• Title/Summary/Keyword: Late response

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Clinical Application of Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Study (근전도와 신경전도 검사의 임상적 응용)

  • Kim Ho-Bong;Park Young-Han;Bae Sung-Soo
    • The Journal of Korean Physical Therapy
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    • v.10 no.1
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    • pp.199-212
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this article is to summary about the application of electromyography and nerve conduction study. Electrodiagnostic studies, which include nerve conduction studies, electromyography, repetitive nerve stimulation, single fiber EMG, late response tests and evoked potential tests are a critical component of the neuromuscular evaluation.

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Clinical Application of Electromyography and Nerve Conduction Study (근전도와 신경전도 검사의 임상적 응용)

  • Kim, Ho-Bong;Bae, Sung-Soo
    • Journal of Korean Physical Therapy Science
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    • v.5 no.2
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    • pp.603-616
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    • 1998
  • The purpose of this article is to summary about the application of electromyography and nerve conduction study. Electrodiagnostic studies, which include nerve conduction studies, electromyography, repetitive nerve stimulation, single fiber EMG, late response tests and evoked potential tests are a critical component of the neuromuscular evaluation.

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Recent advance in primary immune deficiency disorders (일차성 면역결핍질환의 최신 지견)

  • Kang, Hyoung-Jin;Shin, Hee Young;Ahn, Hyo Seop
    • Clinical and Experimental Pediatrics
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    • v.52 no.6
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    • pp.649-654
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    • 2009
  • The immune system is comprised of cells and molecules whose collective and coordinated response to the introduction of foreign substance is referred to as the immune response. Defense against microbes is mediated by the early reaction (innate immunity) and the late response (adaptive immunity). Innate immunity consists of the epithelial barrier, phagocytes, complement and natural killer cells. Adaptive immunity, a more complex defense reaction, consists of activation of later-developed lymphocytes that, when stimulated by exposure to infectious agents, increase in magnitude and defensive capabilities with each successive exposure. In this review we discuss recent advances in important primary immune deficiency disorders of innate immunity (chronic granulomatous disease, leukocyte adhesion deficiency) and adaptive immunity (severe combined immune deficiency, Wiskott- Aldrich syndrome).

A Study on the Safety Education of Logistics Center : Forklift Training Approach (물류센터 안전교육에 관한 연구 : 지게차 교육을 중심으로)

  • Kim, Ki Hong;Chung, Byung Hyun
    • Journal of the Korea Safety Management & Science
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    • v.22 no.3
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    • pp.9-14
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    • 2020
  • A forklift accident occurs in the logisitcs center. there are many kinds of accidents such as a casualty accident or a minor accident, etc. there are many other causes of accident, including poor visibility and habitual operational mistakes The result of the accident is the phenomenon of cutting, falling, scratching of the product. In the case of minor accidents, workers do not report accidents, so the occurrence of accidents is unknown. The customer receives the goods and then notifies them that they are defective product. After the product is returned, we can see that the forklift accident caused the problem of the product The result of the late response affects the image of the enterprise. In this study, we recognized the need for safety education to prevent accidents and found out which of the education items could raise awareness of safety. As result of the study, disinfection and forklift maneuverability regarding speed were mentioned as the most important items in education.

The Respiratory and Hemodynamic Effect of Prone Position in Patients with ARDS (급성호흡부전증후군에서 Prone Position의 호흡 및 혈류역학적 효과)

