• Title/Summary/Keyword: Mechanical parts

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Effect of Various Parameters on Stress Distribution around Holes in Mechanically Fastened Composite Laminates (기계적으로 체결된 복합재료 평판에서 다양한 인자의 영향에 따른 원공 주위의 응력분포)

  • Choi Jae-Min;Chun Heoung-Jae;Byun Joon-Hyung
    • Composites Research
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    • v.18 no.6
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    • pp.9-18
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    • 2005
  • With the wide applications of fiber-reinforced composite material in aero-structures and mechanical parts, the design of composite joints have become a very important research area because the joints are often the weakest areas in composite structures. This paper presents an analytical study of the stress distributions in mechanically single-fastened and multi-fastened composite laminates. The finite element models which treat the pin and hole contact problem using a contact stress analysis are described. A dimensionless stress concentration factor is used to compare the stress distributions in composite laminates quantitatively In the case of single-pin loaded composite laminate, the effects of stacking sequence, the ratio of a hole diameter and the width of a laminate (W/D ratio), the ratio of hole diameter and distance from edge to hole (E/D ratio), friction coefficient and clamping force are considered. In the case of multi-pin loaded composite laminate, the influence of the number of pins, pitch distance, number of rows, row spacing and hole pattern are considered. The results show that P/D ratio and E/D ratio affect more on stress distributions near the hole boundary than the other factors. In the case of multi-pin loaded composite laminate, the stress concentration in the double column case is better than the other cases of multi-pin loaded composite laminate.

3D Precision Measurement of Scanning Moire Using Line Scan Camera (라인스캔 카메라를 이용한 3차원 정밀 측정)

  • Kim, Hyun-Ju;Yoon, Doo-Hyun;Kim, Hak-Il
    • Korean Journal of Optics and Photonics
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    • v.19 no.5
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    • pp.376-380
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    • 2008
  • This paper presents the Projection Moire method using a line scan camera. The high resolution feature of a line scan camera makes it possible to scan an image quickly, thus enabling a much quicker 3D profile. This method uses a high resolution line scan camera making it possible to scan an image at high speed simultaneously measuring the 3D profile of a large FOV. When using a high resolution scan camera, a full FOV is scanned, thus requiring just one movement of a projection grating. As a result, the number of grating movements is reduced drastically. The end result is a faster and more accurate 3D measurement. Moving the grating too quickly causes vibration in the imaging system, which will normally be required to apply a stitching technique when using an area scan camera. However the technique is not required when using a line scan camera. Compared with the previous techniques, it has the advantages of simple hardware without moving mechanical parts - single exposure for obtaining three-dimensional information. A method using a high resolution line scan camera can be used in mass production to measure the bump height of wafers or the bump height of package substrates.

Structural Design and Analysis of a Hydraulic Coiling Arm for Offshore Wind-turbine Submarine Cable (해상풍력 해저케이블 하역용 유압식 코일링 암 구조설계 및 해석)

  • Kim, Myung-Hwan;Kim, Dong-Hyun;Oh, Min-Woo
    • Journal of the Computational Structural Engineering Institute of Korea
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    • v.26 no.1
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    • pp.1-7
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    • 2013
  • Structural design and analysis of a coiling arm unloading machine for submarine cable have been originally conducted in this study. Three-dimensional CAD modeling process is practically applied for the structural design in detail. Finite element method(FEM) and multi-body dynamics(MBD) analyses are also used to verify the safety and required motions of the designed coiling arm structure. The effective moving functions of the designed coiling arm with respect to rotational and radial motions are achieved by adopting bearing-roller mechanical parts and hydraulic system. Critical design loading conditions due to its self weight, carrying cables, offshore wind, and hydraulic system over operation conditions are considered for the present structural analyses. In addition, possible inclined ground conditions for the installation of the designed coiling arm are also considered to verify overturn stability. The present hydraulic type coiling arm system is originally designed and developed in this study. The developed coiling arm has been installed at a harbor, successfully tested its operational functions, and finished practical unloading mission of the submarine cable.

Development of Operating S/W and DBMS for Deep-sea Manganese Nodule Miner (심해저 망간단괴 집광기의 운영 소프트웨어 및 데이터베이스 관리시스템 개발)

  • Park, Soung-Jae;Yeu, Tae-Kyeong;Yoon, Suk-Min;Hong, Sup;Kim, Hyung-Woo;Choi, Jong-Su;Kim, Sang-Bong
    • The Sea:JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN SOCIETY OF OCEANOGRAPHY
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    • v.13 no.3
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    • pp.229-236
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    • 2008
  • The deep-sea miner is the tracked vehicle system which drives on the deep-seabed and gathers a manganese nodules. The miner is operated by remote control in real-time by the station of surface vessel. So operating S/W is a important part of miner remote operating. At present, the test miner has been designed and manufactured for near-shore sea-test. The test miner consists of mechanical parts, and electric-electronic parts. Because those parts should be controled and monitored remotely, operating S/W for control and monitoring is necessary by all means. In this paper, real-time operating S/W for a control and monitoring of the test miner was designed and developed using PXI, embedded controller and LabVIEW. This real-time operating S/W was developed for an efficient test of test miner in a near seabed area. Moreover, database management system(DBMS) was developed too for the data management of test miner monitoring using MS SQL and LabVIEW.

