• Title/Summary/Keyword: Milan

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A Study on the Historical Status of Giovanni Marinoni in the Tradition of Cadastre and Cartography in 18th Century Italy (18세기 이탈리아의 지도제작의 전통과 조반니 마리노니의 역사적 위상에 관한 연구)

  • Kim, Il-Hyun;Kim, Kwan-Soo
    • Journal of architectural history
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    • v.21 no.5
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    • pp.47-56
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    • 2012
  • This research focuses on the role of Giovanni Marinioni during the formation of the modern cartography and cadastre during the 18th century. Initial study began with Giambattista Nolli's Roman map noticing not much information was available to acknowledge his activities during his Milan period before the departure to Rome. It became evident that Marinoni was a key person to understand the complex circumstances in which the professional training and formation of Giambattista Nolli took place as later worked as an anonymous intern during the elaboration of Theresian Cadastre of Milan. The other important figures are Leandro Anguissola and Giovanni Filippini. Anguissola's position and precedent work facilitated Marinoni's multidisciplinary activities that he had performed in Vienna and Milano in the field of making urban maps of those two cities. On the other hand, Filippini not only collaborated with Marinoni but also introduced Nolli in the field of cartography. These activities show transitional and dual aspects that characterized the period in which important irreversible changes that occur during the reign of Habsburg empire and in the rest of the Europe toward the formation of modern society and state. Marinoni's theories and praxis greatly influenced Nolli's later commitment under the Savoia and later on the elaboration of the 'Pianta Grande di Roma' in 1748.

Stress path adapting Strut-and-Tie models in cracked and uncracked R.C. elements

  • Biondini, Fabio;Bontempi, Franco;Malerba, Pier Giorgio
    • Structural Engineering and Mechanics
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    • v.12 no.6
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    • pp.685-698
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    • 2001
  • In this paper, a general method for the automatic search for Strut-and-Tie (S&T) models representative of possible resistant mechanisms in reinforced concrete elements is proposed. The representativeness criterion here adopted is inspired to the principle of minimum strain energy and requires the consistency of the model with a reference stress field. In particular, a highly indeterminate pin-jointed framework of a given layout is generated within the assigned geometry of the concrete element and an optimum truss is found by the minimisation of a suitable objective function. Such a function allows us to search the optimum truss according to a reference stress field deduced through a F.E.A. and assumed as representative of the given continuum. The theoretical principles and the mathematical formulation of the method are firstly explained; the search for a S&T model suitable for the design of a deep beam shows the method capability in handling the reference stress path. Finally, since the analysis may consider the structure as linear-elastic or cracked and non-linear in both the component materials, it is shown how the proposed procedure allows us to verify the possibilities of activation of the design model, oriented to the serviceability condition and deduced in the linear elastic field, by following the evolution of the resistant mechanisms in the cracked non-linear field up to the structural failure.

PREPARATION, PHYSICAL PROPERTIES AND MODEL ANALYSIS OF LINEAR HOMOGENEOUS POLYURETHANE

  • Laporta, M.;Pegoraro, M.;Bianchi, F.;Consolati, G.;Zanderighi, L.
    • Proceedings of the Membrane Society of Korea Conference
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    • 2003.07a
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    • pp.81-85
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    • 2003
  • PU block polymers are constituted by sequences of constitutional units CU which are : a diisocyanate T, a polyol or a polyamine V, an extensor E .Due to the CU different solubility parameters ,hard and soft micro domains are formed;they can aggregate into different phases. A linear PU can be described by two parameters R=T/N and $R_{E}$=(R-1)V/E.A stoichiometric model is proposed which gives the general formula of all the possible PU: X((TV)$_{k}$(TE)$_{n}$)$_{m}$X , where k and m can be calculated from the experimental molecular weights respectively of pre polymer and polymer and n= R-1.Physical properties depend on PU composition and on nature of CU. I.R. analysis is useful for discovering the hydrogen bonds location : DSC gives informations on the presence of the different phases .PALS analysis shows that nano cavities become tighter on increasing n. A series of particular Pus ,obtained from :TDI, a low molecular weight polyol, a cyclic extensor, at different R and RE was prepared and analysed. These PU are amorphous, monophasic and appear to be good candidates for membranes.nes.nes.

