• Title/Summary/Keyword: Johns Hopkins University

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Haptics for Human-Machine Interaction at The Johns Hopkins University

  • Okamura, Allison M.;Chang, Sung-Ouk
    • 제어로봇시스템학회:학술대회논문집
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    • pp.2676-2681
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    • 2003
  • The Haptic Exploration Laboratory at The Johns Hopkins University is currently exploring many problems related to haptics (force and tactile information) in human-machine systems. We divide our work into two main areas: virtual environments and robot-assisted manipulation systems. Our interest in virtual environments focuses on reality-based modeling, in which measurements of the static and dynamic properties of actual objects are taken in order to produce realistic virtual environments. Thus, we must develop methods for acquiring data from real objects and populating pre-defined models. We also seek to create systems that can provide active manipulation assistance to the operator through haptic, visual, and audio cues. These systems may be teleoperated systems, which allow human users to operate in environments that would normally be inaccessible due to hazards, distance, or scale. Alternatively, cooperative manipulation systems allow a user and a robot to share a tool, allowing the user to guide or override the robot directly if necessary. Haptics in human-machine systems can have many applications, such as undersea and space operations, training for pilots and surgeons, and manufacturing. We focus much of our work on medical applications.

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The Vomeronasal Organ and Adjacent Glands Express Components of Signaling Cascades Found in Sensory Neurons in the Main Olfactory System

  • Lee, Sang Jin;Mammen, Alex;Kim, Esther J.;Kim, So Yeun;Park, Yun Ju;Park, Mira;Han, Hyung Soo;Bae, Yong-Chul;Ronnett, Gabriele V.;Moon, Cheil
    • Molecules and Cells
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    • v.26 no.5
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    • pp.503-513
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    • 2008
  • The vomeronasal organ (VNO) is a sensory organ that influences social and/or reproductive behavior and, in many cases, the survival of an organism. The VNO is believed to mediate responses to pheromones; however, many mechanisms of signal transduction in the VNO remain elusive. Here, we examined the expression of proteins involved in signal transduction that are found in the main olfactory system in the VNO. The localization of many signaling molecules in the VNO is quite different from those in the main olfactory system, suggesting differences in signal transduction mechanisms between these two chemosensory organs. Various signaling molecules are expressed in distinct areas of VNO sensory epithelium. Interestingly, we found the expressions of groups of these signaling molecules in glandular tissues adjacent to VNO, supporting the physiological significance of these glandular tissues. Our finding of high expression of signaling proteins in glandular tissues suggests that neurohumoral factors influence glandular tissues to modulate signaling cascades that in turn alter the responses of the VNO to hormonal status.

Anemia Screening, Prevalence, and Treatment in Pediatric Inflammatory Bowel Disease in the United States, 2010-2014

  • Miller, Steven D.;Cuffari, Carmelo;Akhuemonkhan, Eboselume;Guerrerio, Anthony L.;Lehmann, Harold;Hutfless, Susan
    • Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
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    • v.22 no.2
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    • pp.152-161
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    • 2019
  • Purpose: We examined the prevalence of anemia, annual screening for anemia, and treatment of anemia with iron among children with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Methods: A retrospective study of U.S. pediatric patients with IBD was performed in the MarketScan commercial claims database from 2010-2014. Children (ages 1-21) with at least two inpatient or outpatient encounters for IBD who had available lab and pharmacy data were included in the cohort. Anemia was defined using World Health Organization criteria. We used logistic regression to determine differences in screening, incident anemia, and treatment based on age at first IBD encounter and sex. Results: The cohort (n=2,446) included 1,560 Crohn's disease (CD) and 886 ulcerative colitis (UC). Approximately, 85% of CD and 81% of UC were screened for anemia. Among those screened, 51% with CD and 43% with UC had anemia. Only 24% of anemia patients with CD and 20% with UC were tested for iron deficiency; 85% were iron deficient. Intravenous (IV) iron was used to treat 4% of CD and 4% UC patients overall and 8% of those with anemia. Conclusion: At least 80% of children with IBD were screened for anemia, although most did not receive follow-up tests for iron deficiency. The 43%-50% prevalence of anemia was consistent with prior studies. Under-treatment with IV iron points to a potential target for quality improvement.