Study on Vehicle Deceleration Control in School Zones by Taking Driver's Comfort into Account (스쿨 존에서 운전자의 승차감을 수반한 차량 감속 제어에 관한 연구)

  • Cho, Hyo-Seung;Kim, Hyoung-Seok;Lee, Byung-Ryong
    • Transactions of the Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers A
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    • v.34 no.10
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    • pp.1359-1366
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    • 2010
  • Recently, many electronic control techniques for vehicles have been developed and applied. One of the technologies can be X-by-wire such as throttle-by-wire, brake-by-wire, steer-by-wire, and etc, in which most of mechanical parts are replaced into electrical wire and actuators. In this study, the effect of throttle-by-wire and brake-by-wire control systems on vehicle velocity control, especially in a school zone, are taken into consideration. The number of accidents reported in school zones is higher than that in other places. The reason for this is that many vehicle drivers do not obey speed limit regulations. Moreover, some of the students are careless while crossing the streets. Therefore, in this study, we attempt to develop a method using throttle-by-wire and brake-by-wire control systems for automatically reducing the vehicle speed such that it will be within the speed limit. First, an engine model and a transmission system model are developed for a specific vehicle model. Second, speed reduction is carried out such that the reduction follows a pre-designed cubic spline trajectory; the trajectory is determined such that rapid deceleration, which causes discomfort to the driver and passengers, can be prevented, for which a fuzzy-PID control algorithm is applied for the trajectory following control. Finally, simulation results are presented to verify the performance of the proposed speed reduction control system.

The development of the Ionizer using clean room (청정환경용 정전기 제거장치 개발)

  • Jeong, Jong-Hyeog;Woo, Dong Sik
    • Journal of the Korea Academia-Industrial cooperation Society
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.603-608
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    • 2018
  • Although the voltage-applied discharge method is most widely used in the semiconductor and display industries, periodic management costs are incurred because the method causes defects due to the absorption of ambient fine dust and causes emitter tip contamination due to the discharge. The emitter tip contamination problem is caused by the accumulation of fine particles in ambient air due to the corona discharge of the ionizer. Fuzzy ball generation accelerates the wear of the emitter tip and deteriorates the performance of the ionizer. Although a mechanical cleaning method using a manual brush or an automatic brush is effective for contaminant removal, it requires management of additional mechanical parts by the user. In some cases, contaminants accumulated in the emitter may be transferred to the wafer or product. In order to solve this problem, we developed an ionizer for a clean environment that can remove the pencil-type emitter tip and directly ionize the surrounding gas molecules using the tungsten wire located inside the ion tank. As a result of testing and certification by the Korea Institute of Machinery and Materials, the average concentration was $0.7572particles/ft^3$, the decay time was less than two seconds, and the ion valance was 7.6 V, which is satisfactory.

Flight Safety Assurance Technology for Rotary Aircraft through Optimization of HUMS Vibration Thresholds (회전익항공기 상태감시시스템 임계값 최적화를 통한 비행안전성 확보기술)

  • Jun, Byung-kyu;Jeong, Sang-gyu;Kim, Young-mok;Chang, In-ki
    • Journal of Advanced Navigation Technology
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    • v.20 no.5
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    • pp.446-452
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    • 2016
  • The aircraft has to be considered for safety very importantly because of peculiarity of flight in the air, so it should be retained through proper inspection and maintenance not only in production phase but also in operating phase. Recently, it is using the latest technology as engineering approach not depending on human factor to determine on maintenance needs, and domestic production rotary aircraft also has the health & usage monitoring system to measure and to monitor major components. However, continued vibration exceedance phenomenon occurred in production and operation phase because of inappropriate thresholds, and it confirmed as false alarm which is not necessary to repair. In this paper, it is described that operational concept of HUMS, and especially it contains a study result for efficiency of aircraft operation and ultimately the improvement of flight safety by optimizing HUMS thresholds to determine efficiently necessity of maintenance under limited conditions and by establishing inspection/maintenance procedures when the re-designated thresholds exceedance occurred.

