing the effect on the light unevenness. Spectral merging based on the commercial band width with full width at half maximum (FWHM) such as 10 nm, 25 nm, and 50 nm was also considered to invent the multispectral image sensor. In the case of the classification based on original simple reflectance with 5 nm of FWHM, the selected bands ranged from 3-13 bands with the accuracy of less than 66.7% of OA and 40.8% of KC in all FWHMs. The maximum values of OA and KC values were 78.7% and 57.7%, respectively, with 10 nm of FWHM to classify salinity and drought damages of spring potato. When the classifier was built based on the band ratios, the accuracy was more than 95% of OA and KC regardless of growth stages and FWHMs. If the multispectral image sensor is made with the six bands (the ratios of three bands) with 10 nm of FWHM, it is possible to classify the damaged spring potato by salinity or drought using the reflectance of images with 91.3% of OA and 85.0% of KC.

Development of Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) Model for Amylose and Crude Protein Contents Analysis in Rice Germplasm (근적외선 분광광도계를 이용한 벼 유전자원 아밀로스 및 단백질 함량분석을 위한 모델개발)

  • Oh, Sejong;Lee, Myung Chul;Choi, Yu Mi;Lee, Sukyeung;Oh, Myeongwon;Ali, Asjad;Chae, Byungsoo;Hyun, Do Yoon
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.30 no.1
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    • pp.38-49
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    • 2017
  • The objective of this research was to develop Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (NIRS) model for amylose and protein contents analysis of large accessions of rice germplasm. A total of 511 accessions of rice germplasm were obtained from National Agrobiodiversity Center to make calibration equation. The accessions were measured by NIRS for both brown and milled brown rice which was additionally assayed by iodine and Kjeldahl method for amylose and crude protein contents. The range of amylose and protein content in milled brown rice were 6.15-32.25% and 4.72-14.81%, respectively. The correlation coefficient ($R^2$), standard error of calibration (SEC) and slope of brown rice were 0.906, 1.741, 0.995 in amylose and 0.941, 0.276, 1.011 in protein, respectively, whereas $R^2$, SEC and slope of milled brown rice values were 0.956, 1.159, 1.001 in amylose and 0.982, 0.164, 1.003 in protein, respectively. Validation results of this NIRS equation showed a high coefficient determination in prediction for amylose (0.962) and protein (0.986), and also low standard error in prediction (SEP) for amylose (2.349) and protein (0.415). These results suggest that NIRS equation model should be practically applied for determination of amylose and crude protein contents in large accessions of rice germplasm.

Supplemental Lighting by HPS and PLS Lamps Affects Growth and Yield of Cucumber during Low Radiation Period (약광기 HPS와 PLS lamp를 이용한 오이의 보광재배효과)

  • Kwon, Joon-Kook;Yu, In-Ho;Park, Kyoung-Sub;Lee, Jae-Han;Kim, Jin-Hyun;Lee, Jung-Sup;Lee, Dong-Soo
    • Journal of Bio-Environment Control
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    • v.27 no.4
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    • pp.400-406
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    • 2018
  • In this experiment the effect of supplemental lighting on the growth and yield of cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. 'Fresh') plants during low radiation period of winter season were investigated in glasshouses using common high-pressure sodium (HPS) lamps and newly developed plasma lighting system (PLS) lamps. Plants grown without supplemental lighting were considered as a control. Supplemental lighting was provided from November 20th, 2015 to March 15th, 2016 to ensure 14-hour photoperiod (natural+supplemental light), also lamps were operated automatically when the outside sun radiation levels were less than $100W{\cdot}m^{-2}$. Spectral analysis showed that HPS lamp had a discrete spectrum, lacked of the radiation in the 400-550 nm wave band (blue-green light), but had a high output in the orange-red region (550-650 nm). A higher red light output resulted in an increased red to far-red (R/FR) ratio in HPS lamp. PLS had a continuous spectrum and had a peak radiation in green region (490-550 nm). HPS has 12.6% lower output in photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) but 12.6% higher output in near infra-red (NIR) spectral regions compared to PLS. Both HPS and PLS lamps emitted very low levels of ultra-violet radiation (300-400 nm). Supplemental lighting both from HPS and PLS lamps increased plant height, leaf number, internode number and dry weight of cucumber plants compared to control. Photosynthetic activity of cucumber plants grown under two supplemental lighting systems was comparable. Number of fruits per cucumber plant (fruit weight per plant) in control, PLS, and HPS plots were 21.2 (2.9 kg), 38.7 (5.5 kg), and 40.4 (5.6 kg), respectively, thereby increasing yield by 1.8-1.9 times in comparison with control. An analysis of the economic feasibility of supplemental lighting in cucumber cultivation showed that considering lamp installation and electricity costs the income from supplemental lighting increased by 37% and 62% for PLS and HPS lamps, respectively.