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A Study on Spatial Construction of Tectonic in Russia Constructivism's Sculpture - Focused on the Milan Expo, 2015 Pavilion - (러시아 구성주의 조각의 텍토닉(Tectonic)적 공간 특성 - 밀라노 엑스포(Milan Expo, 2015) 파빌리온 중심으로 -)

  • Kim, Min-A;Lee, Chan
    • Korean Institute of Interior Design Journal
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    • v.24 no.6
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    • pp.107-118
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    • 2015
  • Today, The representation of the modern space is experimented with shape and surface of the de-structural point of view to make architecture and space, in terms of not being able to make defined by single regulation. However, it can correspond to the rapidly changing modern, but it is easy to fade of architecture fundamental meaning. Along with the need for the rise of the construction of fundamental space, should be built a 'tectonic' spatial, which is said to be building of logos. Tectonic, as norms for expressing the fundamental meaning of architecture, as to expression of construction, be unfolded with dualism such as science and art, technology and express, structure and formation, and it was introduced into the architecture through the construction expression of space that was a tectonic discussion of 19c german architects. On the other hand Constructivism which is avant-garde formative movement with Russia revolution, constructed 'sculpture' with the formative principles as tectonic. Tectonic's Formative characteristics can draw a conclusion with of tectonic characteristics of constructivism sculpture, space of logos will be realized through its study. Other hand, The pavilion, as symbol space, can be analyzed by tectonic properties, Pavilion, meaning the space is expressed in a variety of tectonic expression. As tectonic construction, fundamental ideology and symbolization of space is revealed metaphorically and visually.

Complementary Color Scheme Which Appeared in Women's Fashion Collections of New York, Milan, Paris, and London

  • Kwon, Hae-Sook
    • Journal of Fashion Business
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    • v.13 no.6
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    • pp.125-136
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    • 2009
  • The main objective of this research was to understand the characteristics of complementary color scheme through the analysis of contemporary women's fashion color coordination as they appear in the 'Collections'. Data collection of 115 was done through review of 'pr$\hat{e}$t-$\grave{a}$-porter Collections' of four cities; Milan, London, New York, Paris. Statistical analysis of frequency and also qualitative interpretation of characteristics of complementary color harmony characteristics which appeared in four collections were completed. The main findings were as followed; (1) Only 115 complementary color schemes out of 4968 two color combinations appeared. Compared the comparative ratios of appearance frequency between the two color combination and the complementary color harmony, London showed the highest, and followed by New York, and Milan and Paris. (2)The combined color type of 'red+green' was the most frequently appeared, and followed by 'violet+yellow' and 'orange+blue'. For the type of tone harmony, the contrast tone showed the most, and followed by the similarity and identity. According to the type of complementary color combination, the type of tone harmony used differently. Some differences showed in the types of color harmony and tone harmony between collections. (3) The complementary color scheme which shown in four collections harmonized two opposite colors mainly through the strong tone contrast and this could cause tension along with interest in the image. The complementary colors intensified and brought out the attributes each other. More details, high contrast of two complementary colors of yellow and violet created a vibrant look especially when used at higher saturation. Sometimes, however, some tone variations of two hues neutralized the strong effect and sometimes enhanced each other. When they used in similarity tones or identity tones in light colors, the tension was reduced and became softened but still presented nice harmony. In the type of 'red+green' color harmony, the various color combinations were demonstrated, mostly through tone manipulation of green color. The similarity tone harmony, which used the most, could effect a better sense of harmony and present more sophisticated looks. When used in contrast tone harmony, some changes in its own color which have only one color of two the excessive intensity led a good harmony. The 'orange+blue' color harmony was shown the least and used three tone harmony almost the same ratio. In this color harmony, blue amplified its energy and brilliance of orange and seemed to work better when one color was at a lower intensity than the other. In harmony with a similarity and an identity tone, this color harmony produces a stable and calm image. (4) The complementary scheme appeared more frequently in the S/S collections than in A/W collections and showed some differences in the types of color harmony and tone harmony between seasons, however, no big differences between collections.