  • Lim, Chae-Man;Koh, Youn-Suck;Jung, Bok-Hyun;Lee, Sang-Do;Kim, Woo-Sung;Kim, Dong-Soon;Kim, Won-Dong
    • Tuberculosis and Respiratory Diseases
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    • v.44 no.5
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    • pp.1105-1113
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    • 1997
  • Background : Prone position improves oxygenation in some patients with ARDS. According to some authors, prone position can also improve the deteriorated hemodynamics induced by PEEP. But these respiratory and hemodynamic effects of prone position has not yet been fully established. Methods : Twentythree consequtive patients with ARDS(M : F= 11 : 12, $62.1{\pm}20.8yrs$) were the subjects for this study. ABGA, static compliance of the respiratory system, mean arterial pressure and pulse rate were obtained in supine position and at 5min, 0.5h and 2h of prone position. Positive respiratory response was defined as 20mmHg or more increase in $PaO_2/FIO_2$ within 2h of prone position. Early of late respiratory responses were defined if the positive response was observed within of after 3 day of ARDS onset, respectively. Positive hemodynamic response was defined as 10mmHg or more increase in mean arterial pressure at 5min of prone position. Results : Fifteen patients (65%) showed positive respiratory response. In the respiratory responders, $PaO_2$ was $69.8{\pm}17.6mmHg$ in supine position, $83.2{\pm}22.6mmHg$ in prone position 0.5h, $96.8{\pm}22.7mmHg$ in prone position 2h(p<0.001), and $PaO_2/FIO_2$ was $108{\pm}41mmHg$, $137{\pm}57mmHg$, $158{\pm}50mmHg$, respectively(p=0.001). Age, sex, cause of ARDS, supine $PaO_2$ and $PaO_2/FIO_2$ were not different between the respiratory responders and the nonresponders. The respiratory responders, however, showed higher mean arterial pressure than the nonresponders($91.1{\pm}13.1mmHg$ vs. $76.0{\pm}18.7mmHg$, p=0.035), and tendency of higher survival rate(9/15 vs. 2/8, p=0.074). Static compliance of the respiratory system was decreased in prone position 0.5h($28.4{\pm}7.9ml/cm$ $H_2O$ vs. $23.8{\pm}7.6ml/cm$ $H_2O$, p=0.007). The overall rate of early response(n=23) and late response(n=11) were similar(14/23 vs. 7/11, p>0.05). But patient without early response showed late response only in 25%(1/4), while patient with early response showed late response in 85.7%(6/7)(p=0.072). Five patients(22%) showed positive hemodynamic response, two of them being respiratory nonresponders. There were no differences in the baseline mean arterial pressure or the level of PEEP applied in supine between the hemodynamic responders and the hemodynamic nonresponders. Conclusions : Prone position either improved oxygenation or increased arterial pressure in significant proportion of patients with ARDS. And the respiratory response to prone position was thought to be determined in the early stage of ARDS.

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Development of PVDF sensor and system to detect breathing sounds during deep sedation (진정 마취 시 호흡음 검출을 위한 PVDF 센서 및 시스템 개발)

  • Lee, Seung-Hwan;Li, Xiong;Im, Jae-Joong
    • The Journal of the Institute of Internet, Broadcasting and Communication
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    • v.19 no.1
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    • pp.153-159
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    • 2019
  • Respiration is one of the important vital signs to determine the condition of the patient. Especially during deep sedation, since the patient's apnea and hypopnea are difficult to detect without continuous monitoring, there is a need for a continuous respiration monitoring method that can accurately and simply determine the patient's respiratory condition. Currently, respiration monitoring methods using various devices have been developed, but these methods have not only late response time but also low reliability at the clinical stage. In this study, attachable sensor using PVDF(polyvinylidene fluoride) film and a monitoring device which could detect abnormal symptoms of breathing in early stage during deep sedation. The results of this study can be used in various medical fields including not only in the area of remote monitoring for respiration related sleep monitoring but also in routine monitoring during deep sedation.

Identification of Genes Associated with Early and Late Response of Methylmercury in Human Neuroblastoma Cell Line

  • Kim, Youn-Jung;Kim, Mi-Soon;Jeon, Hee-Kyung;Ryu, Jae-Chun
    • Molecular & Cellular Toxicology
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    • v.4 no.2
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    • pp.164-169
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    • 2008
  • Methylmercury (MeHg) is known to have devastating effects on the mammalian nervous system. In order to characterize the mechanism of MeHg-induced neurotoxicity, we investigated the analysis of transcriptional profiles on human 8k cDNA microarray by treatment of $1.4{\mu}M$ MeHg at 3, 12, 24 and 48h in human neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cell line. Some of the identified genes by MeHg treatment were significant at early time points (3h), while that of others was at late time points (48h). The early response genes that may represent those involved directly in the MeHg response included pantothenate kinase 3, a kinase (PRKA) anchor protein (yotiao) 9, neurotrophic tyrosine kinase, receptor, type 2 gene, associated with NMDA receptor activity regulation or perturbations of central nervous system homeostasis. Also, when SH-SY5Y cells were subjected to a longer exposure (48h), a relative increase was noted in a gene, glutamine-fructose-6-phosphate transaminase 1, reported that overexpression of this gene may lead to the increased resistance to MeHg. To confirm the alteration of these genes in cultured neurons, we then applied real time-RT PCR with SYBR green. Thus, this result suggests that a neurotoxic effect of the MeHg might be ascribed that MeHg alters neuronal receptor regulation or homeostasis of neuronal cells in the early phase. However, in the late phase, it protects cells from neurotoxic effects of MeHg.