Statistical Analysis of Protein Content in Wheat Germplasm Based on Near-infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (밀 유전자원의 근적외선분광분석 예측모델에 의한 단백질 함량 변이분석)

  • Oh, Sejong;Choi, Yu Mi;Yoon, Hyemyeong;Lee, Sukyeung;Yoo, Eunae;Hyun, Do Yoon;Shin, Myoung-Jae;Lee, Myung Chul;Chae, Byungsoo
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.64 no.4
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    • pp.353-365
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    • 2019
  • A near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) prediction model was set to establish a rapid analysis system of wheat germplasm and provide statistical information on the characteristics of protein contents. The variability index value (VIV) of calibration resources was 0.80, the average protein content was 13.2%, and the content range was from 7.0% to 13.2%. After measuring the near-infrared spectra of calibration resources, the NIRS prediction model was developed through a regression analysis between protein content and spectra data, and then optimized by excluding outliers. The standard error of calibration, R2, and the slope of the optimized model were 0.132, 0.997, and 1.000 respectively, and those of external validation results were 0.994, 0.191, and 1.013, respectively. Based on these results, a developed NIRS model could be applied to the rapid analysis of protein in wheat. The distribution of NIRS protein content of 6,794 resources were analyzed using a normal distribution analysis. The VIV was 0.79, the average protein was 12.1%, and the content range of resources accounting for 42.1% and 68% of the total accessions were 10-13% and 9.5-14.6%, respectively. The composition of total resources was classified into breeding line (3,128), landrace (2,705), and variety (961). The VIV in breeding line was 0.80, the protein average was 11.8%, and the contents of 68% of total resources ranged from 9.2% to 14.5%. The VIV in landrace was 0.76, the protein average was 12.1%, and the content range of resources of 68% of total accessions was 9.8-14.4%. The VIV in variety was 0.80, the protein average was 12.8%, and the accessions representing 68% of total resources ranged from 10.2% to 15.4%. These results should be helpful to the related experts of wheat breeding.

Effect of Head Rice Ratio on Rice Palatability (쌀의 완전미 비율 증가가 식미에 미치는 영향)

  • Chung Nam-Jin;Park Jeong-Hwa;Kim Kee-Jong;Kim Je-Kyu
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.50 no.spc1
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    • pp.29-32
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    • 2005
  • This experiment aimed to estimate the effect of imperfect rice on rice palatability. Rice cultivar, Ilpumbyeo, was cultivated by direct-seeding on flooded paddy surface with 11 kg/10a nitrogen application. Palatability of harvested rice was measured by NIR spectroscope. Brown rice was divided according to their appearance namely, perfect, discolored, green-kerneled, and immature opaque with a composition ratio of $75.7\%,\;11.0\%,\;8.0\%,\;and\;5.3\%$ respectively. When the perfect brown rice was milled, the grain were composed of head, cracked, and white core & belly, at $64.7\%,\;25.3\%\;and\;10.0\%$ respectively. The milled rice of discolored brown rice had similar composition with the perfect rice. The milled green-kerneled vice, on the other hand, had $36\%$ head rice and $64\%$ white core & belly rice. The immature opaque brown rice, when milled, had $25.3\%$ white core & belly and $74.7\%$ damage & opaque rice. With the respect to grain quality, the viscosity of white core at belly rice and damaged & opaque rice was lower than that of head rice. In contrast, their protein content was a little higher than that of head rice. The palatability value of pure imperfect rice was much lower than head rice. The palatability value of damaged & opaque rice was the lowest among the imperfect rices. When mixed with head rice, the damaged & opaque rice impacted on the deterioration of vice palatability. Mixing $1\%$ each of white core at belly rice and damaged h opaque rice decreased the palatability value by $5\%$ as compared with the head rice.