The Color Characteristics of Masculinity Presented in Modern Women's Suit - Focus on the Paris, London, New York and Milan Collections from 2004 F/W to 2006 F/W - (현대 여성 수트에 있어서 남성성(masculinity)을 나타내는 색채 특성 - 2004~2006년 F/W의 파리, 런던, 뉴욕, 밀라노 컬렉션을 중심으로 -)

  • Kwon, Ji-Hyun;Kim , Young-In
    • Journal of the Korean Society of Costume
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    • v.58 no.2
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    • pp.62-77
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    • 2008
  • This study aims to analyze color characteristics centered by women's suit styles that represent masculinity remarkably. Through this, it figures out color's type and continuance availability as a representing tool to express masculinity to provide useful color information which can be applied effectively to various color planning. For this research, related images were collected among women's pants suits appeared in $2004{\sim}2006's$ Paris, London, New York and Milan collection F/W that are most similar to modern man's suit. Among them, the study analyzes 319 pictures where the features of masculinity were represented effectively. The referred color values were earned by converting $L^*a^*b^*$ values measured through the color extracting tool of Computer program (Adobe Photoshop CS) and color tone characteristic were analyzed by classifying 12 color PCCS and 5 achromatic colors. The result of the study are as follows: First, based on standard of color hue and tone, in terms of color hue, PB, YR, Y were frequently shown up but G, BG series were not found much after analyzing overall women's pants suit color characteristics shown in $2004{\sim}2006$ Paris, London, New York and Milan collection. Second, the color analysis about 3years of $2004{\sim}2006$ tells that achromatic colors have been most widely used in every year. In terms of color hue, PB, YR, Y series were appeared most popular and G, BG classes weren't appeared frequently. In addition, once looking at yearly color tone distribution trend, like overall color tone distribution result, Bk, w, dkg, g, p were highly used as sequential and b, v, dp, sf, ItGy series show low distribution level. And such a distribution level of low and high in frequency has been showed continuously as a similar style. Accordingly, through the study, as a tool to express masculinity in women's suit, achromatic colors like black and white series and PB, YR, Y series color were investigated as most popular uses. And as color tones, Bk, w, dkg, g, p were used frequently.

Birth Weight and the Development of Functional Gastrointestinal Disorders in Infants

  • Baldassarre, Maria Elisabetta;Di Mauro, Antonio;Salvatore, Silvia;Tafuri, Silvio;Bianchi, Francesco Paolo;Dattoli, Enzo;Morando, Lucia;Pensabene, Licia;Meneghin, Fabio;Dilillo, Dario;Mancini, Valentina;Talarico, Valentina;Tandoi, Francesco;Zuccotti, Gianvincenzo;Agosti, Massimo;Laforgia, Nicola
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.23 no.4
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    • pp.366-376
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    • 2020
  • Purpose: To assess the association between birth weight and the development of functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs) in the first year of life. Methods: This is a secondary analysis of a prospective cohort multicenter study including neonates, consecutively enrolled at birth, and followed up for one year. At birth all infants were classified by birth weight as extremely low (ELBW), very low, or low when <1,000, <1,500, and <2,500 g, respectively, and by birth weight for gestational age as appropriate (AGA, weight in the 10-90th percentile), small (SGA, weight <10th percentile), and large (LGA, weight >90th percentile) for gestational age. FGIDs were classified according to the Rome III criteria and assessed at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months of life. Results: Among 1,152 newborns enrolled, 934 (81.1%) completed the study: 302 (32.3%) were preterm, 35 (3.7%) were ELBW, 104 (11.1%) were SGA, 782 (83.7%) were AGA, and 48 (5.1%) were LGA infants. Overall, throughout the first year of life, 718 (76.9%) reported at least one FGID. The proportion of infants presenting with at least one FGID was significantly higher in ELBW (97%) compared to LBW (74%) (p=0.01) and in LGA (85.4%) and SGA (85.6%) compared to AGA (75.2%) (p=0.0001). On multivariate analysis, SGA was significantly associated with infantile colic. Conclusion: We observed an increased risk of FGIDs in ELBW, SGA, and LGA neonates. Our results suggest that prenatal factors determining birth weight may influence the development of FGIDs in infants. Understanding the role of all potential risk factors may provide new insights and targeted approaches for FGIDs.

2개국 합작의 대표적 성공사례-Euromissile사

  • Jang, Myeong-Jin
    • Defense and Technology
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    • no.10 s.140
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    • pp.44-53
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    • 1990
  • 1972년 프랑스의 Aerospatiale사와 독일의 MBB사의 합작투자회사로 설립된 Euromissile사는 원래 양 회사의 주요과 제인 Hot, Milan, Roland 사업을 관리하기 위한 목적으로 15년 동안 유지될 계획이이었다. 그러나 현재 Euromissile사의 설립은 성공적으로 평가되고 있으며, 양회사는 지난 1987년에 또다시 15년간의 Euromissile사 유지계약에 합의하였다. Euromissile사에 부여된 주요업무는 합작과제의 관리기능과 마케팅 활동이며, 나머지 연구개발 업무나 생산은 모회사에서 수행된다.

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