Design of Vision Based Punching Machine having Serial Communication

  • Lee, Young-Choon;Lee, Seong-Cheol;Kim, Seong-Min
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • 2005.06a
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    • pp.2430-2434
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    • 2005
  • Automatic FPC punching instrument for the improvement of working condition and cost saving is introduced in this paper. FPC(flexible printed circuit) is used to detect the contact position of K/B and button like a cellular phone. Depending on the quality of the printed ink and position of reference punching point to the FPC, the resistance and current are varied to the malfunctioning values. The size of reference punching point is 2mm and the above. Because the punching operation is done manually, the accuracy of the punching degree is varied with operator's condition. Recently, The punching accuracy has deteriorated severely to the 2mm punching reference hall so that assembly of the K/B has hardly done. To improve this manual punching operation to the FPC, automatic FPC punching system is introduced. Precise mechanical parts like a 5-step stepping motor and ball screw mechanism are designed and tested and low cost PC camera is used for the sake of cost down instead of using high quality vision systems for the FA. 3D Mechanical design tool(Pro/E) is used to manage the exact tolerance circumstances and avoid design failures. Simulation is performed to make the complete vision based punching machine before assembly, and this procedure led to the manufacturing cost saving. As the image processing algorithms, dilation, erosion, and threshold calculation is applied to obtain an exact center position from the FPC print marks. These image processing algorithms made the original images having various noises have clean binary pixels which is easy to calculate the center position of print marks. Moment and Least square method are used to calculate the center position of objects. In this development circumstance, Moment method was superior to the Least square one at the calculation of speed and against noise. Main control panel is programmed by Visual C++ and graphical Active X for the whole management of vision based automatic punching machine. Operating modes like manual, calibration, and automatic mode are added to the main control panel for the compensation of bad FPC print conditions and mechanical tolerance occurring in the case of punch and die reassembly. Test algorithms and programs showed good results to the designed automatic punching system and led to the increase of productivity and huge cost down to law material like FPC by avoiding bad quality.

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Novel Intensity-Based Fiber Optic Vibration Sensor Using Mass-Spring Structure (질량-스프링 구조를 이용한 새로운 광세기 기반 광섬유 진동센서)

  • Yi, Hao;Kim, Hyeon-Ho;Choi, Sang-Jin;Pan, Jae-Kyung
    • Journal of the Institute of Electronics and Information Engineers
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    • v.51 no.6
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    • pp.78-86
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    • 2014
  • In this paper, a novel intensity-based fiber optic vibration sensor using a mass-spring structure, which consists of four serpentine flexure springs and a rectangular aperture within a proof mass, is proposed and its feasibility test is given by the simulation and experiment. An optical collimator is used to broaden the beam which is modulated by the displacement of the rectangular aperture within the proof mass. The proposed fiber optic vibration sensor has been analyzed and designed in terms of the optical and mechanical parts. A mechanical structure has been designed using theoretical analysis, mathematical modeling, and 3D FEM (Finite Element Method) simulation. The relative aperture displacement according to the base vibration is given using FEM simulation, while the output beam power according to the relative displacement is measured by experiment. The simulated sensor sensitivity of $15.731{\mu}W/G$ and detection range of ${\pm}6.087G$ are given. By using reference signal, the output signal with 0.75% relative error shows a good stability. The proposed vibration sensor structure has the advantages of a simple structure, low cost, and multi-point sensing characteristic. It also has the potential to be made by MEMS (Micro-Electro-Mechanical System) technology.

Clinical Microscopy: Performance, Maintenance and Laser Safety (임상에서의 현미경: 작동, 유지보수 및 레이저 안전)

  • Lee, Tae Bok
    • Korean Journal of Clinical Laboratory Science
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    • v.51 no.2
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    • pp.125-133
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    • 2019
  • A microscope is the fundamental research and diagnostic apparatus for clinical investigation of signaling transduction, morphological changes and physiological tracking of cells and intact tissues from patients in the biomedical laboratory science. Proper use, care and maintenance of microscope with comprehensive understanding in mechanism are fully requested for reliable image data and accurate interpretation for diagnosis in the clinical laboratory. The standard operating procedure (SOP) for light microscopes includes performance procedure, brief information of all mechanical parts of microscopes with systematic troubleshooting mechanism depending on the laboratory capacity. Maintenance program encompasses cleaning objective, ocular lenses and inner optics; replacement and calibration of light source; XY sample stage management; point spread function (PSF) measurement for confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM); quality control (QC) program in fluorescent microscopy; and systematic troubleshooting. Laser safety is one of the concern for medical technologists engaged in CLSM laboratory. Laser safety guideline based on the laser classification and risk level, and advisory lab wear for CLSM users are also expatiated in this overview. Since acquired image data presents a wide range of information at the moment of acquisition, well-maintained microscopes with proper microscopic maintenance program are impulsive for its interpretation and diagnosis in the clinical laboratory.