Evaluation of Feed Values for Imported Hay Using Near Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy (근적외선분광법을 이용한 수입 건초의 사료가치 평가)

  • Park, Hyung Soo;Kim, Ji Hye;Choi, Ki Choon;Oh, Mirae;Lee, Ki-Won;Lee, Bae Hun
    • Journal of The Korean Society of Grassland and Forage Science
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    • v.39 no.4
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    • pp.258-263
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    • 2019
  • Near infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) has become increasingly used as a rapid and accurate method of evaluating some chemical compositions in forages. The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of NIRS, applied to imported forage, to estimate the moisture and chemical parameters for imported hays. A population of 392 imported hay representing a wide range in chemical parameters was used in this study. Samples of forage were scanned at 1 nm intervals over the wavelength range 680-2500nm and the optical data was recorded as log 1/Reflectance(log 1/R), which scanned in intact fresh condition. The spectral data were regressed against a range of chemical parameters using partial least squares(PLS) multivariate analysis in conjunction with spectral math treatments to reduced the effect of extraneous noise. The optimum calibrations were selected based on the highest coefficients of determination in cross validation(R2) and the lowest standard error of cross-validation(SECV). The results of this study showed that NIRS predicted the chemical parameters with very high degree of accuracy. The R2 and SECV for imported hay calibration were 0.92(SECV 0.61%) for moisture, 0.98(SECV 0.65%) for acid detergent fiber, 0.97(SECV 0.40%) for neutral detergent fiber, 0.99(SECV 0.06%) for crude protein and 0.97(SECV 3.04%) for relative feed value on a dry matter(%), respectively. Results of this experiment showed the possibility of NIRS method to predict the moisture and chemical composition of imported hay in Korea for routine analysis method to evaluate the feed value.

Growth and Morphological Characteristics of Introduced Sorghum Germplasm (도입 수수 유전자원의 생육 및 형태적 특성)

  • 강정훈;이호진
    • KOREAN JOURNAL OF CROP SCIENCE
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    • v.41 no.2
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    • pp.207-214
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    • 1996
  • This study was conducted to obtain fundamental information on forage sorghum breeding in forage crop field of Livestock Experiment Station at Suwon from 1986 to 1991. The charcterization of sorghum germplasm was performed through 1986 to 1987, and after parental lines were selected from diverse sorghum germplasm on the basis of flowering date, plant height and several morphological characters for forage sorghum Fl hybrids. The range of variation of 50% flowering date and plant height were greater in order of forage sorghum sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum. The average flowering date was earlier in sudangrass and male sterile line of grain sorghum than forage sorghum lines from the tested sorghum germplasms. And the average plant height was tall in order of forage sorghum, sudangrass and male sterile lines of grain sorghum. There were remarkable morphological variations between sudangrass lines and male sterile lines of grain sorghum such as plant color, leaf midrib color, glume color, seed coat color, head compactness and shape, awns, grain covering and 100 seed weight.

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Construction of Database System on Amylose and Protein Contents Distribution in Rice Germplasm Based on NIRS Data (벼 유전자원의 아밀로스 및 단백질 성분 함량 분포에 관한 자원정보 구축)

  • Oh, Sejong;Choi, Yu Mi;Lee, Myung Chul;Lee, Sukyeung;Yoon, Hyemyeong;Rauf, Muhammad;Chae, Byungsoo
    • Korean Journal of Plant Resources
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    • v.32 no.2
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    • pp.124-143
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    • 2019
  • This study was carried out to build a database system for amylose and protein contents of rice germplasm based on NIRS (Near-Infrared Reflectance Spectroscopy) analysis data. The average waxy type amylose contents was 8.7% in landrace, variety and weed type, whereas 10.3% in breeding line. In common rice, the average amylose contents was 22.3% for landrace, 22.7% for variety, 23.6% for weed type and 24.2% for breeding line. Waxy type resources comprised of 5% of the total germplasm collections, whereas low, intermediate and high amylose content resources share 5.5%, 20.5% and 69.0% of total germplasm collections, respectively. The average percent of protein contents was 8.2 for landrace, 8.0 for variety, and 7.9 for weed type and breeding line. The average Variability Index Value was 0.62 in waxy rice, 0.80 in common rice, and 0.51 in protein contents. The accession ratio in arbitrary ranges of landrace was 0.45 in amylose contents ranging from 6.4 to 8.7%, and 0.26 in protein ranging from 7.3 to 8.2%. In the variety, it was 0.32 in amylose ranging from 20.1 to 22.7%, and 0.51 in protein ranging from 6.1 to 8.3%. And also, weed type was 0.67 in amylose ranging from 6.6 to 9.7%, and 0.33 in protein ranging from 7.0 to 7.9%, whereas, in breeding line it was 0.47 in amylose ranging from 10.0 to 12.0%, and 0.26 in protein ranging from 7.0 to 7.9%. These results could be helpful to build database programming system for germplasm management.