Responses of Dorsal Horn Neurons to Peripheral Chemical Stimulation in the Spinal Cord of Anesthetized Cats

  • Jung, Sung-Jun;Park, Joo-Min;Lee, Joon-Ho;Lee, Ji-Hye;Eun, Su-Yong;Kim, Sang-Jeong;Lim, Won-Il;Cho, Sun-Hee;Kim, Jun
    • The Korean Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
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    • v.4 no.1
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    • pp.15-24
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    • 2000
  • Although nociceptive informations are thought to be processed via different neural mechanisms depending on the types of stimuli, sufficient data have not been accumulated yet. We performed a series of experiments to elucidate the possible neural mechanisms as to chemical stimuli such as formalin, capsaicin and ATP. Single unit activity of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons and high threshold cells were recorded extracellularly from the lumbosacral enlargement of cat spinal cord before and after chemical stimulation to its receptive field (RF). Each chemical substance - formalin $(20{\mu}l,\;4%),$ capsaicin (33 mM) or Mg-ATP (5 mM)- was injected intradermally into the RFs and then the changes in the spontaneous activity, mechanical threshold and responses to the peripheral mechanical stimuli were observed. In many cases, intradermal injection of formalin (5/11) and capsaicin (8/11) resulted in increase of the spontaneous activity with a biphasic pattern, whereas ATP (8/8) only showed initial responses. Time courses of the biphasic pattern, especially the late response, differed between formalin and capsaicin experiments. One hour after injection of each chemical (formalin, capsaicin, or ATP), the responses of the dorsal horn neurons to mechanical stimuli increased at large and the RFs were expended, suggesting development of hypersensitization (formalin 6/10, capsaicin 8/11, and ATP 15/19, respectively). These results are suggested that formalin stimulates peripheral nociceptor, local inflammation and involvement of central sensitization, capsaicin induces central sensitization as well as affects the peripheral C-polymodal nociceptors and neurogenic inflammation, and ATP directly stimulates peripheral nociceptors.

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Effect of Black Garlic Extract on Cytokine Generation of Mouse Spleen Cells (흑마늘(Black garlic) 추출물이 마우스 비장세포의 Cytokine 생성에 미치는 영향)

  • Seo, Min Jeong;Kang, Byoung Won;Park, Jeong Uck;Kim, Min Jeong;Lee, Hye Hyeon;Ryu, En Ju;Joo, Woo Hong;Kim, Kwang Hyuk;Jeong, Yong Kee
    • Journal of Life Science
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    • v.23 no.1
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    • pp.63-68
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    • 2013
  • The effect of black garlic extract on the activation of spleen cells from a C57BL6 mouse was investigated to examine immune activities of of fermented black garlic containing a variety of bioactive substances. xtract obtained from the concentration of commercial Namhae black garlic was used for the analysis of immune activities. Treatment with the extract increased the expression of interleukin-2 (IL-2) cytokine. The simultaneous administration of the extract plus lipopolysaccharide (LPS) increased the expression of IL-2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-${\alpha}$, and interferon (IFN)-${\gamma}$ compared with that of a control group. This result suggests that cellular immunity can be induced by macrophages, resulting in the expression of T lymphocytes and T helper type 1 (Th1) cells. In addition, treatment with the extract increased the late response of IL-6 cytokines, and the extract plus LPS augmented the expression of IL-4 and IL-6 compared with that of an LPS-treated group. Meanwhile, the extract plus LPS decreased the late response of IL-10, suggesting that humoral immunity can be activated by stimulating B lymphocytes, suppressing cellular immunity, and effectively modulating the conversion into humoral immune responses. These findings demonstrate that the black garlic extract activates Th1 and Th2 cells by stimulating T lymphocytes in mouse spleen cells and leads to immunomodulation by activating cellular and humoral immune responses of the immune system.