• Title/Summary/Keyword: Local Minimum

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Hierarchical Particle Swarm Optimization for Multi UAV Waypoints Planning Under Various Threats (다양한 위협 하에서 복수 무인기의 경로점 계획을 위한 계층적 입자 군집 최적화)

  • Chung, Wonmo;Kim, Myunggun;Lee, Sanha;Lee, Sang-Pill;Park, Chun-Shin;Son, Hungsun
    • Journal of the Korean Society for Aeronautical & Space Sciences
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    • v.50 no.6
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    • pp.385-391
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    • 2022
  • This paper presents to develop a path planning algorithm combining gradient descent-based path planning (GBPP) and particle swarm optimization (PSO) for considering prohibited flight areas, terrain information, and characteristics of fixed-wing unmmaned aerial vehicle (UAV) in 3D space. Path can be generated fast using GBPP, but it is often happened that an unsafe path can be generated by converging to a local minimum depending on the initial path. Bio-inspired swarm intelligence algorithms, such as Genetic algorithm (GA) and PSO, can avoid the local minima problem by sampling several paths. However, if the number of optimal variable increases due to an increase in the number of UAVs and waypoints, it requires heavy computation time and efforts due to increasing the number of particles accordingly. To solve the disadvantages of the two algorithms, hierarchical path planning algorithm associated with hierarchical particle swarm optimization (HPSO) is developed by defining the initial path, which is the input of GBPP, as two variables including particles variables. Feasibility of the proposed algorithm is verified by software-in-the-loop simulation (SILS) of flight control computer (FCC) for UAVs.

Analysis of Holdup Characteristics of Large and Small Bubbles in Three-Phase Fluidized Beds by using a Dynamic Gas Disengagement Method (삼상유동층에서 동력학적 기체유출 측정방법에 의한 큰 기포와 작은 기포의 체류량 특성 해석)

  • Lim, Hyun Oh;Lim, Dae Ho;Seo, Myung Jae;Kang, Yong;Jung, Heon;Lee, Ho Tae
    • Korean Chemical Engineering Research
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    • v.49 no.5
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    • pp.605-610
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    • 2011
  • Phase holdup characteristics of relatively large and small bubbles were investigated in a three-phase(gasliquid-solid) fluidized bed of which diameter was 0.105 m(ID) and 2.5 m in height, respectively. Effects of gas(0.01~0.07 m/s) and liquid velocities(0.01~0.07 m/s) and particle size($0.5{\sim}3.0{\times}10^{-3}m$) on the holdups of relatively large and small bubbles were determined. The holdups of two kinds of bubbles in three phase fluidized beds were estimated by means of static pressure drop method with the knowledge of pressure drops corresponding to each kind of bubble, respectively, which were obtained by dynamic gas disengagement method. Dried and filtered air which was regulated by gas regulator, tap water and glass bead of which density was $2500kg/m^3$ were served as a gas, a liquid and a fluidized solid phase, respectively. The two kinds of bubbles in three-phase fluidized beds, relatively large and small bubbles, were effectively detected and distinguished by measuring the pressure drop variation after stopping the gas and liquid flow into the column as a step function: The increase slope of pressure drop with a variation of elapsed time was quite different from each other. It was found that the holdup of relatively large bubbles increased with increasing gas velocity but decreased with liquid velocity. However, the holdup showed a local minimum with a variation of size of fluidized solid particles. The holdup of relatively small bubbles increased with an increase in the gas velocity or solid particle size, while it decreased slightly with an increase in the liquid velocity. The holdups of two kinds of bubbles were well correlated in terms of operating variables within this experimental conditions, respectively.